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1.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(1): 1-13, jun. 2022.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1363018

RESUMEN

Introducción: En la investigación desarrollada en el servicio de neonatología del hospital Docente Ginecobstétrico "Eusebio Hernández", se pudo constatar que para el personal de enfermería el cuidado del recién nacido que se encuentra en recuperación nutricional es un elemento importante para el progreso de la atención del neonato en las salas de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Objetivo: Identificar las competencias específicas de enfermería para el cuidado del recién nacido en recuperación nutricional. Métodos: Investigación de desarrollo tecnológico en el Hospital Ginecobstétrico Eusebio Hernández en La Habana durante 2020. El universo lo constituyeron 50 profesionales de enfermería que laboran en el servicio de neonatología. Para el desarrollo de la investigación se utilizó el método DACUM (desarrollo del currículum laboral), se confeccionó las funciones y tareas, con la participación de expertos, se construyó el mapa DACUM. Resultados: Se identificaron 6 competencias específicas en relación con 6 funciones y sus tareas en lo que la totalidad de los expertos estuvieron de acuerdo por tener un alto nivel científico. Conclusiones: Se identificaron las competencias específicas de enfermería para el cuidado de neo-natos en recuperación nutricional, lo que permitió mejorar la calidad de la atención a estos recién nacidos y el perfeccionamiento de los profesionales.


Introduction: In the research carried out in the neonatology service of the Eusebio Hernández Gyneco-Obstetric Teaching Hospital, it was found that for the nursing staff the care of the newborn who is in nutritional recovery is an important element for the progress of care of the neonate in neonatal intensive care wards. Objective: To identify the specific nursing competencies for the care of the newborn in nutritional recovery. Methods: Technological development research at the Eusebio Hernández Gyneco-Obstetric Hospital in Havana during 2020. The universe was made up of 50 nursing professionals working in the neonatology service. For the development of the research, the DACUM method (development of the work curriculum) was used, the functions and tasks were prepared, with the participation of experts, the DACUM map was constructed. Results: 6 specific competences were identified in relation to 6 functions and their tasks, in which all the experts agreed due to having a high scientific level. Conclusions: Specific nursing competencies for the care of neonates in nutritional recovery were identified, which allowed improving the quality of care for these newborns and the improvement of professionals.


Introdução: Na pesquisa realizada no serviço de neonatologia do Hospital Universitário Gineco-Obstétrico "Eusebio Hernández", constatou-se que para a equipe de enfermagem o cuidado ao recém-nascido em recuperação nutricional é um elemento importante para o andamento da assistência do recém-nascido em enfermarias de terapia intensiva neonatal. Objetivo: Identificar as competências específicas de enfermagem para o cuidado ao recém-nascido em recuperação nutricional. Métodos: Pesquisa de desenvolvimento tecnológico no Hospital "Eusebio Hernández" Gyneco-Obstétrico de Havana em 2020. O universo era formado por 50 profissionais de enfermagem que atuavam no serviço de neonatologia. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa, foi utilizado o método DACUM (elaboração do currículo do trabalho), foram elaboradas as funções e tarefas, com a participação de especialistas, foi construído o mapa DACUM. Resultados: identificaram-se 6 competências específicas em relação a 6 funções e respetivas tarefas, em que todos os peritos concordaram por possuírem um elevado nível científico. Conclusões: Foram identificadas competências específicas de enfermagem para o cuidado ao recém-nascido em recuperação nutricional, o que permitiu melhorar a qualidade da assistência a esses recém-nascidos e o aprimoramento dos profissionais.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Recién Nacido , Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Enfermería Neonatal , Cuba , Nutrición del Lactante , Enfermeras Neonatales
2.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(2): 20-25, 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648059

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection is the second-leading reason for consults in primary health care. Bacterial urinary tract infections are the most common, of which Escherichia coli is the main etiologic agent. Antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance complicate effective community treatment, especially if resistance is caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production. WHO recommends that antimicrobial susceptibility be evaluated in different regions of the world at different times. Community-acquired E. coli's susceptibility to colistin has not yet been studied in Cuba, and mcr-1 gene screening is necessary. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate community-acquired uropathogenic E. coli isolates' susceptibility to antibiotics, including colistin, and identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study that included 281 community-acquired uropathogenic E. coli isolates (153 from the Isle of Youth Special Municipality's Hygiene, Epidemiology, and Microbiology Center and 128 from Microbiology Laboratories of 7 institutions in Havana) from June 2016 through July 2018. We used the disk diffusion method to determine susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin. The disk elution method was used to determine susceptibility to colistin. The combined disk method was used to identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Estimates were made regarding the frequency and percentages of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance, as well as multidrug-resistance patterns. RESULTS: Of the 281 isolates, 68.3% (192/281) were resistant to ampicillin, 54.8% (154/281) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 49.5% (139/281) were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to colistin was not detected. On the other hand, 14.2% (40/281) were susceptible to the 8 antibiotics we evaluated, 22.1% (62/281) showed resistance to only 1 antibiotic, and 63.7% (179/281) were resistant to 2 or more antibiotics. In the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase determination, 34.5% (97/281) had inhibition zones ≤14 mm with cefazolin. Of those with inhibition zones, 64.9% (63/97) were positive in the phenotype test, and 35.1% (34/97) were negative. In extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria, 1.6% (1/63) were resistant to fosfomycin, and 3.2% (2/63) were resistant to nitrofurantoin. The most common multidrug-resistance pattern (22.9%; 30/131) was to ampicillin/sulbactam, ampicillin, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. CONCLUSIONS: Uropathogenic E. coli resistance to the antibiotics most frequently used in community medical practice is quite common, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria is the mechanism for beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. Multidrug-resistance patterns include resistance to the antibiotics most used in community-acquired infections. Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are the most active in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing bacteria. All the isolates were susceptible to colistin.


Asunto(s)
Fosfomicina , Infecciones Urinarias , Escherichia coli Uropatógena , Ampicilina/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Cefazolina/uso terapéutico , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapéutico , Colistina/farmacología , Colistina/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Cuba , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Fosfomicina/farmacología , Fosfomicina/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nitrofurantoína/uso terapéutico , Sulbactam/uso terapéutico , Sulfametoxazol/uso terapéutico , Trimetoprim/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología , Infecciones Urinarias/microbiología , beta-Lactamasas/uso terapéutico
3.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(2): 3-5, 2022 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648056

Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Política , Cuba , Humanos
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 174: 107548, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690377

RESUMEN

The genus Cyclura includes nine extant species and six subspecies of West Indian Rock Iguanas and is one of the most imperiled genera of squamate reptiles globally. An understanding of species diversity, evolutionary relationships, diversification, and historical biogeography in this group is crucial for implementing sound long-term conservation strategies. We collected DNA samples from 1 to 10 individuals per taxon from all Cyclura taxa (n = 70 ingroup individuals), focusing where possible on incorporating individuals from different populations of each species. We also collected 1-2 individuals from each of seven outgroup species of iguanas (Iguana delicatissima; five Ctenosaura species) and Anolis sagrei (n = 12 total outgroup individuals). We used targeted genomic sequence capture to isolate and to sequence 1,872 loci comprising of 687,308 base pairs (bp) from each of the 82 individuals from across the nuclear genome. We extracted mitochondrial reads and assembled and annotated mitogenomes for all Cyclura taxa plus outgroup species. We present well-supported phylogenomic gene tree/species tree analyses for all extant species of Cyclura using ASTRAL-III, SVDQuartets, and StarBEAST2 methods, and discuss the taxonomic, biogeographic, and conservation implications of these data. We find a most recent common ancestor of the genus 9.91 million years ago. The earliest divergence within Cyclura separates C. pinguis from a clade comprising all other Cyclura. Within the latter group, a clade comprising C. carinata from the southern Lucayan Islands and C. ricordii from Hispaniola is the sister taxon to a clade comprising the other Cyclura. Among the other Cyclura, the species C. cornuta and C. stejnegeri (from Hispaniola and Isla Mona) form the sister taxon to a clade of species from Jamaica (C. collei), Cuba and Cayman Islands (C. nubila and C. lewisi), and the eastern (C. rileyi) and western (C. cychlura) Lucayan Islands. Cyclura cychlura and C. rileyi form a clade whose sister taxa are C. nubila and C. lewisi. Cyclura collei is the sister taxon to these four species combined.


Asunto(s)
Iguanas , Lagartos , Animales , Cuba , Humanos , Iguanas/genética , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Indias Occidentales
6.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(2): 7-14, 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648057

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 sequelae, or the short-, medium-, and long-term manifestations of the disease are under continuous study. There are currently few reports on the evolution of hematological variables following a demonstrated absence of SARS-CoV-2 after infection. OBJECTIVE: Identify hematological alterations in Cuban adults recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their relation with disease severity. METHODS: We selected 348 persons recovered from COVID-19 residing in Havana, Cuba with an RT-PCR study negative for SARS-CoV-2 performed two weeks after hospital discharge; a structured survey was administered to obtain clinical-epidemiological data. Three groups were established according to COVID-19 clinical criteria: asymptomatic, mild/moderately symptomatic, and severely symptomatic, which, in turn, were divided according to hospital discharge date and blood sample collection date. We performed hemograms with differential leukocyte counts and compared results among groups. We then measured the associations between hematological variables, personal medical history, and relevant lifestyle habits (smoking). RESULTS: All hematological variables were within normal reference limits, although men from the group of severely ill patients had increased total leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes, and decreased hemoglobin and eosinophils, which was also evident in those with a recovery time of 31-90 days. CONCLUSIONS: The relation between hematological variables and degree of clinical severity offers evidence as to persistence of systemic alterations (possibly inflammatory) associated with viral infection. Their identification and characterization can facilitate personalized patient followup and rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Cuba/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , ARN Viral/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
7.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(2): 15-19, 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648058

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The use of various diagnostic techniques is increasingly common in pandemic scenarios. It is important to update evaluations of their metric properties in different times and settings. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate metric properties of a SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test relative to a reference standard. METHODS: We carried out a prospective evaluation study of the SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test as compared to the RT-PCR test, which is considered the reference standard. Our sample was comprised of 778 individuals, and we calculated sensitiv- ity, specificity, predictive values, prevalence and validity indices. RESULTS: Of the total 778 samples, 70 were true positives, 658 were true negatives, and 27 were false negatives when compared to RT-PCR test results. We obtained a sensitivity of 75.3% (95% CI = 65.96-84.50); a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI = 94.53-97.59); 72.2% for positive predictive value, and 96.6% for negative predictive value. The estimated preva- lence was 11.9% and the validity index was 93.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The index values validate use of the SARS- CoV-2 rapid antigen test until prevalence falls below 2.5%, since as SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence decreases, so does the predictive value of the PCR result. The use of the SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test on the Isle of Youth, Cuba, was decisive in the pandemic's clinical- epidemiological management.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Cuba/epidemiología , Humanos
8.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(2): 26-34, 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648060

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Immunity in cancer patients is modified both by the cancer itself and by oncospecific treatments. Whether a patient's adaptive immunity is impaired depends on their levels of naive lymphocytes and other cell populations. During the COVID-19 pandemic, cancer patients are at greater risk of progressing to severe forms of the disease and have higher mortality rates than individuals without cancer, particularly while they are receiving cancer-specific therapies. An individual's protection against infection, their response to vaccines, and even the tests that determine the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2, depend on lymphocyte populations, meriting their study. OBJECTIVE: Estimate blood concentrations of lymphocytes involved in the immune response to new pathogens in cancer patients. METHODS: We carried out an analytical study of 218 cancer patients; 124 women and 94 men, 26-93 years of age, who were treated at the National Oncology and Radiobiology Institute in Havana, Cuba, March-June, 2020. Patients were divided into five groups: (1) those with controlled disease who were not undergoing cancer-specific treatment; (2) those undergoing debulking surgery; (3) patients undergoing chemotherapy; (4) patients undergoing radiation therapy and (5) patients currently battling infection. We evaluated the following peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations via flow cytometry: B lymphocytes (total, naive, transitional, memory, plasmablasts and plasma cells); T lymphocytes (total, helper, cytotoxic and their respective naive, activated, central memory and effector memory subsets); and total, secretory and cytotoxic natural killer cells and T natural killer cells. We also estimated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios. Lymphocyte concentrations were associated with controlled disease and standard cancer therapy. For variables that did not fall within a normal distribution, ranges were set by medians and 2.5-97.5 percentiles. The two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test was used to measure the effect of sex and to compare lymphocyte populations. We calculated odds ratios to estimate lymphopenia risk. RESULTS: All cancer patients had lower values of naive helper and cytotoxic T lymphocyte populations, naive B lymphocytes, and natural killer cells than normal reference medians. Naive helper T cells were the most affected subpopulation. Memory B cells, plasmablasts, plasma cells, activated T helper cells, and cytotoxic central memory T cells were increased. Patients undergoing treatment had lower levels of naive lymphocytes than untreated patients, particularly during radiation therapy. The risk of B lymphopenia was higher in patients in treatment. The odds ratio for B lymphopenia was 8.0 in patients who underwent surgery, 12.9 in those undergoing chemotherapy, and 13.9 in patients in radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer and conventional cancer therapies significantly affect peripheral blood B lymphocyte levels, particularly transitional T helper lymphocytes, reducing the immune system's ability to trigger primary immune responses against new antigens.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Linfopenia , Neoplasias , Cuba , Femenino , Humanos , Subgrupos Linfocitarios , Masculino , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(2): 35-42, 2022 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648061

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Most previous studies have examined the effects of acute psychological stress in humans based on select gene panels. The genomic approach may help identify novel genes that underline biological mechanisms of acute psychological stress responses. OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study aimed to investigate genome-wide transcriptional activity changes in response to acute psychological stress. METHODS: The sample included 40 healthy women (mean age 31.4 ± 11.6 years). Twenty-two participants had a stress experience induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (experimental group) and 18 did not (control group). Psychological stress levels and hemodynamic changes were assessed before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. Peripheral blood samples obtained before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were processed for mRNA sequencing. RESULTS: Psychological and hemodynamic stress parameters indicated that the Trier Social Stress Test induced moderate levels of stress in the experimental group. Six genes (HCG26, HCP5, HLA-F, HLA-F-AS1, LOC1019287, and SLC22A16) were up-regulated, and fi ve genes (CA1, FBXO9, SNCA, STRADB, and TRMT12) were down-regulated among those who experienced stress induction, compared with the control group. Nine genes of eleven were linked to endocrine system disorders, neurological disease, and organismal injury and abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Of the genes identifi ed in this study, HCP5, SLC22A16, and SNCA genes have previously been proposed as therapeutic targets for cancer and Parkinson disease. Further studies are needed to examine pathological mechanisms through which these genes mediate eff ects of psychological stress on adverse health outcomes. Such studies may ultimately identify therapeutic targets that enhance biological resilience to adverse eff ects of psychological stress.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocortisona , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Cuba , Femenino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero , Estrés Psicológico/genética , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto Joven
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 441, 2022 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596091

RESUMEN

Cuba is a country with considerable potential for economic growth, and special efforts are made to increase the agricultural output. As food production depends on the quality of soils, heavy metal concentrations were measured in 39 soils in the province of Mayabeque, Cuba, and interpreted in light of anthropogenic activities and pedogenic conditions (soil type and properties). With median concentrations of 1.8 Cd, 60.3 Cr, 48.1 Cu, 36.2 Ni, 16.7 Pb, 55.0 Zn, and 0.1 mg/kg Hg, soils of Mayabeque were mostly below Cuban quality reference values (QRV) representing benchmarks of quality standards but no official threshold values. Only Cd concentrations were in many cases above the QRV of 0.6 mg/kg and some Cu concentrations above the one of 83 mg/kg. While Cd, Cr, and Ni concentrations were rather pedogenically driven, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg contents were rather anthropogenically influenced. When evaluated statistically, Cd and Cr showed most times a significant influence of both sources. In contrast, Ni and Zn could not be significantly related with the origins investigated in this study. Hence, the allocation of heavy metal concentrations to pedogenic or anthropogenic contamination or pollution sources is tentative and needs further investigations. Nevertheless, the present data adds information on soil heavy metal concentrations in the Caribbean region, serves as reference before further industrial development, and sets the ground for adaptation of the QRV for Cd and possibly future national environmental standards.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Cadmio , China , Cuba , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plomo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
11.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(2): 790-805, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574877

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Determine if United States graduates of the Latin American Medical School in Cuba: 1) provide primary health care to disadvantaged populations; 2) complete licensing exams and obtain residencies; and 3) accrue additional debt during their medical education. METHODS: A Qualtrics secure web-based survey was provided to 158 graduates via email, completed anonymously. Responses were compiled and descriptive statistics generated. RESULTS: Fifty-six valid surveys were returned, for a response rate of 35.4%. Chi-square analysis showed no statistically significant differences between survey respondents and the sampling frame. Most graduates are people of color; 68% work in clinical medicine; of these, 90% are in primary care, with 100% serving disadvantaged populations. Most accrued no further educational loan debt. CONCLUSIONS: United States graduates of the Latin American Medical School work in primary care with disadvantaged populations. Graduates accrue little additional student loan debt.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Facultades de Medicina , Cuba , Humanos , América Latina , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional , Estados Unidos
12.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 503(1): 54-57, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437735

RESUMEN

The dynamics of the taxonomic diversity of the birds of Cuba during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene is assessed for the first time using material from El Abrón Cave in the western part of the island. The Upper Pleistocene beds of the locality are characterized by a rich taxonomic diversity of birds, including an abundance of waterbirds and open-landscape inhabitants. For the Holocene, a general decrease in taxonomic diversity and a significant increase in the number of remains belonging to representatives of forest faunas (Picidae) are recorded. Our data indicate a significant transformation of landscapes of western Cuba and the faunistic associations of birds at the end of the Quaternary, which is consistent with paleoclimatic data.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Fósiles , Animales , Cuba , Bosques
14.
Anthropol Med ; 29(1): 45-60, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306938

RESUMEN

The Cuban biotechnology industry is producing cancer immunotherapy, in particular, therapeutic vaccines that actively stimulate the immune system to stabilise the tumour. These products aim to transform metastatic malignancies into a chronic disease. Since 2010, this therapeutic concept has been integrated within a public health experiment, consisting of the large distribution of immunotherapies, including in primary healthcare centres, to enhance access and assess its effectiveness on a wider population of patients. Such experimental intervention, consisting of post-marketing clinical trials, has focused only on lung cancer, one of the most widespread and lethal cancers on the island. Combining interviews with ethnographic observations focusing on care performed by professionals, patients, and their relatives, this paper analyses the experience of lung cancer chronicity under this type of immunotherapy in Cuba. It shows how a certain form of continuity is made between prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination to shape a new temporality of cancer care, through the integration within primary care, constant access to biotechnology, and multiple care practices directed to strengthen the immunotherapy's efficacy. If vaccinal chronicity remains fragile due to its experimental dimension and the fact that long-term survivorship is still an exceptional phenomenon, lung cancer patienthood is deeply transformed through a shared effort of the people and the state to provide more stable, meaningful, and inclusive care.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Vacunas , Antropología Médica , Cuba/epidemiología , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Atención Primaria de Salud
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324706

RESUMEN

The factors related to cyanotoxin occurrence and its social impact, with comprehension and risk perception being the most important issues, are not yet completely understood in the Cuban context. The objectives of this research were to determine the risk extension and microcystin-LR levels, and to identify the environmental factors that trigger the toxic cyanobacteria growth and microcystin-LR occurrence in 24 water reservoirs in eastern Cuba. Samplings were performed in the early morning hours, with in situ determination and physicochemical analysis carried out in the laboratory. Microcystin-LR were determined in water and within the cells (intracellular toxins) using UPLC-MS analysis after solid phase extraction. The reservoirs studied were found to be affected by eutrophication, with high levels of TN:TP ratio and phytoplankton cell concentrations, high water temperatures and low transparency, which cause collateral effect such as cyanobacterial bloom and microcystin-LR occurrence. In Hatillo, Chalóns, Parada, Mícara, Baraguá, Cautillo, La Yaya, Guisa and Jaibo reservoirs, concentrations of MC-LR higher than the WHO limits for drinking water (1 µg·L-1), were detected.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Agua Potable , Cromatografía Liquida , Cuba , Agua Potable/análisis , Toxinas Marinas , Microcistinas/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
16.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(1): 14-18, 2022 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157634

RESUMEN

Cuba's decision in September 2021 to launch a massive vaccination campaign against COVID-19 for children as young as two years old turned heads around the world-of clinicians, immunologists, public health experts, governments and regulatory authorities alike. Since then-and just as pediatric COVID-19 hospitalizations reached record numbers globally-some two million Cuban children and adolescents have received the Cuban Soberana vaccines (1.7 million, or 81.3% of that population through December 16, 2021).[1] Why did Cuban health authorities decide to vaccinate children? What clinical trials provided the evidence for such a course of action, especially for the youngest? And what have been the results thus far? To answer these and other questions, MEDICC Review spoke with Dr Rinaldo Puga, principal investigator for the completed phase 1/2 clinical trials of the Finlay Vaccine Institute's Soberana 02 and Soberana Plus vaccines in pediatric ages. Dr Puga's 30 years as a practicing pediatrician have been accompanied by teaching and research, the latter earning him awards from the Cuban Academy of Sciences, among others. He is currently chief of pediatrics and chair of the Scientific Council at the Cira García Clinic in Havana, which granted him leave to lead the pediatric vaccine trials.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Pediatría , Adolescente , COVID-19 , Niño , Preescolar , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Cuba , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
17.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(1): 36-39, 2022 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157638

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Burnout syndrome has a negative impact on university students' health worldwide. Global prevalence of each dimension of the syndrome is estimated at 55.4% for emotional exhaustion, 31.6% for cynicism and 30.9% for academic inefficacy. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy of physical exercise in reducing burnout levels in university students. METHODS: We carried out an investigation in students from the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador. Students were in different career tracks, randomly selected, and were assigned to three different groups with pre-test and post-test measurements: two intervention groups (aerobic and strength exercise) and one control group (no exercise). The evaluation instrument was the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, whose dimensions are exhaustion, cynicism and academic inefficacy. We also evaluated heart rate variability. RESULTS: The aerobic exercise group reduced cynicism by 21.1% (d = 0.252), inefficacy 13.1% (d = 0.397) and exhaustion by 31.0% (d = 0.532). The strength exercise group reduced cynicism by 27.4% (d = 0.315), inefficacy by 21.7% (d = 0.704) and exhaustion by 19.6% (d = 0.299). In the control group, exhaustion and inefficacy increased by 10.1% (d = 0.128) and 4.4% (d = 0.129) respectively; instead, cynicism was reduced by 7.3% (d = 0.062).The aerobic exercise group had the greatest increase in heart rate variability (at 16.8%), followed by the strength group (16.6%) and the control group (5.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Physical exercise (both aerobic and strength) was effective in reducing burnout levels in university students.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Estudiantes de Medicina , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Agotamiento Psicológico/prevención & control , Cuba , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
18.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(1): 59-69, 2022 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157640

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a complex health problem, causing difficulties in clinical-therapeutic management worldwide. It is of particular concern in Latin America, the Caribbean and China, where it is an emerging health problem. Carbapenemases produced by these organisms inactivate carbapenem antibiotics. Monitoring circulating genotypes' geographic dispersion contributes to more effective control measures. However, exhaustive studies on carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii are scarce. OBJECTIVES: Study the production of carbapenemases in clinical isolates of A. baumannii resistant to carbapenem antibiotics and the geographic distribution of the sequences circulating in China, Latin America and the Caribbean. DATA ACQUISITION: We followed PRISMA indications. We carried out a systematic search in Pubmed, BVS and CKNI on papers on A. baumannii and carbapenemases published during 2015-2020 in English, Spanish and Chinese, and selected 29 cross-sectional studies that met the search criteria. Studies were evaluated using JBI Critical Appraisal tools, and quantitative data were collated for meta-analysis using the Metaprop library in Stata15. DEVELOPMENT: OXA-type carbapenemases were detected in all studies; among A. baumannii resistant to carbapenem antibiotics, predominant types were OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-54 and OXA-72; metallobetalactamases were identified less frequently than OXA carbapenemases. Only one clinical isolate producer of Class A carbapenemases (KPC) was identified in Colombia. In total, 41 sequence types were identified; in Latin America and the Caribbean the most common types were: ST79, ST25, ST1 and ST15; in China, the sequences ST195, ST208, ST191, ST368 and ST369 were the most prevalent. ST2 was found in both regions. CONCLUSIONS: The most prevalent carbapenemases and sequence types vary by region, indicating different ancestral strains. Microbiological surveillance, antibiotic use optimization, adequate infection treatment and timely control strategies are essential for carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii prevention and control in geographies such as Latin America, the Caribbean and China where such resistance is an emerging health problem.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Infecciones por Acinetobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Acinetobacter/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Cuba , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
19.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(2)2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175912

RESUMEN

Introduction. Acquired resistance against the antibiotics that are active against Ureaplasma species has been described.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Diagnostics combined with antimicrobial sensitivity testing are required for therapeutic guidance.Aim. To report the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Cuban Ureaplasma isolates and the related molecular mechanisms of resistance.Methodology. Traditional broth microdilution assays were used for antimicrobial sensitivity testing in 262 clinical Ureaplasma species isolates from Cuban patients between 2013 and 2018, and a subset of samples were investigated in parallel with the commercial MYCO WELL D-ONE rapid culture diagnostic assay. The underlying molecular mechanisms for resistance were determined by PCR and sequencing for all resistant isolates.Results. Among the tested isolates, the tetracycline and erythromycin resistance rates were 1.9 and 1.5%, respectively, while fluoroquinolone resistance was not found. The tet(M) gene was found in all tetracycline-resistant isolates, but also in two tetracycline-susceptible Ureaplasma clinical isolates. We were unable to determine the underlying mechanism of erythromycin resistance. The MYCO WELL D-ONE kit overestimated tetracycline and erythromycin resistance in Ureaplasma spp. isolates.Conclusions. Although low levels of antibiotic resistance were detected in Cuban patients over a 5-year period, continued surveillance of the antibiotic susceptibility of Ureaplasma is necessary to monitor possible changes in resistance patterns.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por Ureaplasma , Ureaplasma/efectos de los fármacos , Cuba , Eritromicina/farmacología , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tetraciclina/farmacología , Ureaplasma/genética , Infecciones por Ureaplasma/epidemiología , Infecciones por Ureaplasma/microbiología
20.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35209156

RESUMEN

Essential oils (EOs) are a mixture of chemical compounds with a long history of use in food, cosmetics, perfumes, agricultural and pharmaceuticals industries. The main object of this study was to find chemical patterns between 45 EOs and antiprotozoal activity (antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal), using different machine learning algorithms. In the analyses, 45 samples of EOs were included, using unsupervised Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) and supervised Random Forest (RF) methodologies. In the generated map, the hit rate was higher than 70% and the results demonstrate that it is possible find chemical patterns using a supervised and unsupervised machine learning approach. A total of 20 compounds were identified (19 are terpenes and one sulfur-containing compound), which was compared with literature reports. These models can be used to investigate and screen for bioactivity of EOs that have antiprotozoal activity more effectively and with less time and financial cost.


Asunto(s)
Antiprotozoarios/análisis , Antiprotozoarios/farmacología , Aprendizaje Automático , Aceites Volátiles/análisis , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Cuba , Bases de Datos Factuales , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Parasitaria
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