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1.
Elife ; 122024 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832493

RESUMEN

Animals are adapted to their natural habitats and lifestyles. Their brains perceive the external world via their sensory systems, compute information together with that of internal states and autonomous activity, and generate appropriate behavioral outputs. However, how do these processes evolve across evolution? Here, focusing on the sense of olfaction, we have studied the evolution in olfactory sensitivity, preferences, and behavioral responses to six different food-related amino acid odors in the two eco-morphs of the fish Astyanax mexicanus. To this end, we have developed a high-throughput behavioral setup and pipeline of quantitative and qualitative behavior analysis, and we have tested 489 six-week-old Astyanax larvae. The blind, dark-adapted morphs of the species showed markedly distinct basal swimming patterns and behavioral responses to odors, higher olfactory sensitivity, and a strong preference for alanine, as compared to their river-dwelling eyed conspecifics. In addition, we discovered that fish have an individual 'swimming personality', and that this personality influences their capability to respond efficiently to odors and find the source. Importantly, the personality traits that favored significant responses to odors were different in surface fish and cavefish. Moreover, the responses displayed by second-generation cave × surface F2 hybrids suggested that olfactory-driven behavior and olfactory sensitivity is a quantitative genetic trait. Our findings show that olfactory processing has rapidly evolved in cavefish at several levels: detection threshold, odor preference, and foraging behavior strategy. Cavefish is therefore an outstanding model to understand the genetic, molecular, and neurophysiological basis of sensory specialization in response to environmental change.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Evolución Biológica , Characidae , Olfato , Animales , Olfato/fisiología , Characidae/fisiología , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Odorantes , Personalidad/fisiología , Natación/fisiología , Percepción Olfatoria/fisiología , Cuevas , Larva/fisiología
2.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 80, 2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829422

RESUMEN

The Gypsum Karst of Sorbas, Almeria, southeast Spain, includes a few caves whose entrances are open and allow the entry and roosting of numerous bats. Caves are characterized by their diversity of gypsum speleothems, such as stalactites, coralloids, gypsum crusts, etc. Colored biofilms can be observed on the walls of most caves, among which the Covadura and C3 caves were studied. The objective was to determine the influence that bat mycobiomes may have on the fungal communities of biofilms. The results indicate that the fungi retrieved from white and yellow biofilms in Covadura Cave (Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota, Basidiomycota) showed a wide diversity, depending on their location, and were highly influenced by the bat population, the guano and the arthropods that thrive in the guano, while C3 Cave was more strongly influenced by soil- and arthropod-related fungi (Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota), due to the absence of roosting bats.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Biopelículas , Sulfato de Calcio , Cuevas , Quirópteros , Hongos , Cuevas/microbiología , Quirópteros/microbiología , Quirópteros/fisiología , Animales , Hongos/clasificación , Hongos/fisiología , Hongos/genética , Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Artrópodos/microbiología , España , Biodiversidad , Micobioma , Microbiología del Suelo
3.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 595, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844536

RESUMEN

Isopods are a diverse group of crustaceans, that inhabit various environments, including terrestrial, freshwater, and marine, both on the surface and in the underground. The biological mechanisms underlying their wide range of adaptations to diverse ecological niches remain elusive. In order to unravel the molecular basis of their adaptability, we generated a comprehensive RNAseq dataset comprising 11 isopod species belonging to the three different suborders: freshwater Asellota, marine, brackish and freshwater Sphaeromatidea, and terrestrial Oniscidea, with representatives from families Asellidae, Sphaeromatidae, and Trichoniscidae, respectively. Representatives of each family were collected from both cave and surface environments, representing at least three independent cave colonization events. Three biological replicates were sequenced from each species to ensure data robustness. The 11 high-quality RNAseq datasets will serve as a valuable resource for understanding cave-specific adaptations, comparative and functional genomics, ecological annotation as well as aid in conservation efforts of these non-model organisms. Importantly, transcriptomes of eight featured species have been made publicly accessible for the first time.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Isópodos , Transcriptoma , Isópodos/genética , Animales
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(2): e20230194, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747785

RESUMEN

Similarly to other animal communities, the diversity of subterranean aquatic fauna is influenced by several factors and processes, such as habitat fragmentation, dispersion, environmental heterogeneity, and physical and chemical water characteristics. Here, we studied cave aquatic communities of the Alto Ribeira hydrographic basin, regarding troglobitic and non-troglobitic species, located in a single karst area to evaluate the influence of sub-basins in fauna differentiation. We investigated how abiotic variables (flow, electrical conductivity, temperature, pH, and substrate) influence the fauna composition and the contribution of beta diversity components (nestedness and turnover) in explaining communities' dissimilarities. Fauna composition differed between sub-basins, as most species did not co-occur in different caves. Caves with higher flow and substrate diversity were the richest. In addition, each cave community was influenced by a unique set of abiotic variables. Dissimilarity among caves was mainly explained by turnover, and our findings suggest the restricted species distribution could be due to ecological (e.g., limited dispersion capacity, tolerance to abiotic variables), hydrogeological (e.g., dispersion barriers, isolation of sub-basins), and historical (e.g., colonization, paleoclimatic events) factors and processes. Therefore, different elements are responsible for determining the composition of cave aquatic communities in different sub-basins, reflecting the variability within a single karst area.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Cuevas , Ecosistema , Brasil , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos
5.
Chronobiol Int ; 41(5): 738-756, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722073

RESUMEN

Circadian clocks, internal mechanisms that generate 24-hour rhythms, play a crucial role in coordinating biological events with day-night cycles. In light-deprived environments such as caves, species, particularly isolated obligatory troglobites, may exhibit evolutionary adaptations in biological rhythms due to light exposure. To explore rhythm expression in these settings, we conducted a comprehensive literature review on invertebrate chronobiology in global subterranean ecosystems, analyzing 44 selected studies out of over 480 identified as of September 2023. These studies revealed significant taxonomic diversity, primarily among terrestrial species like Coleoptera, with research concentrated in the United States, Italy, France, Australia, and Brazil, and a notable gap in African records. Troglobite species displayed a higher incidence of aperiodic behavior, while troglophiles showed a robust association with rhythm expression. Locomotor activity was the most studied aspect (>60%). However, approximately 4% of studies lacked information on periodicity or rhythm asynchrony, and limited research under constant light conditions hindered definitive conclusions. This review underscores the need to expand chronobiological research globally, encompassing diverse geographical regions and taxa, to deepen our understanding of biological rhythms in subterranean species. Such insights are crucial for preserving the resilience of subsurface ecosystems facing threats like climate change and habitat loss.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Ritmo Circadiano , Invertebrados , Animales , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Invertebrados/fisiología , Ecosistema , Relojes Circadianos/fisiología , Fotoperiodo
6.
Trends Genet ; 40(1): 24-38, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707509

RESUMEN

How genotype determines phenotype is a well-explored question, but genotype-environment interactions and their heritable impact on phenotype over the course of evolution are not as thoroughly investigated. The fish Astyanax mexicanus, consisting of surface and cave ecotypes, is an ideal emerging model to study the genetic basis of adaptation to new environments. This model has permitted quantitative trait locus mapping and whole-genome comparisons to identify the genetic bases of traits such as albinism and insulin resistance and has helped to better understand fundamental evolutionary mechanisms. In this review, we summarize recent advances in A. mexicanus genetics and discuss their broader impact on the fields of adaptation and evolutionary genetics.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Characidae , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Animales , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo/genética , Characidae/genética , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Evolución Biológica , Fenotipo , Genotipo , Evolución Molecular , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Peces/genética
7.
Geobiology ; 22(3): e12594, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700397

RESUMEN

Lehman Caves is an extensively decorated high desert cave that represents one of the main tourist attractions in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Although traditionally considered a water table cave, recent studies identified abundant speleogenetic features consistent with a hypogenic and, potentially, sulfuric acid origin. Here, we characterized white mineral deposits in the Gypsum Annex (GA) passage to determine whether these secondary deposits represent biogenic minerals formed during sulfuric acid corrosion and explored microbial communities associated with these and other mineral deposits throughout the cave. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), scanning electron microscopy with electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and electron microprobe analyses (EPMA) showed that, while most white mineral deposits from the GA contain gypsum, they also contain abundant calcite, silica, and other phases. Gypsum and carbonate-associated sulfate isotopic values of these deposits are variable, with δ34SV-CDT between +9.7‰ and +26.1‰, and do not reflect depleted values typically associated with replacement gypsum formed during sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Petrographic observations show that the sulfates likely co-precipitated with carbonate and SiO2 phases. Taken together, these data suggest that the deposits resulted from later-stage meteoric events and not during an initial episode of sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Most sedimentary and mineral deposits in Lehman Caves have very low microbial biomass, with the exception of select areas along the main tour route that have been impacted by tourist traffic. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that microbial communities in GA sediments are distinct from those in other parts of the cave. The microbial communities that inhabit these oligotrophic secondary mineral deposits include OTUs related to known ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosococcales and Thaumarchaeota, as well as common soil taxa such as Acidobacteriota and Proteobacteria. This study reveals microbial and mineralogical diversity in a previously understudied cave and expands our understanding of the geomicrobiology of desert hypogene cave systems.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Cuevas , Minerales , Cuevas/microbiología , Minerales/análisis , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Nevada , Archaea/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Parques Recreativos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Ácidos Sulfúricos , Filogenia , Microbiota , Sulfato de Calcio/química , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 936: 173423, 2024 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38797412

RESUMEN

Tidally-influenced subterranean settings represent natural geomicrobiological laboratories, relatively unexplored, that facilitate the investigation of new biomineralization processes. The unusual water chemistry of Zinzulùsa Cave and its oligotrophic and aphotic conditions have allowed the development of a unique ecosystem in which complex bacterial activities induce rare biomineralization processes. A diversified microbial community develops on centimeter-thick crusts that form in the submerged part of the cave. The crusts are formed of Ca-phosphate minerals, mostly carbonate-fluoroapatite (francolite), covered by a black crust, few microns in thickness, composed of ferromanganiferous oxides (hematite and vernadite). Diffuse coccoidal and filamentous bacteria and amorphous organic matter are mixed with the minerals. The micromorphologies and comparative 16S rRNA gene-based metabarcoding analyses identify a "core microbiota" also common to other natural environments characterized by FeMn and Ca-phosphate mineralization. The microbiota is characterized by nitrifying, sulfide/sulfur/thiosulfate-oxidizing and sulfate/thiosulfate/sulfur-reducing bacteria. In addition, manganese-oxidizing bacteria include the recently described "Ca. Manganitrophus noduliformans" and an abundance of bacteria belonging to the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum, as well as Haliangiales (fruiting body-forming bacteria) and Hyphomicrobiales (stalked and budding bacteria) that are known to produce extracellular polymers that trap iron and manganese oxides. 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding analysis showed the presence of bacteria able to utilize many organic P substrates, including Ramlibacter, and SEM images revealed traces of fossilized microorganisms resembling "cable bacteria", which may play a role in Ca-phosphate biomineralization. Overall, the data indicate biomineralization processes induced by microbial metabolic activities for both ferromanganiferous oxide and francolite components of these crusts.


Asunto(s)
Biomineralización , Cuevas , Consorcios Microbianos , Italia , Cuevas/microbiología , Bacterias/metabolismo , Bacterias/clasificación , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Microbiota
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300793, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748713

RESUMEN

In nature, animals must navigate to forage according to their sensory inputs. Different species use different sensory modalities to locate food efficiently. For teleosts, food emits visual, mechanical, chemical, and/or possibly weak-electrical signals, which can be detected by optic, auditory/lateral line, and olfactory/taste buds sensory systems. However, how fish respond to and use different sensory inputs when locating food, as well as the evolution of these sensory modalities, remain unclear. We examined the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, which is composed of two different morphs: a sighted riverine (surface fish) and a blind cave morph (cavefish). Compared with surface fish, cavefish have enhanced non-visual sensory systems, including the mechanosensory lateral line system, chemical sensors comprising the olfactory system and taste buds, and the auditory system to help navigate toward food sources. We tested how visual, chemical, and mechanical stimuli evoke food-seeking behavior. In contrast to our expectations, both surface fish and cavefish did not follow a gradient of chemical stimulus (food extract) but used it as a cue for the ambient existence of food. Surface fish followed visual cues (red plastic beads and food pellets), but, in the dark, were likely to rely on mechanosensors-the lateral line and/or tactile sensor-as cavefish did. Our results indicate cavefish used a similar sensory modality to surface fish in the dark, while affinity levels to stimuli were higher in cavefish. In addition, cavefish evolved an extended circling strategy to forage, which may yield a higher chance to capture food by swimming-by the food multiple times instead of once through zigzag motion. In summary, we propose that ancestors of cavefish, similar to the modern surface fish, evolved extended food-seeking behaviors, including circling motion, to adapt to the dark.


Asunto(s)
Characidae , Conducta Alimentaria , Animales , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Characidae/fisiología , Evolución Biológica , Cuevas , Señales (Psicología) , Ceguera/fisiopatología
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304454, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787897

RESUMEN

The exchange of information and social interactions on broad spatial scales between human groups in the past can be studied through the provenance of key indicators of distant origin recorded at archaeological sites. The remains of shells of mollusk species, especially when crafted as elements of personal ornaments, express aspects of the behaviors and valuations for the populations that selected, transformed, and exchanged such items. In the southern cone of South America, past hunter-gatherer groups traveled long distances and interacted with communities distributed throughout the territory to acquire goods for technological use, visual display or considered highly valued materials. When recorded at distant locations, these goods of extra local origin are very informative regarding the differences between commonly used home ranges and the occasional access to remote spaces. We present the results of the analysis of the archaeomalacological assemblage of the Baño Nuevo 1 site, a cave with exceptional preservation conditions in Central West Patagonia. This site has yielded a diverse group of artifacts made of shells with origins from multiple distances, as well as evidence of the use of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial species. Its deposits, which extend over the last 11,000 years, reveal an antiquity of at least the middle Holocene for the acquisition, manufacture, use and transport of goods as personal ornaments from shells in the macroregion.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Humanos , Animales , Historia Antigua , Exoesqueleto/anatomía & histología , América del Sur , Cuevas , Fósiles , Argentina
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791233

RESUMEN

Lions (Panthera leo) play a crucial ecological role in shaping and maintaining fragile ecosystems within Africa. Conservation efforts should focus on genetic variability within wild populations when considering reintroduction attempts. We studied two groups of lions from two conservation sites located in Zambia and Zimbabwe to determine their genetic make-up, information that is usually unknown to the sites. In this study, we analysed 17 specimens for cytb and seven microsatellite markers to ascertain family relationships and genetic diversity previously obtained by observational studies. We then produced a standardised haplogroup phylogeny using all available entire mitogenomes, as well as calculating a revised molecular clock. The modern lion lineage diverged ~151 kya and was divided into two subspecies, both containing three distinct haplogroups. We confirm that Panthera leo persica is not a subspecies, but rather a haplogroup of the northern P.l. leo that exited Africa at least ~31 kya. The progenitor to all lions existed ~1.2 Mya, possibly in SE Africa, and later exited Africa and split into the two cave lion lineages ~175 kya. Species demography is correlated to major climactic events. We now have a detailed phylogeny of lion evolution and an idea of their conservation status given the threat of climate change.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Mitocondrial , Leones , Filogenia , Animales , Leones/genética , Leones/clasificación , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Cuevas , Variación Genética , Haplotipos , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Pradera , Zimbabwe , Evolución Molecular , Zambia , Citocromos b/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética
12.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 58, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720266

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Karst caves serve as natural laboratories, providing organisms with extreme and constant conditions that promote isolation, resulting in a genetic relationship and living environment that is significantly different from those outside the cave. However, research on cave creatures, especially Opiliones, remains scarce, with most studies focused on water, soil, and cave sediments. RESULTS: The structure of symbiotic bacteria in different caves were compared, revealing significant differences. Based on the alpha and beta diversity, symbiotic bacteria abundance and diversity in the cave were similar, but the structure of symbiotic bacteria differed inside and outside the cave. Microorganisms in the cave play an important role in material cycling and energy flow, particularly in the nitrogen cycle. Although microbial diversity varies inside and outside the cave, Opiliones in Beijing caves and Hainan Island exhibited a strong similarity, indicating that the two environments share commonalities. CONCLUSIONS: The karst cave environment possesses high microbial diversity and there are noticeable differences among different caves. Different habitats lead to significant differences in the symbiotic bacteria in Opiliones inside and outside the cave, and cave microorganisms have made efforts to adapt to extreme environments. The similarity in symbiotic bacteria community structure suggests a potential similarity in host environments, providing an explanation for the appearance of Sinonychia martensi in caves in the north.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Cuevas , Ecosistema , Simbiosis , Cuevas/microbiología , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/clasificación , China , Microbiota/fisiología , Biodiversidad
13.
Chemosphere ; 360: 142447, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801901

RESUMEN

Natural and human-induced toxic elements can accumulate in the environment, posing significant risks to human health and ecosystems. This study explores cave bat guano, an unconventional and relatively under-researched environmental repository, to reveal historical pollution trends and sources. Through trace elements analysis of a 1.5-m-thick guano deposit from Zidita Cave (Romania), we track changes in mining and metallurgy from 1000 CE-2012. We identified substantial pollution primarily from porphyry copper and Au-Ag-Te mines, but also impacts from usage of leaded gasoline and agricultural practices. Our record shows disruptions caused by the Bubonic plague around 1250 CE and a major surge âˆ¼ 1500 CE. After the decline triggered by the European silver market collapse in 1525 CE, our study reveals a brief mining revival. This resurgence was followed by a continuous decline lasting until the early 1800s, driven by socio-economic upheavals and recurrent outbreaks of the bubonic plagues. The Industrial Revolution sparked prolonged growth that lasted until 1989 CE, only briefly interrupted by the Great Depression and World War II. Consequently, cave bat guano proves to be a critical resource for understanding spatial pollution patterns, both locally and regionally, and for identifying specific pollution sources.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Minería , Oligoelementos , Oligoelementos/análisis , Animales , Quirópteros , Efectos Antropogénicos , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia Medieval , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Metalurgia , Humanos
14.
15.
Mol Ecol ; 33(9): e17339, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556927

RESUMEN

Copy number variation is a common contributor to phenotypic diversity, yet its involvement in ecological adaptation is not easily discerned. Instances of parallelly evolving populations of the same species in a similar environment marked by strong selective pressures present opportunities to study the role of copy number variants (CNVs) in adaptation. By identifying CNVs that repeatedly occur in multiple populations of the derived ecotype and are not (or are rarely) present in the populations of the ancestral ecotype, the association of such CNVs with adaptation to the novel environment can be inferred. We used this paradigm to identify CNVs associated with recurrent adaptation of the Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus) to cave environment. Using a read-depth approach, we detected CNVs from previously re-sequenced genomes of 44 individuals belonging to two ancestral surfaces and three derived cave populations. We identified 102 genes and 292 genomic regions that repeatedly diverge in copy number between the two ecotypes and occupy 0.8% of the reference genome. Functional analysis revealed their association with processes previously recognized to be relevant for adaptation, such as vision, immunity, oxygen consumption, metabolism, and neural function and we propose that these variants have been selected for in the cave or surface waters. The majority of the ecotype-divergent CNVs are multiallelic and display copy number increases in cavefish compared to surface fish. Our findings suggest that multiallelic CNVs - including gene duplications - and divergence in copy number provide a fast route to produce novel phenotypes associated with adaptation to subterranean life.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Characidae , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN/genética , Animales , Characidae/genética , Genética de Población , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Ecotipo , México
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300962, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573919

RESUMEN

While extensive research on traditional model species has significantly advanced the biological sciences, the ongoing search for new model organisms is essential to tackle contemporary challenges such as human diseases or climate change, and fundamental phenomena including adaptation or speciation. Recent methodological advances such as next-generation sequencing, gene editing, and imaging are widely applicable and have simplified the selection of species with specific traits from the wild. However, a critical milestone in this endeavor remains the successful cultivation of selected species. A historically overlooked but increasingly recognized group of non-model organisms are cave dwellers. These unique animals offer invaluable insights into the genetic basis of human diseases like eye degeneration, metabolic and neurological disorders, and basic evolutionary principles and the origin of adaptive phenotypes. However, to take advantage of the beneficial traits of cave-dwelling animals, laboratory cultures must be established-a practice that remains extremely rare except for the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. For most cave-dwelling organisms, there are no published culturing protocols. In this study, we present the results of our multi-year effort to establish laboratory cultures for a variety of invertebrate groups. We have developed comprehensive protocols for housing, feeding, and husbandry of cave dwellers and their surface relatives. Our recommendations are versatile and can be applied to a wide range of species. Hopefully our efforts will facilitate the establishment of new laboratory animal facilities for cave-dwelling organisms and encourage their greater use in experimental biology.


Asunto(s)
Characidae , Animales , Humanos , Characidae/genética , Invertebrados/genética , Evolución Biológica , Fenotipo , Edición Génica , Cuevas
17.
Zoolog Sci ; 41(2): 210-215, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587916

RESUMEN

Protocobitis species are typical cave-dwelling fish, exhibiting distinctive morphological adaptations such as colorless body, lack of eyes, and reduced scales and ribs in response to their extreme cave habitats. Distinct from the recorded species, P. anteroventris, P. polylepis, and P. typhlops, a new species, Protocobitis longicostatus sp. nov., is described from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Protocobitis longicostatus sp. nov. can easily be distinguished from all known congeners by the following characteristics: whole body covered by scales except head, 12 branched caudal fin rays, and long ribs. These species face threats from habitat degradation, hydrological changes, and environmental pollution. Thus, the conservation of cavefish in China has become an urgent issue.


Asunto(s)
Cipriniformes , Animales , Cipriniformes/anatomía & histología , China , Cuevas , Ojo , Ecosistema
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9775, 2024 04 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684693

RESUMEN

This comprehensive study examines fossil remains from Niedzwiedzia Cave in the Eastern Sudetes, offering detailed insights into the palaeobiology and adversities encountered by the Pleistocene cave bear Ursus spelaeus ingressus. Emphasising habitual cave use for hibernation and a primarily herbivorous diet, the findings attribute mortality to resource scarcity during hibernation and habitat fragmentation amid climate shifts. Taphonomic analysis indicates that the cave was extensively used by successive generations of bears, virtually unexposed to the impact of predators. The study also reveals that alkaline conditions developed in the cave during the post-depositional taphonomic processes. Mortality patterns, notably among juveniles, imply dwindling resources, indicative of environmental instability. Skeletal examination reveals a high incidence of forelimb fractures, indicating risks during activities like digging or confrontations. Palaeopathological evidence unveils vulnerabilities to tuberculosis, abscesses, rickets, and injuries, elucidating mobility challenges. The cave's silts exhibit a high zinc concentration, potentially derived from successive bear generations consuming zinc-rich plants. This study illuminates the lives of late cave bears, elucidating unique environmental hurdles faced near their species' end.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Fósiles , Ursidae , Animales , Polonia , Ursidae/fisiología , Paleopatología , Ecosistema , Paleontología
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3611, 2024 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684677

RESUMEN

The emergence of Homo sapiens in Eastern Asia is a topic of significant research interest. However, well-preserved human fossils in secure, dateable contexts in this region are extremely rare, and often the subject of intense debate owing to stratigraphic and geochronological problems. Tongtianyan cave, in Liujiang District of Liuzhou City, southern China is one of the most important fossils finds of H. sapiens, though its age has been debated, with chronometric dates ranging from the late Middle Pleistocene to the early Late Pleistocene. Here we provide new age estimates and revised provenience information for the Liujiang human fossils, which represent one of the most complete fossil skeletons of H. sapiens in China. U-series dating on the human fossils and radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating on the fossil-bearing sediments provided ages ranging from ~33,000 to 23,000 years ago (ka). The revised age estimates correspond with the dates of other human fossils in northern China, at Tianyuan Cave (~40.8-38.1 ka) and Zhoukoudian Upper Cave (39.0-36.3 ka), indicating the geographically widespread presence of H. sapiens across Eastern Asia in the Late Pleistocene, which is significant for better understanding human dispersals and adaptations in the region.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Datación Radiométrica , Humanos , China , Cuevas , Esqueleto , Historia Antigua , Sedimentos Geológicos
20.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13245, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643985

RESUMEN

Cueva del Viento, located in the Canary Islands, Spain, is the Earth's sixth-longest lava tube, spanning 18,500 m, and was formed approximately 27,000 years ago. This complex volcanic cave system is characterized by a unique geomorphology, featuring an intricate network of galleries. Despite its geological significance, the geomicrobiology of Cueva del Viento remains largely unexplored. This study employed a combination of culture-dependent techniques and metabarcoding data analysis to gain a comprehensive understanding of the cave's microbial diversity. The 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding approach revealed that the coloured microbial mats (yellow, red and white) coating the cave walls are dominated by the phyla Actinomycetota, Pseudomonadota and Acidobacteriota. Of particular interest is the high relative abundance of the genus Crossiella, which is involved in urease-mediated biomineralization processes, along with the presence of genera associated with nitrogen cycling, such as Nitrospira. Culture-dependent techniques provided insights into the morphological characteristics of the isolated species and their potential metabolic activities, particularly for the strains Streptomyces spp., Paenarthrobacter sp. and Pseudomonas spp. Our findings underscore the potential of Cueva del Viento as an ideal environment for studying microbial diversity and for the isolation and characterization of novel bacterial species of biotechnological interest.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S , España , Cuevas/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Biodiversidad
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