Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.284
Filtrar
1.
J Dent Educ ; 84(4): 478-485, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314389

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) process and to assess its use as an admission tool to predict noncognitive traits associated with professional behavior during patient care in one cohort of dental students at a single U.S. dental school. Data were analyzed for the 95 candidates who matriculated and graduated as part of the 2017 graduating cohort at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. All MMI interviewees for one cycle of admissions rotated through ten stations: two traditional interview question stations and eight scenario stations measuring domains that included four questions scored on a five-point Likert scale. Generalizability theory analysis showed the MMI to have good reliability (G Coefficient of 0.74). Station reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha) ranged from 0.88 to 0.92. MMI scores showed a positive significant correlation with students' scores on the Dental Admission Test and Perceptual Ability Test, D1 cumulative GPA, and D4 Patient Management grade. MMI scores positively correlated with professional behaviors relating to three domains-openness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability-thus demonstrating good predictive validity for measuring noncognitive traits associated with professionalism. This study found that the MMI was a reliable and valid tool that predicted key behavioral traits associated with professionalism in dental students.


Asunto(s)
Profesionalismo , Facultades de Odontología , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Estudiantes de Odontología
2.
South Med J ; 113(4): 148-149, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239225

RESUMEN

There is an increased need for Family Medicine physicians who make up approximately 40% of the primary care work. In this article the authors share perspective on how to engage the community in increasing the rural workforce of Family Physicians. Suggestions include introducing the school to the community in which it lives, matching the applicant to the needs of the community and not just the needs of the school, including community members as part of the admissions process and recruiting applicants primarily from inside the state.


Asunto(s)
Médicos de Familia/provisión & distribución , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Recursos Humanos/tendencias , Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Humanos , Médicos de Familia/estadística & datos numéricos , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Facultades de Medicina/tendencias
3.
J Dent Educ ; 84(6): 634-641, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100294

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: As healthcare becomes more client-centered, certain provider "soft skills" have become more desirable. Although these skills may be valued by the health professions, admission processes often do not account for them. This study evaluated the performance of applicants to 3 dental hygiene programs in a multiple mini-interview designed to assess characteristics deemed desirable by the programs and profession. METHODS: Trained evaluators assessed the performance of participants as they rotated through 8 unique stations designed to highlight specific traits. Participants were scored on a 1-7 Likert scale, and a mean average was calculated based on performance at all stations. Participants and evaluators also completed a survey to determine opinions regarding the multiple mini-interview (MMI) activity and its potential as an admissions tool. Two-tailed Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess the relationship between station types, and ANOVA and post hoc tests to analyze the performance of program groups among stations. Qualitative data were analyzed for trends and themes. RESULTS: Mean scores ranged from 2.5 to 6.25, with a mean average of 4.90. Both participants and evaluators expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the activity overall and believed it was an effective tool for assessment of nonacademic traits. CONCLUSION: An MMI is a feasible option for assessment of nonacademic traits of candidates for admission to dental hygiene programs. Programs that consider both academic and nonacademic performances of applicants may admit individuals who are not only uniquely qualified to be healthcare providers, but might otherwise not have gained admission.


Asunto(s)
Higiene Bucal , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Empleos en Salud , Humanos
5.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(1): 4-7, 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913810

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The "stable marriage" algorithm underlying the National Residency Match Program (NRMP) has been shown to create optimal outcomes when students submit true preference lists. Previous research has shown students may allow external information to affect their rank lists. The objective of this study was to determine whether medical students consistently make rank lists that reflect their true preferences. METHODS: A voluntary online survey was sent to third-year students at a single midwestern medical school. Students were given hypothetical scenarios that either should or should not affect their true residency preferences and rated the importance of six factors to their final rank list. The survey was edited by a group of education scholars and revised based on feedback from a pilot with current postgraduate year 1 residents. RESULTS: Of 175 students surveyed, 140 (80%) responded; 63% (88/140) reported that their "perceived competitiveness" would influence their rank list at least a "moderate amount. Of 135 students, 31 (23%) moved a program lower on their list if they learned they were ranked "low" by that program, while 6% (8/135) of respondents moved a program higher if they learned they were ranked "at the top of the list." Participants responded similarly (κ = 0.71) when presented with scenarios asking what they would do vs what a classmate should do. CONCLUSION: Students' hypothetical rank lists did not consistently match their true residency preferences. These results may stem from a misunderstanding of the Match algorithm. Medical schools should consider augmenting explicit education related to the NRMP Match algorithm to ensure optimal outcomes for students.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Internado y Residencia , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Algoritmos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Facultades de Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227108, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940377

RESUMEN

The acceptance of students to a medical school places a considerable emphasis on performance in standardized tests and undergraduate grade point average (uGPA). Traditionally, applicants may be judged as a homogeneous population according to simple quantitative thresholds that implicitly assume a linear relationship between scores and academic success. This 'one-size-fits-all' approach ignores the notion that individuals may show distinct patterns of achievement and follow diverse paths to success. In this study, we examined a dataset composed of 53 variables extracted from the admissions application records of 1,088 students matriculating to NYU School of Medicine between the years 2006-2014. We defined training and test groups and applied K-means clustering to search for distinct groups of applicants. Building an optimized logistic regression model, we then tested the predictive value of this clustering for estimating the success of applicants in medical school, aggregating eight performance measures during the subsequent medical school training as a success factor. We found evidence for four distinct clusters of students-we termed 'signatures'-which differ most substantially according to the absolute level of the applicant's uGPA and its trajectory over the course of undergraduate education. The 'risers' signature showed a relatively higher uGPA and also steeper trajectory; the other signatures showed each remaining combination of these two main factors: 'improvers' relatively lower uGPA, steeper trajectory; 'solids' higher uGPA, flatter trajectory; 'statics' both lower uGPA and flatter trajectory. Examining the success index across signatures, we found that the risers and the statics have significantly higher and lower likelihood of quantifiable success in medical school, respectively. We also found that each signature has a unique set of features that correlate with its success in medical school. The big data approach presented here can more sensitively uncover success potential since it takes into account the inherent heterogeneity within the student population.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Facultades de Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Modelos Logísticos , Ciudad de Nueva York , Criterios de Admisión Escolar
10.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 184-189, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577586

RESUMEN

Several lawsuits have recently been filed against U.S. universities; the plaintiffs contend that considerations of race and ethnicity in admissions decisions discriminate against Asian Americans. In prior cases brought by non-Latino whites, the U.S. Supreme Court has upheld these considerations, arguing that they are crucial to a compelling interest to increase diversity. The dissenting opinion, however, concerns the possibility that such policies disadvantage Asian Americans, who are considered overrepresented in higher education. Here, the authors explain how a decision favoring the plaintiffs would affect U.S. medical schools. First, eliminating race and ethnicity in holistic review would undermine efforts to diversify the physician workforce. Second, the restrictions on considering race/ethnicity in admissions decisions would not remedy potential discrimination against Asian Americans that arise from implicit biases. Third, such restrictions would exacerbate the difficulty of addressing the diversity of experiences within Asian American subgroups, including recognizing those who are underrepresented in medicine. The authors propose that medical schools engage Asian Americans in diversity and inclusion efforts and recommend the following strategies: incorporate health equity into the institutional mission and admissions policies, disaggregate data to identify underrepresented Asian subgroups, include Asian Americans in diversity committees and support faculty who make diversity work part of their academic portfolio, and enhance the Asian American faculty pipeline through support and mentorship of students. Asian Americans will soon comprise one-fifth of the U.S. physician workforce and should be welcomed as part of the solution to advancing diversity and inclusion in medicine, not cast as the problem.


Asunto(s)
Americanos Asiáticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Diversidad Cultural , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Equidad en Salud , Humanos , Médicos , Estados Unidos/etnología
11.
Acad Med ; 95(3): 357-360, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567156

RESUMEN

Diversity initiatives in U.S. medical education, following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, were geared toward increasing the representation of African Americans-blacks born in the United States whose ancestors suffered under slavery and Jim Crow laws. Over time, blacks and, subsequently, underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMs), became a proxy for African Americans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans, thus obscuring efforts to identify and recruit specifically African Americans. Moreover, demographic shifts resulting from the recent immigration of black people from Africa and the Caribbean have both expanded the definition of "African American medical students" and shifted the emphasis from those with a history of suffering under U.S. oppression and poverty to anyone who meets a black phenotype.Increasingly, research indicates that African American patients fare better when their physicians share similar historical and social experiences. While all people of color risk discrimination based on their skin color, not all have the lived experience of U.S.-based, systematic, multigenerational discrimination shared by African Americans. In the high-stakes effort to increase URM representation in medical school classes, admissions committees may fail to look beyond the surface of phenotype, thus missing the original intent of diversity initiatives while simultaneously conflating all people of color, disregarding their divergent historical and social experiences. In this Perspective, the authors contend that medical school admissions committees must show greater discernment in their holistic reviews of black applicants if historical wrongs and continued underrepresentation of African Americans in medicine are to be redressed.


Asunto(s)
Diversidad Cultural , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Objetivos Organizacionales , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
12.
Acad Med ; 95(3): 351-356, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425184

RESUMEN

Those in medical education have a responsibility to prepare a physician workforce that can serve increasingly diverse communities, encourage healthy changes in patients, and advocate for the social changes needed to advance the health of all. The authors of this Perspective discuss many of the likely causes of the observed differences in mean Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores between students from groups well represented in medicine and those from groups underrepresented in medicine. The lower mean MCAT scores of underrepresented groups can present challenges to diversifying the physician workforce if medical schools only admit those applicants with the highest MCAT scores. The authors review the psychometric literature, which showed no evidence of bias in the exam, and note that the differences in mean MCAT scores between racial and ethnic groups are similar to those in other measures of academic achievement and performance on high-stakes tests.The authors then describe the ways in which structural racism in the United States has contributed to differences in achievement for underrepresented students compared with well-represented students. These differences are not due to differences in aptitude but to differences in opportunities. The authors describe the widespread consequences of structural racism on economic success, educational opportunity, and bias in the educational environment. They close with 3 recommendations for medical schools that may mitigate the consequences of structural racism while maintaining academic standards and admitting students likely to succeed. Adopting these recommendations may help the medical profession build the diverse physician workforce needed to serve communities today.


Asunto(s)
Sesgo , Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Racismo , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Adulto , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Facultades de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
13.
Acad Med ; 95(3): 344-350, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425186

RESUMEN

Admissions officers assemble classes of medical students with different backgrounds and experiences who can contribute to their institutions' service, leadership, and research goals. While schools' local interests vary, they share a common goal: meeting the health needs of an increasingly diverse population. Despite the well-known benefits of diversity, the physician workforce does not yet reflect the nation's diversity by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, or other background characteristics.The authors reviewed the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and backgrounds of 2017 applicants, accepted applicants, and matriculants to U.S. MD-granting schools to explore avenues for increasing medical school class diversity. They found that schools that accepted more applicants with midrange MCAT scores had more diverse matriculating classes. Many schools admitting the most applicants with scores in the middle of the MCAT score scale were public, community-based, and primary care-focused institutions; those admitting the fewest of these applicants tended to be research-focused institutions and to report pressure to accept applicants with high MCAT scores to maintain or improve their national rankings.The authors argue that reexamining the use of MCAT scores in admissions provides an opportunity to diversify the physician workforce. Despite evidence that most students with midrange MCAT scores succeed in medical school, there is a tendency to overlook these applicants in favor of those with higher scores. To improve the health of all, the authors call for admitting more students with midrange MCAT scores and studying the learning environments that enable students with a wide range of MCAT scores to thrive.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica/normas , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
J Grad Med Educ ; 11(6): 704-707, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871573

RESUMEN

Background: The increase in applications to residency programs, known as "application inflation," creates challenges for program directors (PDs). Prior studies have shown that internal medicine (IM) PDs utilize criteria, such as United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step examination performance, when reviewing applications. However, little is known about how early these filters are utilized in the application review cycle. Objective: This study sought to assess the frequency and types of filters utilized by IM PDs during initial residency application screening and prior to more in-depth application review. Methods: A web-based request for the 2016 Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) PD Survey was sent to IM PDs. Responses from this survey were analyzed, excluding non-US programs. Results: With a 50% response rate (214 of 424), IM PDs responded that the most commonly used data points to filter applicants prior to in-depth application review were the USMLE Step 2 Clinical Knowledge score (32%, 67 of 208), USMLE Step 1 score (24%, 50 of 208), and medical school attended (12%, 25 of 208). Over half of US IM PD respondents (55%, 114 of 208) indicated that they list qualifying interview criteria on their program website, and 31% of respondents (50 of 160) indicated that more than half of their applicant pool does not meet the program's specified interview criteria. Conclusions: Results from the 2016 IM-ITE PD Survey indicate many IM PDs use filters for initial application screening, and that these filters, when available to applicants, do not affect many applicants' decisions to apply.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Interna/educación , Internado y Residencia/normas , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/normas , Evaluación Educacional , Humanos , Licencia Médica , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
18.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 415, 2019 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Struggling medical students is an under-researched in medical education. It is known, however, that early identification is important for effective remediation. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive effect of medical school admission tools regarding whether a student will struggle academically. METHODS: Data comprise 700 students from the University of New South Wales undergraduate medical program. The main outcome of interest was whether these students struggled during this 6-year program; they were classified to be struggling they failed any end-of-phase examination but still graduated from the program. Discriminate Function Analysis (DFA) assessed whether their pre-admission academic achievement, Undergraduate Medicine Admission Test (UMAT) and interview scores had predictive effect regarding likelihood to struggle. RESULTS: A lower pre-admission academic achievement in the form of Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR) or Grade Point Average (GPA) were found to be the best positive predictors of whether a student was likely to struggle. Lower UMAT and poorer interview scores were found to have a comparatively much smaller predictive effect. CONCLUSION: Although medical admission tests are widely used, medical school rarely use these data for educational purposes. The results of this study suggest admission test data can predict who among the admitted students is likely to struggle in the program. Educationally, this information is invaluable. These results indicate that pre-admission academic achievement can be used to predict which students are likely to struggle in an Australian undergraduate medicine program. Further research into predicting other types of struggling students as well as remediation methods are necessary.


Asunto(s)
Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Abandono Escolar , Estudiantes de Medicina , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Gales del Sur , Factores de Riesgo , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(6): 948-956, 2019 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738723

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prior research demonstrates gender differences in language used in letters of recommendation. The emergency medicine (EM) Standardized Letter of Evaluation (SLOE) format limits word count and provides detailed instructions for writers. The objective of this study is to examine differences in language used to describe men and women applicants within the SLOE narrative. METHODS: All applicants to a four-year academic EM residency program within a single application year with a first rotation SLOE available were included in the sample. We used the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program to analyze word frequency within 16 categories. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared, and t-tests were used to describe the sample; gender differences in word frequency were tested for using Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Of 1117 applicants to the residency program, 822 (82%) first-rotation SLOEs were available; 64% were men, and 36% were women. We did not find a difference in baseline characteristics including age (mean 27 years), top 25 schools (22.5%), Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society rates (13%), and having earned advanced degrees (10%). The median word count per SLOE narrative for men was 171 and for women was 180 (p = 0.15). After adjusting for letter length, word frequency differences between genders were only present in two categories: social words (women: 23 words/letter; men: 21 words/letter, p = 0.02) and ability words (women: 2 words/letter; men: 1 word/letter, p = 0.04). We were unable to detect a statistical difference between men and women applicants in the remaining categories, including words representing communal traits, agentic traits, standout adjectives, grindstone traits, teaching words, and research words. CONCLUSION: The small wording differences between genders noted in two categories were statistically significant, but of unclear real-world significance. Future work is planned to evaluate how the SLOE format may contribute to this relative lack of bias compared to other fields and formats.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia/normas , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Adulto , Correspondencia como Asunto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Narración , Selección de Personal , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/tendencias , Factores Sexuales
20.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(20): e106, 2019 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626014

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic surgery has become an increasingly competitive specialty for medical students applying to residency. Aside from residency interviews, away rotations are one of the only opportunities for residency programs to qualitatively evaluate an applicant. The purpose of this study was to determine if residency program directors (PDs) use a minimum United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step-1 score as a screening tool for students applying for away rotations at their institution. METHODS: An anonymous 12-question survey about residency selection criteria and which criteria are used to select applicants for away rotations was distributed to PDs at U.S. allopathic orthopaedic surgery residency programs who are members of the Council of Orthopaedic Residency Directors (CORD). Questions included information on minimum USMLE Step-1 scores, the number of students who complete away rotations at the program each year, and how applicants are selected for rotations. RESULTS: Survey responses were received from 87 (58%) of 149 PDs. Seventy-one (82%) of these PDs reported that their program uses a minimum Step-1 score for residency applications, with the most common cutoff score being between 231 and 240 (as answered by 33 [46%] of 72 PDs). Twenty-seven (31%) of 87 PDs reported that if a student does not meet their residency minimum Step-1 score, he or she is not offered the opportunity to rotate at the program. Eleven (25%) of 44 PDs reported that they do not inform students when their score is below the program's minimum. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of orthopaedic surgery residency PDs use the USMLE Step-1 score as a screening tool for students interested in doing away rotations at their programs. If a student's Step-1 score does not meet the program's minimum, the majority of programs still will allow the student to rotate at their institution. Students should take this information into account when selecting away rotations in order to maximize their chances of matching into an orthopaedic surgery program.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia/normas , Procedimientos Ortopédicos/educación , Ortopedia/educación , Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Licencia Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA