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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e045794, 2021 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518530

RESUMEN

SETTING: The State of Qatar has had one of the highest COVID-19 infection rates globally and has used state-managed quarantine and isolation centres to limit the spread of infection. Quarantine and isolation have been shown to negatively affect the mental health of individuals. Qatar has a unique population, with around 90% of the population being economic migrants and a majority being blue-collar workers and labourers. OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to evaluate the psychological impact of institutional isolation and quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Qatar. The study also explored the sociodemographic correlates of this psychological impact. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: A cross-sectional study involving 748 consenting individuals in institutional quarantine and isolation in Qatar during the months of June and July 2020 was carried out. Relevant sociodemographic data along with depressive and anxiety symptomatology scores were collected from consenting adults at these facilities. RESULTS: 37.4% (n=270) of respondents reported depressive symptoms and 25.9% (n=189) reported anxiety symptoms. The scores were higher for individuals in isolation facilities and higher for migrants from poor socioeconomic group (p<0.001 for both). Within this group, although worries about infection were widely reported, lack of contact with the family was cited as one of the most important sources of distress. Respondents reported that contact with the family and reliable information were important factors that helped during the duration of isolation and quarantine. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported significantly elevated scores for depression and anxiety during institutional quarantine, which is in keeping with emerging evidence. However, in contrast to other studies reporting mostly from native populations, this study of a population with an overwhelming majority of immigrants highlights the special mental health needs of this specific group and can inform future healthcare policies.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión , Distrés Psicológico , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Qatar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Migrantes/psicología
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 314, 2021 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557816

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic and its public health measures go beyond physical and mental health and incorporate wider well-being impacts in terms of what people are free to do or be. We explored the impacts of the Covid-19 lockdown and relevant vulnerabilities on capability well-being, mental health and social support in Austria. METHODS: Adult Austrian residents (n = 560) provided responses to a cross-sectional online survey about their experiences during Covid-19 lockdown (15 March-15 April 2020). Instruments measuring capabilities (OxCAP-MH), depression and anxiety (HADS), social support (MSPSS) and mental well-being (WHO-5) were used in association with six pre-defined vulnerabilities using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: 31% of the participants reported low mental well-being and only 30% of those with a history of mental health treatment received treatment during lockdown. Past mental health treatment had a significant negative effect across all outcome measures with an associated capability well-being score reduction of - 6.54 (95%CI, - 9.26, - 3.82). Direct Covid-19 experience and being 'at risk' due to age and/or physical health conditions were also associated with significant capability deprivations. When adjusted for vulnerabilities, significant capability reductions were observed in association with increased levels of depression (- 1.77) and anxiety (- 1.50), and significantly higher capability levels (+ 3.75) were associated with higher levels of social support. Compared to the cohort average, individual capability impacts varied between - 9% for those reporting past mental health treatment and + 5% for those reporting one score higher on the social support scale. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to assess the capability limiting aspects of lockdown and relevant vulnerabilities alongside their impacts on mental health and social support. The negative capability well-being, mental health and social support impacts of the Covid-19 lockdown were strongest for people with a history of mental health treatment. Future public health policies concerning lockdowns should pay special attention to improve social support levels in order to increase public resilience.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Cuarentena/psicología , Apoyo Social , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Austria/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
3.
Trials ; 22(1): 117, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546716

RESUMEN

This article describes how one trial site of the Refugee Emergency: Defining and Implementing Novel Evidence-based psychosocial interventions (RE-DEFINE) study, designed to evaluate a Self Help+ intervention with Arabic-speaking refugees and asylum seekers currently living in the UK and experiencing stress, was adapted to accommodate social distancing rules and working from home during the COVID-19 restrictions. Digital divide, risk and safety management, acceptability of remote data collection and practical considerations are described. The adaptions to methods have practical implications for researchers looking for more flexible approaches in response to continuing restrictions resulting from COVID-19, and the authors believe that others could adopt such an approach. The need for a further acceptability study focusing on human and economic costs and benefits of telephone and video as an alternative to face-to-face data collection is indicated. TRIALS REGISTRATION: Refugee Emergency - Defining and Implementing Novel Evidence-based psychosocial interventions RE-DEFINE. (Trials registration numbers NCT03571347 , NCT03587896 ) https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030259 (2019).


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Pandemias , Cuarentena/psicología , Refugiados/psicología , Árabes/psicología , /etnología , /virología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Gestión de Riesgos , Teléfono , Reino Unido/epidemiología
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 112, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557764

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Global crises inevitably increase levels of anxiety in postpartum populations. Effective and efficient measurement is therefore essential. This study aimed to create a 12-item research short form of the 51-item Postpartum Specific Anxiety Scale [PSAS] and validate it for use in rapid response research at a time of global crises [PSAS-RSF-C]. We also present the same 12-items, in five other languages (Italian, French, Chinese, Spanish, Dutch) to increase global accessibility of a psychometric tool to assess maternal mental health. METHODS: Twelve items from the PSAS were selected on the basis of a review of their factor loadings. An on-line sample of UK mothers (N = 710) of infants up to 12 weeks old completed the PSAS-RSF-C during COVID-19 'lockdown'. RESULTS: Principal component analyses on a randomly split sample (n = 344) revealed four factors, identical in nature to the original PSAS, which in combination explained 75% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analyses (n = 366) demonstrated the four-factor model fit the data well. Reliability of the overall scale and of the underlying factors in both samples proved excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest the PSAS-RSF-C may prove useful as a clinical screening tool and is the first postpartum-specific psychometric scale to be validated during the COVID-19 pandemic. This offers psychometrically sound assessment of postpartum anxiety. By increasing the accessibility of the PSAS, we aim to enable researchers the opportunity to measure maternal anxiety, rapidly, at times of global crisis.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , /psicología , Salud Materna , Pandemias , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Psicometría/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , /virología , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Embarazo , Cuarentena/psicología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Traducciones , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 125-130, feb. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-196951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite being necessary to delay the spread of COVID-19, home confinement could have affected the emotional well-being of children and adolescents. Knowing which variables are involved in anxiety and depressive symptoms could help to prevent young people's psychological problems related to lockdown as early as possible. This cross-sectional study aims to examine anxiety and depressive symptomatology in Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese children and adolescents in order to determine which variables are related to poorer well-being during the pandemic. METHOD: The parents of 515 children, aged 3-18 years old, completed an online survey. Children's anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Version, and depressive symptoms were measured with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire-Parent Version. RESULTS: We found differences in anxiety and depression between countries, with higher anxiety scores in Spanish children, and higher depression scores in Spanish and Italian children compared to the Portuguese. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were more likely in children whose parents reported higher levels of stress. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are discussed in the light of detecting and supporting affected children as early as possible


ANTECEDENTES: a pesar de ser necesario para retrasar la propagación del COVID-19, el confinamiento podría haber afectado al bienestar emocional de niños y adolescentes. Conocer qué variables están involucradas en la ansiedad y depresión podría ayudar a prevenir en los niños los problemas psicológicos asociados al confinamiento lo antes posible. Este estudio transversal tiene como objetivo examinar la sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva en niños y adolescentes italianos, españoles y portugueses, para detectar qué variables están relacionadas con un peor bienestar durante la pandemia. MÉTODO: los padres de 515 niños de 3 a 18 años completaron una evaluación online. Los síntomas de ansiedad de los niños se evaluaron con la Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Version, y los síntomas depresivos con el Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire-Parent Version. RESULTADOS: se hallaron diferencias en la ansiedad y la depresión entre países, con mayor ansiedad en los niños españoles, y mayor sintomatología depresiva en los niños españoles e italianos, en comparación con los portugueses. Los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión eran más probables en niños cuyos padres informaron de un mayor nivel de estrés. CONCLUSIONES: estos hallazgos se discuten con el propósito de detectar y apoyar a los niños afectados lo antes posible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Pandemias , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Comparación Transcultural , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 111-117, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-196952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the Spanish government established an official lockdown across the country in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and confined the population to their homes, restricting their mobility. The objectives of the study are twofold: a) to examine dose-response relationships between physical activity (PA) components (volume, intensity, frequency, duration) and depressive symptoms of the population during confinement, and b) to identify the optimal levels of PA to mitigate notable depressive symptoms (NDS). METHODS: 4,811 (2,952 women) Spanish citizens, age range 16-92 years, completed an online questionnaire (snowball sampling) to measure their levels of depressive symptoms, PA, and various anthropometric and sociometric variables. Volume (METs-min/week), frequency (days/week), and duration (hours) were examined using logistic regressions with restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: The PA components were inversely associated with NDS. Performing at least 477 METs-min/week was associated with a 33% decrease in probability of NDS, and reaching 3,000 METs-min/week was associated with the lowest risk of NDS (47%). As for frequency, with 10 times/week the probability of NDS was 56% lower. At 10 hours of weekly practice, the probability of NDS was 39% lower. CONCLUSIONS: A range and optimal amount of PA is suggested to reduce the appearance of SDN during confinement


ANTECEDENTES: en marzo de 2020 el gobierno español decretó el estado de alarma debido a la pandemia por COVID-19 y confinó a la población. Los objetivos son dos: a) examinar las relaciones dosis-respuesta entre los componentes de actividad física (AF: volumen, intensidad, frecuencia y duración) y los síntomas depresivos de la población durante el confinamiento, y b) identificar los niveles óptimos de AF para mitigar los síntomas depresivos notables (SDN). MÉTODO: 4.811 (2.952 mujeres) ciudadanos de España, de 16 a 92 años respondieron a un cuestionario on line (muestreo de bola de nieve) para medir sus niveles de síntomas depresivos, AF, y variables antropométricas y sociométricas. El volumen (METs-min/sem), la frecuencia (días/sem) y la duración (horas) se examinaron mediante regresiones logísticas con splines cúbicas restringidas. RESULTADOS: los componentes de AF se asociaron inversamente con las probabilidades de SDN. La realización de 477 METs-min/sem se asoció con una disminución del 33% en las probabilidades de SDN, y alcanzar 3.000 METs-min/sem se asoció con el menor riesgo de SDN (47%). En cuanto a frecuencia, con 10 días/sem las probabilidades de SDN fueron un 56% más bajas. A las 10 horas de práctica semanal, las probabilidades de SDN fueron un 39% más bajas. CONCLUSIONES: se sugiere un rango y cantidad óptima de AF para reducir la aparición de SDN en confinamiento


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Pandemias , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Actividad Motora , Depresión/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , España
7.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(1)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408099

RESUMEN

Patients admitted to the isolation ward during the COVID-19 outbreak face multiple psychosocial stressors including the disruptive experience of being in quarantine, anxiety over contracting a newly emerging infectious disease and limited access to their healthcare team. This quality improvement project aims to leverage on technology to improve patients' access to, and experience of, care while in isolation.Patients admitted to two isolation wards in Singapore General Hospital (SGH) between 28 February and 19 March 2020 were each provided an iPad loaded with the MyCare application (app), curated materials and mobile games. During this period, 83 of them accessed the device and the app. MyCare app is an app developed by the nursing team in SGH as part of an existing interprofessional collaboration to help patients navigate their care during their inpatient stay. In response to COVID-19, MyCare app was supplemented with materials to address affected patients' informational and psychosocial needs. These materials included an information sheet on COVID-19, interviews with previous severe acute respiratory syndrome survivors, psychosocial support materials, and uplifting literature, illustrated storybooks and artwork.This paper describes the process of planning for, and executing, the intervention and reports the initial results of its effect. Initial feedback indicated a positive response to the intervention. 9 out of 10 respondents (90%) rated their hospital experience with a maximum of five stars and all 10 respondents (100%) rated the psychosocial support materials with five stars. Doctors managing the patients also observed a reduction in the number of commonly asked questions following the deployment of the iPad.This quality improvement project is ongoing with plans for further research to determine how to better support the psychosocial needs of patients in isolation during a novel disease outbreak. This report is written based on the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Hospitalización , Aplicaciones Móviles , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades , Empoderamiento , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Singapur , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(3): e33, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463098

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The objective of this article is to assess the mental health issues of the mild condition coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to a community treatment center (CTC) in Korea. METHODS: A total of 107 patients admitted to a CTC were included as the study population, and their mental health problems including depression (patient health questionnaire-9), anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder scale-7), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (PTSD checklist-5) and somatic symptoms (by patient health questionnaire-15) were evaluated every week during their stay. The stigma related to COVID-19 infection was evaluated with an adjusted version of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) stigma scale. RESULTS: During the first week of isolation, the prevalence of more-than-moderate depression was 24.3%, more-than-moderate anxiety was 14.9%, more-than-moderate somatic symptoms was 36.5% and possible PTSD was 5.6% of total population. For depression and anxiety, previous psychiatric history and stigma of COVID-19 infection were significant risk factors. For PTSD, previous psychiatric history and stigma of COVID-19 infection as well as total duration of isolation were found to be significant risk factors. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and possible PTSD remained similar across the four weeks of observations, though the prevalence of severe depression, increased after four weeks of stay. Somatic symptoms seemed to decrease during their stay. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that social mitigation of COVID-19 related stigma, as well as care of patients with pre-existing mental health problems are important mental health measures during this crisis period. It is also important that clinical guidelines and public health policies be well balanced over the protection of the public and those quarantined to minimize the negative psychosocial consequences from isolation of the patients.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Aislamiento de Pacientes/psicología , Estigma Social , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Prevalencia , Cuarentena/psicología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología
9.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jan 11.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424020

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Stressful situations may have a negative effect on population's mental health, including impaired sleep quality. Thus, we analysed the effect on sleep during the confinement due to the COVID-19 outbreak, in a Galicia population sample, measuring subjective sleep satisfaction, and insomnia intensity and incidence. METHODS: Through an adapted questionnaire from the Cuestionario Oviedo de Sueño, distributed telematically and printed, using a convenience sampling in Galicia, we compared sleep situation, before and during the first two weeks of confinement for COVID-19. We compared the results of the questionnaire before and during confinement with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar's test. RESULTS: In 451 analysed subjects, there was about half point decrease in sleep satisfaction (in a 1 to 7 scale), three points increase in insomnia score (9 to 45 scale) and an increase from 23.1 to 36.3% in the insomnia incidence (p<0.001 for all the comparisons). There existed less affectation in the insomnia incidence in elderly above 65 years (from 21.7 to 26.1%, p=1) and in subjects that telecommuted (unchanged 28.1% incidence, p=1). In a post-hoc analysis of a health workers subgroup, sleep affectation was similar to that of others workers. CONCLUSIONS: Confinement situation in COVID-19 outbreak context in our environment has caused important alterations in the population's sleep quality, increasing the symptoms and incidence of insomnia.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Cuarentena/psicología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /psicología , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción Personal , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Sueño , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244537, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406102

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The unprecedented worldwide social distancing response to COVID-19 resulted in a quick reversal of escalating case numbers. Recently, local governments globally have begun to relax social distancing regulations. Using the situation in Manitoba, Canada as an example, we estimated the impact that social distancing relaxation may have on the pandemic. METHODS: We fit a mathematical model to empirically estimated numbers of people infected, recovered, and died from COVID-19 in Manitoba. We then explored the impact of social distancing relaxation on: (a) time until near elimination of COVID-19 (< one case per million), (b) time until peak prevalence, (c) proportion of the population infected within one year, (d) peak prevalence, and (e) deaths within one year. RESULTS: Assuming a closed population, near elimination of COVID-19 in Manitoba could have been achieved in 4-6 months (by July or August) if there were no relaxation of social distancing. Relaxing to 15% of pre-COVID effective contacts may extend the local epidemic for more than two years (median 2.1). Relaxation to 50% of pre-COVID effective contacts may result in a peak prevalence of 31-38% of the population, within 3-4 months of initial relaxation. CONCLUSION: Slight relaxation of social distancing may immensely impact the pandemic duration and expected peak prevalence. Only holding the course with respect to social distancing may have resulted in near elimination before Fall of 2020; relaxing social distancing to 15% of pre-COVID-19 contacts will flatten the epidemic curve but greatly extend the duration of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/métodos , Canadá/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Trazado de Contacto/tendencias , Humanos , Manitoba/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cuarentena/psicología , /patogenicidad
11.
Can J Public Health ; 112(1): 17-28, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464556

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In order for physical distancing directives to be effective at lowering and flattening the epidemic peak during a pandemic, individuals must adhere to confinement guidelines. Recent reviews highlight the paucity of research on empirical correlates of adherence to physical distancing and quarantine directives. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 1003 individuals were recruited using quota sampling to form a sample approximately representative of the population of Quebec (Canada) in terms of age, gender, and urbanicity. Participants completed an online survey on adherence to physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. This survey evaluated socio-demographic, health, cognitive, emotional, and social factors related to physical distancing. RESULTS: Individuals aged 70 and older (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.04-2.67), women (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.02-1.79), and those who were not essential workers (OR = 3.28, 95% CI = 2.24-4.81) reported more physical distancing. Injunctive personal norms (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.23-2.31), perceived benefits of physical distancing to others (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12-1.93), and descriptive social norms (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.04-1.52) were independent predictors of adherence status. Individuals adhered more to physical distancing if they believed that it was their civic duty to do so and that physical distancing helped protect others, and if they perceived that most other people were following these directives. In contrast, perceived personal risk and emotional factors were not independently related to physical distancing. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of health beliefs and perceived social norms in shaping responses to physical distancing directives. These findings offer insights into ways to frame public health communications to promote physical distancing during a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Guías como Asunto , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Emociones , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Quebec/epidemiología , Normas Sociales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escocia/epidemiología , Sueño/fisiología , Higiene del Sueño , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Addict Behav ; 115: 106772, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418433

RESUMEN

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the resulting lockdown measures have raised concerns regarding their effect on alcohol consumption. We investigated alcohol use during lockdown in a population of college students, usually characterized by social and heavy drinking. We also tested the predictive role of pre-lockdown drinking motives on alcohol consumption during lockdown. We collected data from 1951 French-speaking Belgian students during the lockdown period (April 1st - May 3rd, 2020) through a cross-sectional online survey. Participants self-reported their daily alcohol consumption (1) during a typical week in normal circumstances (i.e., before lockdown), and (2) since lockdown onset. We also assessed drinking motives and severity of alcohol use before lockdown. Our findings showed that 68.2% of the sample reported a lower alcohol consumption during lockdown compared to before lockdown, 17.2% conversely reporting a higher consumption. Enhancement, social and coping motives were all associated with heavy drinking before lockdown. Enhancement and social motives predicted lower alcohol consumption during lockdown among heavy drinkers. Conversely, coping motives, as well as social motives among low drinkers, predicted higher consumption during lockdown. Conformity motives, as well as enhancement motives among low and moderate drinkers, did not predict alcohol consumption before or during lockdown. Overall, several pre-lockdown drinking motives reliably predicted alcohol consumption during lockdown and could thus be used to identify at-risk populations and to tailor intervention programs on alcohol misuse during sanitary crises.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Motivación , Cuarentena/psicología , Conducta Social , Adulto , Bélgica , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245261, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465121

RESUMEN

We investigated what degree of risk of infection with COVID-19 is necessary so that people intend to stay home, even when doing so means losing their salary. We conducted an online survey across Brazil during the initial outbreak, in which 8,345 participants answered a questionnaire designed to identify the maximum tolerated risk (k') necessary for them to disregard social distancing recommendations and guarantee their salaries. Generalized linear mixed models, path analysis structural equation, and conditional interference classification tree were performed to further understand how sociodemographic factors impact k' and to establish a predictive model for the risk behavior of leaving home during the pandemic. We found that, on average, people tolerate 38% risk of infection to leave home and earn a full salary, but this number decreased to 13% when the individual risk perception of becoming ill from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is considered. Furthermore, participants who have a medium-to-high household income and who are older than 35 years are more likely to be part of the risk-taking group who leave home regardless of the potential COVID-19 infection level; while participants over 45 years old and with good financial health are more likely to be part of the risk-averse group, who stay home at the expense of any salary offered. Our findings add to the political and public debate concerning lockdown strategies by showing that, contrary to supposition, people with low socioeconomic status are not more likely to ignore social distancing recommendations due to personal economic matters.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Asunción de Riesgos , Trabajo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Brasil , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/psicología , Conducta Social , Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Int J Impot Res ; 33(1): 131-136, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402720

RESUMEN

In March 2020, the Italian Government introduced measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection. Between 8th April and 2nd May 2020 we investigated levels and correlates of sexual activity and depression during COVID-19 lockdown in a sample of hospital workers and their acquaintances by an online survey on SurveyMonkey. Socio-demographic data, International Index of Erectile Function, Female Sexual Function Index, and Beck Depression Inventory were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis (MLRA) was used to test predictors of depressive symptoms and low sexual desire and satisfaction. A statistically significant difference in age, change in working habit, sexual satisfaction, sexual desire, and depressive symptoms was found between males and females. A statistically significant higher proportion of health care workers had low sexual desire (65.3% vs 56.8%, p = 0.042). At MLRA, age, being female, being a health care worker, having children at home, living with the partner, and having low sexual satisfaction were predictors of low level of sexual desire. To our knowledge, this is one of the few studies using validated questionnaires for both males and females to assess sexual well-being and psychometric alterations during COVID quarantine.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Depresión/etiología , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Sexualidad/fisiología , Sexualidad/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Conducta Sexual
16.
Neurol Sci ; 42(3): 825-833, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442845

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During Covid-19 pandemic, the Italian government adopted restrictive limitations and declared a national lockdown on March 9, which lasted until May 4 and produced dramatic consequences on people's lives. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of prolonged lockdown on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: Between April 30 and June 8, 2020, we interviewed with a telephone-based questionnaire the caregivers of the community-dwelling patients with dementia who had their follow-up visit scheduled from March 9 to May 15 and canceled due to lockdown. Among the information collected, patients' BPSDs were assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Non-parametric tests to compare differences between NPI scores over time and logistic regression models to explore the impact of different factors on BPSD worsening were performed. RESULTS: A total of 109 visits were canceled and 94/109 caregivers completed the interview. Apathy, irritability, agitation and aggression, and depression were the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms experienced by patients both at baseline and during Covid-19 pandemic. Changes in total NPI and caregiver distress scores between baseline and during lockdown, although statistically significant, were overall modest. The logistic regression model failed to determine predictors of BPSD worsening during lockdown. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first studies to investigate the presence of BPSD during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and related nationwide lockdown, showing only slight, likely not clinically relevant, differences in BPSD burden, concerning mostly agitation and aggression, anxiety, apathy and indifference, and irritability.


Asunto(s)
Síntomas Conductuales/etiología , Demencia/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1015-1021, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386809

RESUMEN

We explored the impact of the Spanish COVID-19 strict home confinement on mental health and cognition in non-infected subjects (N = 16, 60-80 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive decline and APOEɛ3/ɛ4 carriers. Mental health was monitored for 2 months on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, and compared to pre-confinement values. Emotional distress, anxiety, and depression scores increased to pathological threshold values during and after confinement. Those with lower mood during confinement experienced a decline in their mood after confinement. Cognition did not change. These preliminary results suggest that mental health consequences of corona measures in preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease should be further evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Salud Mental , Cuarentena/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/genética , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , /terapia , Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Conocimiento/genética , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/genética , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/genética , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distrés Psicológico , Riesgo , España
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429989

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic impaired people's moods and general levels of physical activity, but the way in which each country is coping with the situation may result in different outcomes. The aim of the present study was to compare the mental health and physical activity levels between residents of Brazil and Switzerland during the social distancing period associated with COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire aiming to assess personal, quarantine, physical activity, and mood state disorders data was answered by 114 participants (57 from each country) of both sexes. Results: Swiss participants presented a higher frequency of people (47.4%) not abiding by social distancing measures compared to Brazilian participants (1.8%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.56). There were no significant differences between the participants from the two countries regarding physical activity levels (p = 0.09). The Swiss presented a higher frequency (78.9%) of people without symptoms of depression compared to Brazilians (31.6%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.48). The Swiss also presented a higher frequency (77.2%) of people without symptoms of anxiety compared to Brazilians (35.1%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.43). There was a significant association between the restriction level and depression symptoms (p = 0.01, effect size = 0.25) but not with anxiety symptoms (p = 0.21, effect size = 0.16). Conclusions: According to the preliminary results, Brazilians presented a much higher frequency of depression and anxiety symptoms, which can be explained by characteristics other than the restriction level.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Ejercicio Físico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/psicología , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suiza/epidemiología
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042871, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436472

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, social isolation, school/child care closures and employment instability have created unprecedented conditions for families raising children at home. This study describes the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on families with children in Canada. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This descriptive study used a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of adults living in Canada (n=3000) to examine the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Outcomes among parents with children <18 years old living at home (n=618) were compared with the rest of the sample. Data were collected via an online survey between 14 May to 29 May 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants reported on changes to their mental health since the onset of the pandemic and sources of stress, emotional responses, substance use patterns and suicidality/self-harm. Additionally, parents identified changes in their interactions with their children, impacts on their children's mental health and sources of support accessed. RESULTS: 44.3% of parents with children <18 years living at home reported worse mental health as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with 35.6% of respondents without children <18 living at home, χ2 (1, n=3000)=16.2, p<0.001. More parents compared with the rest of the sample reported increased alcohol consumption (27.7% vs 16.1%, χ2 (1, n=3000)=43.8, p<0.001), suicidal thoughts/feelings (8.3% vs 5.2%, χ2 (1, n=3000)=8.0, p=0.005) and stress about being safe from physical/emotional domestic violence (11.5% vs 7.9%, χ2 (1, n=3000)=8.1, p=0.005). 24.8% (95% CI 21.4 to 28.4) of parents reported their children's mental health had worsened since the pandemic. Parents also reported more frequent negative as well as positive interactions with their children due to the pandemic (eg, more conflicts, 22.2% (95% CI 19.0 to 25.7); increased feelings of closeness, 49.7% (95% CI 45.7 to 53.7)). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies that families with children <18 at home have experienced deteriorated mental health due to the pandemic. Population-level responses are required to adequately respond to families' diverse needs and mitigate the potential for widening health and social inequities for parents and children.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Salud de la Familia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/métodos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto Joven
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