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1.
J Theor Biol ; 532: 110919, 2022 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592263

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread attention given to the notions of "flattening the curve" during lockdowns, and successful contact tracing programs suppressing outbreaks. However a more nuanced picture of these interventions' effects on epidemic trajectories is necessary. By mathematical modeling each as reactive quarantine measures, dependent on current infection rates, with different mechanisms of action, we analytically derive distinct nonlinear effects of these interventions on final and peak outbreak size. We simultaneously fit the model to provincial reported case and aggregated quarantined contact data from China. Lockdowns compressed the outbreak in China inversely proportional to population quarantine rates, revealing their critical dependence on timing. Contact tracing had significantly less impact on final outbreak size, but did lead to peak size reduction. Our analysis suggests that altering the cumulative cases in a rapidly spreading outbreak requires sustained interventions that decrease the reproduction number close to one, otherwise some type of swift lockdown measure may be needed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trazado de Contacto , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9323

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic brought to light the shortcomings of health systems worldwide and the need to address the factors underpinning these flaws. In this webinar, we discuss the role of private sector and commercial determinants of health (#CDoH) in this global health crisis. Through their different perspectives, the panelists explore the role of private sector in the pandemic, the relationship between CDoH and COVID-19 on national and global levels and discuss the implications for global health. TIMESTAMPS: 00:00 | Welcome and Objective 02:35 | Opening Remarks 07:00 | COVID-19 as Commercial Determinant of Health 19:58 | Unhealthy Commodity Industries' Response to COVID-19 38:00 | Moderated Discussion and Q&A


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/economía , Sistemas Públicos de Salud , Política de Salud , Estrategias de Salud Globales , Capitalismo , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud , Racismo , Equidad en Salud , Distanciamiento Físico , Cuarentena , Grupos de Riesgo , Prueba de COVID-19 , Equipo de Protección Personal , Promoción de la Salud , Sector Privado/economía , Industria del Tabaco
3.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(7): 127-139, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723354

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze the risks that affect the Umm al-Nasr village (north of Gaza Strip), which include wars, floods, and the Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which may require the emergency committee to identify places for sanitary isolation in the case of infection or provide shelters in the disasters such as wars and floods. A plan that contains procedures for managing the displacement of the citizens according to the type of the disaster and the suggested safe shelters were prepared. Individuals infected with COVID-19 are isolated in central places or their home. Responding procedures for the emergency committee in Umm al-Nasr municipality were prepared to deal with displaced people. A mathematical model was designed to simulate choosing a shelter for the citizens of this village depending on the type of crisis. The results showed the different conditions that may affect the displacement operation, such as the type of shelter, the allocated area, the number of displaced citizens, the type of disaster, and the required speed to reach the shelter. This study recommended advancing the capabilities of the community to confront risks and COVID-19. Besides, perfect planning plays a significant role in saving lives, time, and effort. Therefore, it is needed to cooperate with the local authorities, such as municipalities, ministry of health, civil defense, and international institutions to implement a response action during disasters, and the necessity of closing residential areas and isolating them if new cases of COVID-19 appear.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Planificación en Desastres , Humanos , Medio Oriente , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 732523, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722442

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2 infection has resulted in massive loss of valuable human lives, extensive destruction of livelihoods and financial crisis of unprecedented levels across the globe. Kerala, a province in India, like the rest of the country, launched preventive and control measures to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 early in 2020. The Government of Kerala started 1206 Ayur Raksha Clinics and associated Task Forces across the state in April 2020 to improve the reach and penetration of Ayurvedic preventive, therapeutic and convalescent care strategies for the COVID-19 pandemic. The implementation framework of the strategy was properly designed, and had a decentralized, people-centered, and participatory approach. Kerala has robust public health machinery with adequate human resource and infrastructure in the conventional medicine sector. This community case study examines how the decentralized organizational framework was effectively utilized for facilitating the delivery of Ayurvedic services in the COVID-19 situation. Key observations from the study are: Ayurvedic programs implemented systematically, under an organized framework with social participation enables wider utilization of the services. Such a framework is easily replicable even in resource-poor settings. Rather than a pluralistic approach, an integrative health system approach may be more viable in the Kerala scenario in public health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ ; 375: e068302, 2021 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789505

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Biosis, Joanna Briggs, Global Health, and World Health Organization COVID-19 database (preprints). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Observational and interventional studies that assessed the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was incidence of covid-19. Secondary outcomes included SARS-CoV-2 transmission and covid-19 mortality. DATA SYNTHESIS: DerSimonian Laird random effects meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of mask wearing, handwashing, and physical distancing measures on incidence of covid-19. Pooled effect estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed, and heterogeneity among studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and the I2 metrics, with two tailed P values. RESULTS: 72 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 35 evaluated individual public health measures and 37 assessed multiple public health measures as a "package of interventions." Eight of 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis, which indicated a reduction in incidence of covid-19 associated with handwashing (relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.12, I2=12%), mask wearing (0.47, 0.29 to 0.75, I2=84%), and physical distancing (0.75, 0.59 to 0.95, I2=87%). Owing to heterogeneity of the studies, meta-analysis was not possible for the outcomes of quarantine and isolation, universal lockdowns, and closures of borders, schools, and workplaces. The effects of these interventions were synthesised descriptively. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that several personal protective and social measures, including handwashing, mask wearing, and physical distancing are associated with reductions in the incidence covid-19. Public health efforts to implement public health measures should consider community health and sociocultural needs, and future research is needed to better understand the effectiveness of public health measures in the context of covid-19 vaccination. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020178692.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Salud Pública , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/transmisión , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Salud Global , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Humanos , Incidencia , Máscaras , Distanciamiento Físico , Cuarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituciones Académicas , Viaje , Organización Mundial de la Salud
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 705354, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733814

RESUMEN

Objective: Frontline health-care workers and patients with COVID-19 have been identified as high-risk groups for psychological problems. Experience of working or staying in quarantine wards generated psychological stressors for health-care workers and patients with COVID-19. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological symptoms of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and the health-care workers treating them during the outbreak period, examine the effects of psychological stressors on mental health in both populations and perceived coping resources for both sides. Methods: Three hundred and eleven health-care workers working in a COVID-19 designated hospital in Wuhan, China, and 148 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the same hospital participated in this cross-sectional survey conducted in February 2020. Psychological symptoms, psychological stressors, and perceived coping resources were reported by both groups. Results: Thirty-three percent of health-care workers and 35.2% of patients with COVID-19 had significant psychological symptoms that were indicative of a high risk for psychological disorders. Pandemic-related psychological stressors contributed to psychological symptoms for both populations. Concern about patients was one aspect of psychological stressors of frontline health-care workers and both groups perceived support from the opposite side as an important external coping resource. Conclusion: The results shed light on the need to provide psychological support to both frontline health-care workers and patients with COVID-19 and suggest enhancing the treatment alliance might be effective to improve mental health for both populations during the crisis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cuarentena , Estudios Transversales , Hospitales , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 80(11): 276-282, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765987

RESUMEN

Reducing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission relies on people quarantining after exposure to COVID-19 or if they experience COVID-19 symptoms, and isolating from others if COVID-19 positive. Quarantine and isolation last 10 to 14 days and can be state-mandated; however, the level of compliance is unknown. The University of Hawai'i Department of Family Medicine clinic called patients instructed by our physicians to quarantine for exposure risk or symptoms of potential COVID-19 infection between March 15, 2020, and April 15, 2020. None of the patients tested positive for COVID-19. Sixty-nine of 90 (77%) patients completed follow-up calls and self-reported whether they had stayed home. Of these 69 patients, 32 (46%) broke quarantine to buy groceries (36%), work (9%), visit others (6%), or for other reasons (12%). For patients living alone, 8 of 11 (73%) left home to buy groceries. For employed patients, 6 of 39 (15%) returned to work during their quarantine period. Nearly half of our patients did not quarantine for the entire period. Many persons left home to buy food or to work. Strong public health messaging is needed to educate communities about the requirement to quarantine. Clinicians can help by asking patients about social and financial ability to quarantine, schedule follow-up appointments to remind patients to stay home, and link patients to food programs, financial assistance, and other community resources to successfully quarantine and prevent COVID-19 transmission.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cuarentena , Humanos , Cooperación del Paciente , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769629

RESUMEN

This study aimed to highlight the COVID-19 response by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Government of Malaysia in order to share Malaysia's lessons and to improve future pandemic preparedness. The team conducted a rapid review using publicly available information from MOH, PubMed, and World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Research on Coronavirus Disease Database to compile Malaysia's responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Measures taken between 31 December 2019 and 3 June 2020 were classified into domains as well as the pillars described in the WHO COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan (WHO SPRP). Malaysia's response incorporated all pillars in the WHO SPRP and consisted of five domains, (i) whole-of-government, (ii) cordon sanitaire/lockdown, (iii) equity of access to services and supports, (iv) quarantine and isolation systems, and (v) legislation and enforcement. Some crucial measures taken were activation of a centralised multi-ministerial coordination council where MOH acted as an advisor, with collaboration from non-government organisations and private sectors which enabled an effective targeted screening approach, provision of subsidised COVID-19 treatment and screening, isolation or quarantine of all confirmed cases, close contacts and persons under investigation, with all strategies applied irrespective of citizenship. This was provided for by way of the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988. A combination of these measures enabled the nation to contain the COVID-19 outbreak by the end of June 2020.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Malasia , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21505, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728670

RESUMEN

Wikipedia, the largest encyclopedia ever created, is a global initiative driven by volunteer contributions. When the COVID-19 pandemic broke out and mobility restrictions ensued across the globe, it was unclear whether contributions to Wikipedia would decrease in the face of the pandemic, or whether volunteers would withstand the added stress and increase their contributions to accommodate the growing readership uncovered in recent studies. We analyze [Formula: see text] million edits contributed from 2018 to 2020 across twelve Wikipedia language editions and find that Wikipedia's global volunteer community responded resiliently to the pandemic, substantially increasing both productivity and the number of newcomers who joined the community. For example, contributions to the English Wikipedia increased by over [Formula: see text] compared to the expectation derived from pre-pandemic data. Our work sheds light on the response of a global volunteer population to the COVID-19 crisis, providing valuable insights into the behavior of critical online communities under stress.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Voluntarios/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/virología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Enciclopedias como Asunto , Humanos , Lenguaje , Pandemias , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21468, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728671

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic poses significant emotional challenges that individuals need to select how to regulate. The present study directly examined how during the pandemic, healthy individuals select between regulatory strategies to cope with varying COVID-19-related threats, and whether an adaptive flexible regulatory selection pattern will emerge in this unique threatening global context. Accordingly, this two-study investigation tested how healthy individuals during a strict state issued quarantine, behaviorally select to regulate COVID-19-related threats varying in their intensity. Study 1 created and validated an ecologically relevant set of low and high intensity sentences covering major COVID-19 facets that include experiencing physical symptoms, infection threats, and social and economic consequences. Study 2 examined the influence of the intensity of these COVID-19-related threats, on behavioral regulatory selection choices between disengagement via attentional distraction and engagement via reappraisal. Confirming a flexible regulatory selection conception, healthy individuals showed strong choice preference for engagement reappraisal when regulating low intensity COVID-19-related threats, but showed strong choice preference for disengagement distraction when regulating high intensity COVID-19-related threats. These findings support the importance of regulatory selection flexibility for psychological resilience during a major global crisis.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , COVID-19/prevención & control , Regulación Emocional , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuarentena , Resiliencia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21526, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728729

RESUMEN

Earlier in 2020, seven Italian regions, which cover 62% of the Italian population, set up the Mimico-19 network to monitor the side effects of the restrictive measures against Covid-19 on volumes and quality of care. To this aim, we retrospectively analysed hospital discharges data, computing twelve indicators of volume and performance in three clinical areas: cardiology, oncology, and orthopaedics. Weekly indicators for the period January-July 2020 were compared with the corresponding average for 2018-2019; comparisons were performed within 3 sub-periods: pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown. The weekly trend of hospitalisations for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) showed a 40% reduction, but the proportion of STEMI patients with a primary PTCA did not significantly change from previous years. Malignant neoplasms surgery volumes differed substantially by site, with a limited reduction for lung cancer (< 20%) and greater declines (30-40%) for breast and prostate cancers. The percentage of timely surgery for femoral neck in the elderly remained constantly higher than the previous 2 years whereas hip and knee replacements fell dramatically. Hospitalisations have generally decreased, but the capacity of a timely and effective response in time-dependent pathways of care was not jeopardized throughout the period. General trends did not show important differences across regions, regardless of the different burden of Covid-19. Preventive and primary care services should adopt a pro-active approach, moving towards the identification of at-risk conditions that were neglected during the pandemic and timely addressing patients to the secondary care system.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera/estadística & datos numéricos , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virología , Femenino , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Italia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirugía , Masculino , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Cuarentena , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/patología , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/terapia
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21484, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728747

RESUMEN

Epidemiological efforts to model the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are crucial to understanding and containing current and future outbreaks and to inform public health responses. Mutations that occur in viral genomes can alter virulence during outbreaks by increasing infection rates and helping the virus evade the host immune system. To understand the changes in viral genomic diversity and molecular epidemiology in Oxford during the first wave of infections in the United Kingdom, we analyzed 563 clinical SARS-CoV-2 samples via whole-genome sequencing using Nanopore MinION sequencing. Large-scale surveillance efforts during viral epidemics are likely to be confounded by the number of independent introductions of the viral strains into a region. To avoid such issues and better understand the selection-based changes occurring in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, we utilized local isolates collected during the UK's first national lockdown whereby personal interactions, international and national travel were considerably restricted and controlled. We were able to track the short-term evolution of the virus, detect the emergence of several mutations of concern or interest, and capture the viral diversity of the region. Overall, these results demonstrate genomic pathogen surveillance efforts have considerable utility in controlling the local spread of the virus.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Variación Genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2/clasificación , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Estaciones del Año , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
13.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021449, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739471

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In early 2020, SARS-CoV-2 was declared a pandemic by the WHO and Italy was one of the first and most severely affected country in Europe. Despite the global interest about COVID-19 pandemic, several aspects of this infection are still unclear, especially in pediatric population. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of the isolated or quarantined children and adolescents followed by the Public Health Department of the Italian province of Modena during the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: The study population included all non-adult subjects aged 0-18 years who underwent isolation or quarantine during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic from February 24 to June 18, 2020 in Modena province, Northern Italy. RESULTS: In Modena province, 1230 children and adolescents were isolated in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection (6.3%), or quarantined due to close contact with confirmed cases (88.7%) or travelling from a high-risk area (5.0%). Among 349 individuals who underwent swab testing, 294 (84.2%) reported close contact with an infected cohabiting relative and 158 (45.3%) were symptomatic. Among all tested subjects, 78 (22.4%) resulted positive, with a higher proportion of symptomatic subjects compared with the SARS-CoV-2-negative (78.2% vs. 35.8%). Fever was mostly present in SARS-CoV-2-positive children (48.7% vs. 12.6%). Both anosmia (58.3% vs. 41.7%) and dysgeusia (54.5% vs. 45.5%) had only slightly higher frequency in SARS-CoV-2-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings allow to expand the knowledge regarding characteristics of non-adult subjects isolated or quarantined during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Cuarentena , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 782, 2021 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751845

RESUMEN

The water discarded from the quarantine station inspecting aquatic products can be served as an influx channel of invasive microorganisms to our own ecosystem. This study thus compared the viability of three different pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio harveyi, and Enterococcus faecalis) in either seawater or freshwater after their disinfection. For that, they were treated by ozonation (2.08 mM of ozone), ultraviolet irradiation (UVC-254), or thermal treatment (90℃) for 10 min, during which their resultant viability was monitored using colorimetric ATP assay, colony counting, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. From this, ATP measurement and real-time quantitative RT-PCR have proved to be a much stronger correlation built in the fraction of each of their assays versus the colony counting, although they differed in the type of disinfection implemented. Especially, ATP assay was the most sensitively influenced by high levels of total residual oxidants (TRO) undesirably produced during the ozonation of V. harveyi and E. faecalis in seawater, although easily and shortly measured within 1 h, with higher accuracy. Aside from that, the real-time quantitative RT-PCR had a stronger correlation versus either that of seawater ozonation or thermal treatment. It is decided referring to measurement time and convenience in the field that ATP assay can be more reliably used in bacterial cell viability measurement in the quarantine after the ozonation in seawater to specifically allow the bacterial deactivation, not to overwhelmingly produce TRO due to the residual ozone provided.


Asunto(s)
Ozono , Vibrio , Purificación del Agua , Desinfección , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Viabilidad Microbiana , Oxidantes , Cuarentena , Agua
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259031, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727103

RESUMEN

With the onset of COVID-19 and the resulting shelter in place guidelines combined with remote working practices, human mobility in 2020 has been dramatically impacted. Existing studies typically examine whether mobility in specific localities increases or decreases at specific points in time and relate these changes to certain pandemic and policy events. However, a more comprehensive analysis of mobility change over time is needed. In this paper, we study mobility change in the US through a five-step process using mobility footprint data. (Step 1) Propose the Delta Time Spent in Public Places (ΔTSPP) as a measure to quantify daily changes in mobility for each US county from 2019-2020. (Step 2) Conduct Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the ΔTSPP time series of each county to lower-dimensional latent components of change in mobility. (Step 3) Conduct clustering analysis to find counties that exhibit similar latent components. (Step 4) Investigate local and global spatial autocorrelation for each component. (Step 5) Conduct correlation analysis to investigate how various population characteristics and behavior correlate with mobility patterns. Results show that by describing each county as a linear combination of the three latent components, we can explain 59% of the variation in mobility trends across all US counties. Specifically, change in mobility in 2020 for US counties can be explained as a combination of three latent components: 1) long-term reduction in mobility, 2) no change in mobility, and 3) short-term reduction in mobility. Furthermore, we find that US counties that are geographically close are more likely to exhibit a similar change in mobility. Finally, we observe significant correlations between the three latent components of mobility change and various population characteristics, including political leaning, population, COVID-19 cases and deaths, and unemployment. We find that our analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of mobility change in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Distanciamiento Físico , Viaje , Humanos , Cuarentena , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258917, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731199

RESUMEN

We investigated changes in the quantity and quality of time spent on various activities in response to the COVID-19-induced national lockdowns in the UK. We examined effects both in the first national lockdown (May 2020) and the third national lockdown (March 2021). Using retrospective longitudinal time-use diary data collected from a demographically diverse sample of over 760 UK adults in both lockdowns, we found significant changes in both the quantity and quality of time spent on broad activity categories (employment, housework, leisure). Individuals spent less time on employment-related activities (in addition to a reduction in time spent commuting) and more time on housework. These effects were concentrated on individuals with young children. Individuals also spent more time doing leisure activities (e.g. hobbies) alone and conducting employment-related activities outside normal working hours, changes that were significantly correlated with decreases in overall enjoyment. Changes in quality exacerbated existing inequalities in quantity of time use, with parents of young children being disproportionately affected. These findings indicate that quality of time use is another important consideration for policy design and evaluation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21342, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725409

RESUMEN

Community-wide lockdowns in response to COVID-19 influenced many families, but the developmental cascade for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be especially detrimental. Our objective was to evaluate behavioral patterns of risk and resilience for children with ASD across parent-report assessments before (from November 2019 to February 2020), during (March 2020 to May 2020), and after (June 2020 to November 2020) an extended COVID-19 lockdown. In 2020, our study Mobile-based care for children with ASD using remote experience sampling method (mCARE) was inactive data collection before COVID-19 emerged as a health crisis in Bangladesh. Here we deployed "Cohort Studies", where we had in total 300 children with ASD (150 test group and 150 control group) to collect behavioral data. Our data collection continued through an extended COVID-19 lockdown and captured parent reports of 30 different behavioral parameters (e.g., self-injurious behaviors, aggression, sleep problems, daily living skills, and communication) across 150 children with ASD (test group). Based on the children's condition, 4-6 behavioral parameters were assessed through the study. A total of 56,290 behavioral data points was collected (an average of 152.19 per week) from parent cell phones using the mCARE platform. Children and their families were exposed to an extended COVID-19 lockdown. The main outcomes used for this study were generated from parent reports child behaviors within the mCARE platform. Behaviors included of child social skills, communication use, problematic behaviors, sensory sensitivities, daily living, and play. COVID-19 lockdowns for children with autism and their families are not universally negative but supports in the areas of "Problematic Behavior" could serve to mitigate future risk.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Uso del Teléfono Celular , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Cuidado del Niño/métodos , Cuarentena/psicología , SARS-CoV-2 , Actividades Cotidianas , Agresión , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Comunicación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Sueño , Habilidades Sociales
18.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 180, 2021 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774108

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple psychological consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak and quarantine have been described. However, there is a lack of global conceptualization. We argue that the stressful aspects of the situation, the multiple environmental consequences of the outbreak, and the diversity of symptoms observed in such a situation, suggest that Adjustment disorder (AD) is a promising way to conceptualize the psychological consequences of the outbreak and quarantine. The first aim of the study was to validate the French version of the ADNM. The second aim was to set out adjustment difficulties resulting from COVID-19 outbreak and quarantine. METHOD: We recruited 1010 (840 women, 170 men) who consented online to participate. They filled out the French ADNM, visual analogic scales, HADS, IES, and the COPE, to evaluate coping strategies. RESULTS: We confirmed the factor structure of the ADNM and we found good psychometric properties. We found that 61.3% of participants presented an adjustment disorder related to COVID-19 outbreak. We found multiple risk factors and protective factors to AD due to quarantine and outbreak. We also identified the coping strategies negatively and positively associated with AD. CONCLUSION: Adjustment disorder is a relevant concept to understand psychological manifestations caused by quarantine and outbreak. The French ANDM has good psychometric properties to evaluate such manifestations. The association between coping strategies and AD symptoms suggest that CBT may be the best intervention to help people suffering from AD.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cuarentena , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 155-162, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During cruises, the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections poses serious organizational problems such as those encountered in 2020 by the Zaandam, the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle or the Diamond Princess. In French Polynesia, the mixed cargo ship Aranui 5 transports both tourists and freight to the Marquesas Islands. The purpose of this article is to show how COVID-19 infections were diagnosed and contained before and after passengers boarded a cruise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On October 15, 2020, 161 passengers including 80 crew members embarked for a 13-day voyage from Papeete to the Marquesas Islands. Prior to boarding, all passengers underwent a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test; the tests results were all negative. On Day 0, 3, 5, 8 and 11, Biosynex® rapid antigen diagnostic tests were carried out on all or some of the crew members and tourists who may have had contact with new positive cases. Each day, forehead or temporal temperatures were measured using an infrared thermometer and questions were asked concerning the subjects' health status. When a subject was positive, the person and their contacts were isolated in individual cabins. The infected person then left the vessel to be received in a communal reception centre on the nearest island. RESULTS: A total of 9 positive cases were observed, including two before departure (a tourist and a crew member). During the trip, 7 crew members tested positive. The patients and their contacts were isolated and then disembarked at the earliest opportunity. At the time of sampling, the subjects were asymptomatic. The patients and their contacts all became symptomatic within 24 to 48 hours after sampling. CONCLUSIONS: In total, the voyage could be completed without any transmission on board among the tourists and with a minimum transmission among the crew members, thus maintaining the tourist and economic activity of the islands during the times of COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Medicina Naval/métodos , Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Humanos , Exposición Profesional , Polinesia , Cuarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Navíos , Viaje
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256971, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606503

RESUMEN

Studying the progress and trend of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) transmission mode will help effectively curb its spread. Some commonly used infectious disease prediction models are introduced. The hybrid model is proposed, which overcomes the disadvantages of the logistic model's inability to predict the number of confirmed diagnoses and the drawbacks of too many tuning parameters of the SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered) model. The realization and superiority of the prediction of the proposed model are proven through experiments. At the same time, the influence of different initial values of the parameters that need to be debugged on the hybrid model is further studied, and the mean error is used to quantify the prediction effect. By forecasting epidemic size and peak time and simulating the effects of public health interventions, this paper aims to clarify the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and recommend operation suggestions to slow down the epidemic. It is suggested that the quick detection of cases, sufficient implementation of quarantine and public self-protection behaviours are critical to slow down the epidemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación
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