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3.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949077, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842818

RESUMEN

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 has resulted in over 20 million cases and 741,808 deaths globally, affecting more than 200 countries. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is limited information on COVID-19, and treatment has so far focused on supportive care and use of repurposed drugs. COVID-19 can be transmitted via person-to-person contact through droplet spread. Some of the recommended precautionary measures to reduce the rate of disease spread include social distancing, good hygiene practices, and avoidance of crowded areas. These measures are effective because the droplets are heavy and can only travel approximately 1 meter in the air, settling quickly on fixed surfaces. Promising strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2 include discovery of therapeutic targets/drugs and vaccines. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of COVID-19. We also address the mechanisms of action of approved repurposed drugs for therapeutic management of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Adenosina Monofosfato/uso terapéutico , Factores de Edad , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Incidencia , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distancia Social , Análisis de Supervivencia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19837-19843, 2020 08 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732433

RESUMEN

Social distancing is the core policy response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). But, as federal, state and local governments begin opening businesses and relaxing shelter-in-place orders worldwide, we lack quantitative evidence on how policies in one region affect mobility and social distancing in other regions and the consequences of uncoordinated regional policies adopted in the presence of such spillovers. To investigate this concern, we combined daily, county-level data on shelter-in-place policies with movement data from over 27 million mobile devices, social network connections among over 220 million Facebook users, daily temperature and precipitation data from 62,000 weather stations, and county-level census data on population demographics to estimate the geographic and social network spillovers created by regional policies across the United States. Our analysis shows that the contact patterns of people in a given region are significantly influenced by the policies and behaviors of people in other, sometimes distant, regions. When just one-third of a state's social and geographic peer states adopt shelter-in-place policies, it creates a reduction in mobility equal to the state's own policy decisions. These spillovers are mediated by peer travel and distancing behaviors in those states. A simple analytical model calibrated with our empirical estimates demonstrated that the "loss from anarchy" in uncoordinated state policies is increasing in the number of noncooperating states and the size of social and geographic spillovers. These results suggest a substantial cost of uncoordinated government responses to COVID-19 when people, ideas, and media move across borders.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Eficiencia Organizacional , Modelos Logísticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Demografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Cuarentena/economía , Cuarentena/métodos , Distancia Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
6.
Vopr Pitan ; 89(3): 6-13, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790253

RESUMEN

Currently, due to the wide spread of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 and the need for anti-epidemic measures, medical science should integrate all efforts to ensure, on the one hand, at the global level - the fight against the spread of infection, on the other hand, at the individual level - increasing the adaptive capacity and immune response of the organism to protect against COVID-19. Nutrition is the most important factor determining human health and the functioning of all mechanisms to protect a person from negative environmental factors. For the prevention and treatment of new coronavirus infection COVID-19, a significant role is played by the correction of eating disorders, including vitamin and micronutrient deficiency. Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology, together with Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor), prepared Recommendations on nutrition for children and adults, requiring a self-isolation regime or quarantine at home in connection with COVID-19. In order to promptly inform and advise the population on nutrition optimization in the early days of anti-epidemic measures, an information reference Contact Center was created and is continuously functioning on the basis of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology. Equally important is the implementation of measures aimed at the prevention of food contamination with COVID-19 agent. In this regard, the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology, together with Rospotrebnadzor prepared guidelines on measures to prevent the transmission of a new coronavirus infection through foods. Another aspect that the medical community has faced in connection with the pandemic is the need to reorient specialized medical organizations that have not previously worked with patients with infectious diseases in order to create Clinical centers for the treatment of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19. Thus, in the context of the spread of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19, many areas of medicine are involved in the process of providing anti-epidemic measures. Successful completion of the tasks will significantly reduce the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the state and citizens.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Salud Pública , Cuarentena , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/normas , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Cuarentena/normas , Federación de Rusia
8.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100736, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773099

RESUMEN

By the end of May 2020, SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused more than 350,000 deaths worldwide. In the first months, there have been uncertainties on almost any area: infection transmission route, virus origin and persistence in the environment, diagnostic tests, therapeutic approach, high-risk subjects, lethality, and containment policies. We provide an updated summary of the current knowledge on the pandemic, discussing the available evidence on the effectiveness of the adopted mitigation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Aislamiento de Pacientes/organización & administración , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Incidencia , Italia/epidemiología , Máscaras , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aislamiento de Pacientes/métodos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Cuarentena/ética , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distancia Social , Análisis de Supervivencia
9.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100745, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773101

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 originated from China and spread across every corner of the world. The scientific interest on COVID-19 increased after WHO declared it a pandemic in the early February of 2020. In fact, this pandemic has had a worldwide impact on economy, health, and lifestyle like no other in the last 100 years. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Coronaviridae family and causes the deadliest clinical manifestations when compared to other viruses in the family. COVID-19 is an emerging zoonotic disease that has resulted in over 383,000 deaths around the world. Scientists are scrambling for ideas to develop treatment and prevention strategies to thwart the disease condition. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the latest information on the virus, disease, prevention, and treatment strategies. The future looks promising.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Ataxia/diagnóstico , Ataxia/fisiopatología , Ataxia/virología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/fisiopatología , Náusea/virología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distancia Social , Vómitos/diagnóstico , Vómitos/fisiopatología , Vómitos/virología
11.
Healthc Q ; 23(2): 16-17, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762814

RESUMEN

As a chief nurse in Ontario during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, I never thought I would experience anything even remotely similar, let alone exponentially worse, in my lifetime. Seventeen years and almost 17,000 km later, the COVID-19 crisis feels eerily similar in many ways, and completely different in others.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Australia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiología , Administración Hospitalaria , Humanos , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Cuarentena/organización & administración
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 285-299, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624257

RESUMEN

The global pandemic caused by the newly described severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused worldwide suffering and death of unimaginable magnitude from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The virus is transmitted through aerosol droplets, and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain of its spike protein S1 to attach to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in lung and airway cells. Binding requires the help of another host protein, transmembrane protease serine S1 member 2. Several factors likely contribute to the efficient transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 has a 10- to 20-fold higher receptor-binding capacity compared with previous pandemic coronaviruses. In addition, because asymptomatic persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 have high viral loads in their nasal secretions, they can silently and efficiently spread the disease. PCR-based tests have emerged as the criterion standard for the diagnosis of infection. Caution must be exercised in interpreting antibody-based tests because they have not yet been validated, and may give a false sense of security of being "immune" to SARS-CoV-2. We discuss how the development of some symptoms in allergic rhinitis can serve as clues for new-onset COVID-19. There are mixed reports that asthma is a risk factor for severe COVID-19, possibly due to differences in asthma endotypes. The rapid spread of COVID-19 has focused the efforts of scientists on repurposing existing Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs that inhibit viral entry, endocytosis, genome assembly, translation, and replication. Numerous clinical trials have been launched to identify effective treatments for COVID-19. Initial data from a placebo-controlled study suggest faster time to recovery in patients on remdesivir; it is now being evaluated in additional controlled studies. As discussed in this review, till effective vaccines and treatments emerge, it is important to understand the scientific rationale of pandemic-mitigation strategies such as wearing facemasks and social distancing, and implement them.


Asunto(s)
Asma/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Distancia Social , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Adenosina Monofosfato/uso terapéutico , Factores de Edad , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Asma/fisiopatología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Máscaras/provisión & distribución , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Prevalencia , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Receptores Virales/genética , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo
13.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 21, 2020. 9 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103785

RESUMEN

A finales de enero de 2020, cuando el nuevo coronavirus comienza a expandirse por Europa, las autoridades de Colombia supieron que la enfermedad llegaría pronto al país y no solo pondría a prueba el sistema de salud, sino que los problemas históricos, sociales y económicos que lo agobian podían detonar y magnificar la tragedia humana. Sin perder tiempo, el gobierno colombiano, en cabeza del Presidente Iván Duque y los gobernadores y alcaldes de las ciudades principales, diseñó una estrategia de respuesta a la COVID-19 con instancias e instrumentos de seguimiento y evaluación como el Puesto de Mando Unificado (PMU), reunión de alto nivel en la que participa el gabinete ministerial, los directores de entidades nacionales a cargo de la emergencia, asesores de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS/OMS), las agencias del sistema de Naciones Unidas, representantes de la academia y del sector privado, y donde se toman decisiones para dar una respuesta unificada, que no deje a nadie atrás en la lucha contra la COVID-19. Este estudio de caso resalta las acciones que Colombia está tomando para preparar y responder a la pandemia con el apoyo de la OPS / OMS y sus socios, y demuestra cómo una respuesta coordinada y basada en orientaciones científicas permite salvar vidas.


Asunto(s)
Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sistemas de Salud , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus , Colombia/epidemiología
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19873-19878, 2020 08 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727898

RESUMEN

Following the April 16, 2020 release of the Opening Up America Again guidelines for relaxing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) social distancing policies, local leaders are concerned about future pandemic waves and lack robust strategies for tracking and suppressing transmission. Here, we present a strategy for triggering short-term shelter-in-place orders when hospital admissions surpass a threshold. We use stochastic optimization to derive triggers that ensure hospital surges will not exceed local capacity and lockdowns are as short as possible. For example, Austin, Texas-the fastest-growing large city in the United States-has adopted a COVID-19 response strategy based on this method. Assuming that the relaxation of social distancing increases the risk of infection sixfold, the optimal strategy will trigger a total of 135 d (90% prediction interval: 126 d to 141 d) of sheltering, allow schools to open in the fall, and result in an expected 2,929 deaths (90% prediction interval: 2,837 to 3,026) by September 2021, which is 29% of the annual mortality rate. In the months ahead, policy makers are likely to face difficult choices, and the extent of public restraint and cocooning of vulnerable populations may save or cost thousands of lives.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Cuarentena/métodos , Distancia Social , Capacidad de Reacción/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Costo de Enfermedad , Hospitalización/economía , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/economía , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Capacidad de Reacción/economía , Tiempo , Poblaciones Vulnerables
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