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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805046

RESUMEN

Children spend a large amount of time each day in early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions, and the ECEC play environments are important for children's play opportunities. This includes children's opportunities to engage in risky play. This study examined the relationship between the outdoor play environment and the occurrence of children's risky play in ECEC institutions. Children (n = 80) were observed in two-minute sequences during periods of the day when they were free to choose what to do. The data consists of 935 randomly recorded two-minute videos, which were coded second by second for several categories of risky play as well as where and with what materials the play occurred. Results revealed that risky play (all categories in total) was positively associated with fixed equipment for functional play, nature and other fixed structures, while analysis of play materials showed that risky play was positively associated with wheeled toys. The results can support practitioners in developing their outdoor areas to provide varied and exciting play opportunities.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , Preescolar , Ambiente , Humanos
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e213997, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797552

RESUMEN

Importance: In March 2020, US public buildings (including schools) were shut down because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 42% of US workers resumed their employment duties from home. Some shutdowns remain in place, yet the extent of the needs of US working parents is largely unknown. Objective: To identify and address the career development, work culture, and childcare needs of faculty, staff, and trainees at an academic medical center during a pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this survey study, between August 5 and August 20, 2020, a Qualtrics survey was emailed to all faculty, staff, and trainees at University of Utah Health, an academic health care system that includes multiple hospitals, community clinics, and specialty centers. Participants included 27 700 University of Utah Health faculty, staff, and trainees who received a survey invitation. Data analysis was performed from August to November 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included experiences of COVID-19 and their associations with career development, work culture, and childcare needs. Results: A total of 5030 participants completed the entire survey (mean [SD] age, 40 [12] years); 3738 (75%) were women; 4306 (86%) were White or European American; 561 (11%) were Latino or Latina (of any race), Black or African American, American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; and 301 (6%) were Asian or Asian American. Of the participants, 2545 (51%) reported having clinical responsibilities, 2412 (48%) had at least 1 child aged 18 years or younger, 3316 (66%) were staff, 791 (16%) were faculty, and 640 (13%) were trainees. Nearly one-half of parents reported that parenting (1148 participants [49%]) and managing virtual education for children (1171 participants [50%]) were stressors. Across all participants, 1061 (21%) considered leaving the workforce, and 1505 (30%) considered reducing hours. Four hundred forty-nine faculty (55%) and 397 trainees (60%) perceived decreased productivity, and 2334 participants (47%) were worried about COVID-19 impacting their career development, with 421 trainees (64%) being highly concerned. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey of 5030 faculty, staff, and trainees of a US health system, many participants with caregiving responsibilities, particularly women, faculty, trainees, and (in a subset of cases) those from racial/ethnic groups that underrepresented in medicine, considered leaving the workforce or reducing hours and were worried about their career development related to the pandemic. It is imperative that medical centers support their employees and trainees during this challenging time.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral , Adulto , Selección de Profesión , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Docentes Médicos , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Responsabilidad Parental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Utah , Carga de Trabajo , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
4.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 16(1): 1-14, mar. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1150935

RESUMEN

Introdução: A infância é um período da vida de grande transformação física, psíquica e social e como forma de prevenir enfermidades e promover o desenvolvimento saudável das crianças, as políticas de saúde vigentes no Brasil, estabelecem um acompanhamento longitudinal e com foco na atenção integral através da puericultura. Objetivo: Compreender a percepção e a prática do enfermeiro sobre a identificação dos sinais de risco/atraso do desenvolvimento em crianças acompanhadas durante a consulta de enfermagem em puericultura. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo, realizado com 12 enfermeiros que trabalham nas unidades de saúde da família de um distrito sanitário da cidade do Recife, entre janeiro e março de 2017. Para a coleta de dados foi empregada entrevista individual semiestruturada com o uso da gravação, sendo os mesmos submetidos à análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática. Resultados: A maioria das enfermeiras conhecia e utilizava a ficha de acompanhamento do desenvolvimento infantil proposta pelo Ministério da Saúde (MS) e inserida na caderneta da criança durante a consulta de puericultura, entretanto, a linguagem utilizada para definir os sinais de risco e atraso não é precisa. Porém, quando identificam alguma alteração no Crescimento e Desenvolvimento (CD) recorrem a equipe multiprofissional para acompanhamento dos casos. Considerações finais: O estudo permitiu perceber e discutir a importância da avaliação do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, destacando a enfermeira como agente essencial desse processo. Ficou demonstrado na prática das enfermeiras o conhecimento dos protocolos para o acompanhamento do CD, porém destacou-se que a falta de cumprimento e registro dos parâmetros/indica-dores de avaliação orientados pelo MS foi um fato dificultador para uma assistência integral, sem deixar de enxergar a família como aliada no cuidado à criança.


Introduction: Childhood is a period of life of great physical, psychological and social transformation and as a way to prevent diseases and promote the healthy development of children, the health policies in force in Brazil, establish a longitudinal monitoring and focusing on comprehensive care through childcare. Objective: Understand the nurse's perception and practice on the identification of signs of risk / delay in development in children monitored during the nursing consultation in childcare. Methods: Qualitative study, conducted with 12 nurses who work in family health units in a health district in the city of Recife, between January and March 2017. For data collection, a semi-structured individual interview was used with the use of the recording, the same being analyzed by the thematic content analysis. Results: Most nurses knew and used the child development monitoring form proposed by the Ministry of Health (MH) and inserted in the child's handbook during the pediatric consultation, however, the language used to defi ne the signs of risk and delay is not accurate. Yet, when they identify any change in Growth and Development (GD), they use the multidisciplinary team to monitor the cases. Conclusions: The study made it possible to perceive and discuss the importance of assessing neuropsychomotor development, highlighting the nurse as an essential agent of this process. It was demonstrated in the nurses' practice the knowledge of the protocols for the monitoring of the GD, however it was highlighted that the lack of compliance and registration of the parameters/evaluation indicators oriented by the MH was a hindering factor for comprehensive care, without fail to realize the family as an ally in child care.


Introducción: La infancia es un período de vida de gran transformación física, psicológica y social y, como una forma de prevenir enfermedades y promover el desarrollo saludable de los niños, las políticas de salud vigentes en Brasil establecen un monitoreo longitudinal y se centran en la atención integral a través de la puericultura. Objetivo: Comprender la percepción y práctica de la enfermera sobre la identificación de signos de riesgo/retraso en el desarrollo en niños monitoreados durante la consulta de enfermería en la puericultura. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo, realizado con 12 enfermeras que trabajan en unidades de salud familiar en un distrito de salud de la ciudad de Recife, entre enero y marzo de 2017. Para la recopilación de datos, se utilizó una entrevista individual semiestructurada con el uso de la grabación, siendo el mismo sometidos al análisis del contenido en la modalidad temática analizado por el método de interpretación de los sentidos. Resultados: La mayoría de las enfermeras conocían y usaban el formulario de monitoreo del desarrollo infantil propuesto por el Ministerio de Salud (MS) e insertado en el manual del niño durante la consulta pediátrica, sin embargo, el lenguaje utilizado para definir los signos de riesgo y retraso no es exacto. Sin embargo, cuando identifican cualquier cambio en el Crecimiento y Desarrollo (CD), utilizan el equipo multidisciplinario para monitorear los casos. Consideraciones finales: El estudio permitió percibir y discutir la importancia de evaluar el desarrollo neuropsicomotor, destacando a la enfermera como un agente esencial de este proceso. Se demostró en la práctica de las enfermeras el conocimiento de los protocolos para el monitoreo de la CD, sin embargo, se destacó que la falta de cumplimiento y registro de los parámetros/indicadores de evaluación orientados por el MS era un factor que obstaculizaba la atención integral, si no se dan cuenta de la familia como aliada en el cuidado infantil.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Enfermería Pediátrica , Brasil , Cuidado del Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Salud del Niño , Monitoreo , Crecimiento y Desarrollo
5.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 59(3): 175-180, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657690

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the factors related to child care environment and the association between child care environment and children's early development. Methods: Using stratified cluster random sampling, a total of 22 509 children newly enrolled to kindergarten from 187 kindergartens of 16 districts in Shanghai in 2017 were enrolled. A survey was conducted by parent-reported questionnaire. The index of child care environment (ICCE) and the early human capacity index were used to evaluate family child care environment and children's early development respectively. The sample was divided into four groups based on the ICCE score: the lowest family childcare environment (ICCE≤10 scores), lower middle (ICCE=11 scores), upper middle (ICCE=12 scores), and the highest (ICCE=13 scores). The linear regression model and Logistic regression model were used to analyze the factors related to child care environment and the association between child care environment and children's early development respectively. Results: A total of 22 067 children aged (44±7) months, including 11 425 boys (51.8%) and 10 642 girls (48.2%), participated in this study. The multnomial linear regression revealed girls, higher maternal education, higher household annual income, single-child, non-divorced parents, and early breastfeeding experience were protective factors of child care environment for children newly enrolled to kindergarten (ß=0.064, 0.238, 0.119, 0.096, 0.113, and 0.032; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.020-0.108, 0.175-0.302, 0.058-0.180, 0.046-0.146, -0.012-0.242, and -0.051-0.116; all P<0.01). The multinomial Logistic regression revealed compared with the highest child care environment group, the odds ratio of children's early development risks in upper midclle, lower middle, and the lowest child care environment groups were 1.543 (95%CI: 1.373-1.735, P<0.01), 2.537 (95%CI: 2.254-2.856, P<0.01), and 4.198 (95%CI: 3.757-4.690, P<0.01), respectively. Conclusions: The child care environment is not only significantly related to family structure and socioeconomic status, but also to early breastfeeding experience. The child care environment plays an important role in promoting childhood early development.


Asunto(s)
Cuidado del Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Niño , Salud del Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247949, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651851

RESUMEN

AIM: In spring 2020, the first Covid-19-related lockdown included the closing of kindergartens and schools. Home schooling, the lack of social contacts with peers and the care of the children at home posed an enormous challenge for many families. METHODS: The present study investigated the leisure behavior of 285 one- to 10-year-old German children at two time points (t1 and t2) during the Covid-19-related lockdown in spring 2020. In the subsample of primary school children (n = 102), we also explored children's attitudes towards schoolwork at home. Analyses focused on the change of behavior from t1 to t2, on differences in these changes depending on socio-economic status (SES), and on associations of behavior with SES, the number of children at home, and the frequency of receiving learning materials from school. RESULTS: While the frequency of playing outside increased significantly from t1 to t2, the frequency of handicrafts, playing board games, indoor sports, and motivation to do schoolwork decreased. The observed changes between t1 and t2 did not differ depending on SES. However, a lower SES was associated with higher media use, less outdoor activity, and (though only marginally significant) a reduced time doing schoolwork and a reduced ability to concentrate on schoolwork at t1. In households with more children, children played outside more often, but were read to less frequently and (though only marginally significant) watched movies and series less frequently. Children receiving learning materials from school on a regular basis spent significantly more time doing schoolwork at home than children receiving materials only irregularly. CONCLUSIONS: A continuing loss of childcare in day-care facilities and schools entails the danger of declining education in the form of (inter)active indoor activities and schoolwork.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Aprendizaje , Actividades Recreativas , /epidemiología , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , Jardines Infantiles , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/clasificación , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Instituciones Académicas , Clase Social , Aislamiento Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557329

RESUMEN

The ability to deal with adversity and the resilience of people and groups are shown to depend positively on the tendency to nurture positivity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate whether Learning from Excellence (LfE) can be an effective method to manage systematic health systems, when transparent disclosure and benchmarking of data are adopted in performance evaluation. This study consists of a quantitative and a qualitative phase. In the former, maternal care is investigated at the regional level, starting from performance data and indicators of the maternity pathway referred to 98 healthcare providers in 10 Italian regions, that share the same evaluation system. The second phase investigates qualitatively the organizational determinants and the experience of professionals involved in the pathway, through the organization of on-site workshops. We identified the seven best practices among the 42 units of analysis. Communication, trust and shared goals among health professionals involved in the pathway emerged as core themes from the qualitative analysis. This study confirms that LfE under the conditions of benchmarking assessment and transparent disclosure of data can be implemented systematically in management practice, in order to boost health personnel's resilience and, in general, the organizational climate in the working environment.


Asunto(s)
Cuidado del Niño , Servicios de Salud Materna , Niño , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Familia , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa
8.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 34: 1-11, 17/02/2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178365

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Compreender os caminhos percorridos por mães e cuidadoras na busca pelo cuidado de crianças egressas de unidades neonatais. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo e exploratório, realizado entre maio e junho de 2018, com mães e cuidadoras de crianças nascidas entre 2014 e 2015, egressas de duas unidades neonatais públicas de uma capital do Nordeste brasileiro. Realizaram-se 14 entrevistas semiestruturadas, e se utilizou análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática. Apreenderam-se três categorias que evidenciam possíveis caminhos percorridos para o cuidado, perpassando, em sua maioria, pelos três setores: "O setor informal como ponto de partida para o cuidado", "O uso do setor popular como prática de cura", "O uso do setor profissional: alternativa para consulta". Resultados: O setor informal foi o mais relatado pelas cuidadoras. Em geral, a primeira escolha era pela automedicação orientada de forma transgeracional, pelas avós. O uso do setor popular foi influenciado pelo conhecimento prévio das famílias e sua percepção do processo saúde-doença. A cultura biomédica perpassou os três setores e influenciou na construção do itinerário terapêutico. No setor profissional identificou-se vínculo frágil, principalmente na atenção primária. Conclusão: Os caminhos percorridos por mães e cuidadoras de egressos de unidades neonatais apontaram sobreposição da medicalização em detrimento dos saberes populares. Acolher e manejar os repertórios sociais e culturais das famílias pode contribuir para fortalecer vínculos terapêuticos com o setor profissional. A Atenção Primária à Saúde precisa ser fortalecida para garantir a qualificação do cuidado às crianças.


Objective: To understand the paths taken by mothers and caregivers while searching for care for children discharged from neonatal units. Methods: Qualitative and exploratory study, carried out between May and June 2018, with mothers and caregivers of children born between 2014 and 2015, discharged from two public neonatal units in a capital from a Northeastern Brazil state. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, and content analysis was used in the thematic modality. Three categories were found that show possible paths taken for the care, mostly passing through the three sectors: "the informal sector as a starting point for the care", "the use of the popular sector as a healing practice", and "the use of professional sector: an alternative for consultation". Results: The informal sector was the most addressed sector by caregivers. In general, the first choice was for self-medication oriented transgenerationally by grandmothers. The use of the popular sector was influenced by the families' prior knowledge and their perception of the health-disease process. Biomedical culture permeated the three sectors and influenced the construction of the therapeutic itinerary. In the professional sector, a fragile bond was identified, mainly in primary care. Conclusion: The paths taken by mothers and caregivers of newborns discharged from neonatal units pointed to an overlap of medicalization to detriment of popular culture. Hosting and managing families' social and cultural repertoires contribute to strengthening therapeutic links with the professional sector. Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened to guarantee the qualification of care for children.


Objetivo: Comprender los caminos recorridos por madres y cuidadoras para la búsqueda del cuidado de niños de alta de unidades neonatales. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo y exploratorio realizado entre mayo y junio de 2018 con madres y cuidadoras de niños nacidos entre 2014 y 2015 de alta de dos unidades neonatales públicas de una capital del Noreste brasileño. Se realizaron 14 entrevistas semiestructuradas y se ha utilizado el análisis de contenido en la modalidad temática. Se ha identificado três categorías que evidencian los posibles caminos recogidos para el cuidado pasando en su mayoría por los tres sectores: "El sector informal para el punto de inicio del cuidado", "El uso del sector popular para la práctica de cura", "El uso del sector profesional: alternativa para la consulta". Resultados: El sector informal ha sido el más relatado por las cuidadoras. En general, la primera elección era el auto medicación orientada por las generaciones de abuelas. El uso del sector popular ha sido influenciado por el conocimiento previo de las familias y su percepción del proceso salud-enfermedad. La cultura biomédica ha pasado por los tres sectores y ha influenciado para la construcción del itinerario terapéutico. Se ha identificado un vínculo frágil en el sector profesional sobre todo en la atención primaria. Conclusión: Los caminos recogidos por madres y cuidadoras de niños de alta de unidades neonatales señalaron el solapamiento de la medicalización con pérdida de los saberes populares. Acoger y manejar los repertorios sociales y culturales de las familias puede contribuir para reforzar los vínculos terapéuticos con el sector profesional. Hace falta el fortalecimiento de la Atención Primaria de Salud para garantizar la cualificación del cuidado de los niños.


Asunto(s)
Automedicación , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Cuidado del Niño , Atención a la Salud , Medicina Tradicional
9.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021206, 09 fev. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152233

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) or Autistic Disorders (AD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social communication deficits, social interaction, and nonverbal behavior in multiple contexts. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the knowledge of the nursing team about ASD and the approach to the subject during professional training based on the principles addressed in the Human Caring Theory. METHODS: Descriptive study with a qualitative approach, adopting the Human Caring Theory by Jean Watson as a theoretical reference. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with professionals from the nursing team of a Primary Health Center in the ABC Region from São Paulo State, Brazil, in May 2019. Their knowledge about ASD in children was assessed by a 7-question guiding script. Data analysis was performed using Content Analysis Method. RESULTS: Four main categories were elaborated: the care based on humanistic-altruistic values, the cultivation of sensitivity for self and the other, the valorization of the feelings expression and the interpersonal relationship, the promotion of intra and interpersonal teaching-learning process. CONCLUSION: The nursing team professionals are not prepared to work in the care of children with ASD. During their training, the subject's approach is poor, making professionals feel insecure and unable to provide care to this child and his family.


INTRODUÇÃO: Os Transtornos do Espectro Autista (TEA) ou Transtornos Autísticos (TA) são desordens do neurodesenvolvimento complexas caracterizadas por déficits na comunicação social, interação social e no comportamento não verbal em múltiplos contextos. OBJETIVO: Analisar, com base nos princípios abordados na Teoria do Cuidado Humano, o conhecimento da equipe de enfermagem acerca dos TEA e a abordagem do tema durante a formação profissional. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa, que adotou a Teoria do Cuidado Humano de Jean Watson como referencial teórico. Foram realizadas dez entrevistas semiestruturadas com os profissionais da equipe de enfermagem de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde-Escola da Região do ABC Paulista em maio de 2019. Seu conhecimento sobre o conhecimento acerca dos TEA em crianças foi avaliado com o auxílio de um roteiro norteador composto por 7 questões. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do método de Análise de Conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Foram elaboradas quatro categorias principais: o cuidado baseado em valores humanístico-altruístas, o cultivo da sensibilidade para si e para o outro, a valorização da expressão de sentimentos e a relação interpessoal, a promoção do ensino-aprendizagem intrapessoal e interpessoal. CONCLUSÃO: Os profissionais de enfermagem não estão preparados para atuar na assistência da criança com TEA. O tema é pouco abordado durante sua formação, fazendo com que os profissionais se sintam inseguros e incapazes de prestar assistência a essa criança e sua família.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Trastorno Autístico/enfermería , Teoría de Enfermería , Cuidado del Niño , Capacitación Profesional , Atención de Enfermería , Grupo de Enfermería , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Centros de Salud , Salud del Niño , Investigación Cualitativa , Emociones
10.
New Solut ; 31(1): 30-47, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557699

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has revealed social and health inequities in the United States. Structural inequalities have increased the likelihood of immigrants contracting COVID-19, by being essential workers and through poverty that forces this population to continue working. Rural and urban immigrant families may face different concerns. Using a telephone survey in May 2020 of 105 Latinx families in an existing study, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered on work and household economics, childcare and education, healthcare, and community climate. Analyses show that, although rural and urban groups experienced substantial economic effects, impacts were more acute for urban families. Rural workers reported fewer workplace protective measures for COVID-19. For both groups, fear and worry, particularly about finances and children, dominated reports of their situations with numerous reports of experiencing stress and anxiety. The experience of the pandemic is interpreted as an example of contextual vulnerability of a population already experiencing structural violence through social injustice. Policy implications are highlighted.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Agricultores/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Cuidado del Niño/economía , Cuidado del Niño/normas , Educación/normas , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Pobreza/psicología , Población Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos , Población Urbana
11.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386342

RESUMEN

Fourteen percent of US adults use tobacco products. Because many of those who use tobacco are parents and/or caregivers, children are disproportionately exposed to tobacco smoke. People who use tobacco products often become addicted to nicotine, resulting in tobacco dependence, a chronic, relapsing disease. Tobacco use and exposure are more likely to occur in vulnerable and marginalized groups, including those living in poverty. Although some view tobacco use as a personal choice, evidence suggests that structural forces play an important role in tobacco uptake, subsequent nicotine addiction, and perpetuation of use. Viewing tobacco use and tobacco dependence through a structural competency lens promotes recognition of the larger systemic forces perpetuating tobacco use, including deliberate targeting of groups by the tobacco industry, lack of enforcement of age-for-sale laws, inferior access to health insurance and health care, poor access to cessation resources, and economic stress. Each of these forces perpetuates tobacco initiation and use; in turn, tobacco use perpetuates the user's adverse health and economic conditions. Pediatricians are urged to view family tobacco use as a social determinant of health. In addition to screening adolescents for tobacco use and providing resources and treatment of tobacco dependence, pediatricians are encouraged to systematically screen children for secondhand smoke exposure and support family members who smoke with tobacco cessation. Additionally, pediatricians can address the structural issues perpetuating tobacco use by becoming involved in policy and advocacy initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Absentismo , Publicidad , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , Consejo , Femenino , Humanos , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Pacientes no Asegurados , Pediatras , Rol del Médico , Embarazo , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Industria del Tabaco , Desempleo , Estados Unidos
12.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 3, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407628

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children's activity patterns in the periods before and after school make a key contribution to achieving 24-h movement guidelines. There are currently no national-level guidelines informing physical activity and screen time practices in Outside School Hours Care (OSHC) programs anywhere in the world. This study aimed to work with industry, government and academic stakeholders to develop draft physical activity and screen time guidelines for use in Australian OSHC. METHODS: A 4-round online Delphi survey was conducted from May 2019 to January 2020. The Delphi participants included national and international experts and stakeholders from academia, education, government, health and the OSHC sectors. Round 1 consisted of open-ended questions exploring physical activity, screen time and sedentary behaviour in various periods of OSHC (before school, after school and vacation care). In rounds 2 and 3, participants rated the importance of items generated from the first round for inclusion in national guidelines using a Likert scale (1-9). Consensus was defined a priori as ≥80% of respondents rating an item as "critically important" (score 7-9). Between rounds 3 and 4, the guideline development panel used the consensus items, systematic review evidence, and followed the GRADE process, to draft the guidelines. In round 4, participants were invited to provide feedback on the draft guidelines and comment on barriers and enablers to implementation. RESULTS: Sixty-seven stakeholders agreed to participate, with response rates 61, 81, 54 and 72% for the four rounds respectively. Of the 123 items generated across the three rounds, 48 statements achieved consensus agreement as critically important for inclusion in the guidelines. These included offering a variety of physical activities (free play, playground and equipment) and restriction of screen time. The final round provided feedback on the draft guidelines. The wording of the guidelines was found to be appropriate and preliminary enablers and barriers to implementation were identified. CONCLUSIONS: This world-first expert and stakeholder consultation has underpinned the development of the draft Australian guidelines for physical activity and screen time in OSHC. Ongoing work is needed to further refine the guidelines, determine current rates of compliance with the guidelines and implement the guidelines into practice.


Asunto(s)
Cuidado del Niño , Ejercicio Físico , Tiempo de Pantalla , Australia , Niño , Técnica Delfos , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Sedentaria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(3): e20200290, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1149304

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivo compreender a experiência de mães de crianças traqueostomizadas, entre 0 e 24 meses de idade, que retomaram o aleitamento materno com o uso de válvula de deglutição Passy-Muir®. Método pesquisa descritiva, de natureza qualitativa, com 11 mães de crianças traqueostomizadas que adaptaram a válvula de deglutição Passy-Muir®, acompanhadas em um centro de reabilitação e fonoaudiologia, mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas, nos meses de junho a agosto de 2017. A análise foi fundamentada nos pressupostos da análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados na experiência das mães, após a traqueostomia da criança, o uso da válvula de deglutição Passy-Muir® minimizou as dificuldades no aleitamento materno. Superado o processo de adaptação da válvula, foram percebidos seus benefícios. São descritos os sentimentos das mães nesse processo, suas expectativas quanto ao uso do dispositivo e o prazer e plenitude para a mulher no retorno do aleitamento materno. Conclusões e implicações para a prática observaram-se segurança ao aleitar, menor produção de secreção, reduções no número de aspirações de vias áreas, melhora no padrão respiratório, vocalizações (balbucios e choro), melhora na qualidade do sono da criança. Novas pesquisas que abordem o aleitamento materno de crianças traqueostomizadas são necessárias para aprofundar conhecimentos nesta área.


Resumen Objetivo comprender la experiencia de las madres de niños traqueostomizados, entre 0 y 24 meses de edad, que reanudaron la lactancia materna con el uso de la válvula de deglución Passy-Muir®. Método estudio descriptivo, de carácter cualitativo, en el que participaron 11 madres de niños traqueostomizados, mediante seguimiento en un centro de rehabilitación y logopedia, que adaptó la válvula de deglución Passy-Muir®, con entrevistas semiestructuradas, de junio a agosto de 2017. El análisis se basó en los presupuestos del análisis de contenido temático. Resultados en la experiencia de las madres, después de la traqueotomía del niño, el uso de la válvula de deglución Passy-Muir® minimizó las dificultades en la lactancia. Una vez superado el proceso de adaptación de la válvula, se hicieron realidad sus beneficios. Se describen los sentimientos de las madres en el proceso de adaptación de la válvula, sus expectativas con el uso de la válvula y el placer y plenitud para la mujer en el regreso de la lactancia. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica Se observó seguridad durante la lactancia, reducción de la producción de secreciones, reducciones diarias en el número de aspiraciones de las vías aéreas, advirtiéndose mejoras en el patrón respiratorio, vocalizaciones (balbuceo y llanto) y en la calidad del sueño del niño. Es necesita más investigación que aborde la lactancia materna de niños traqueostomizados, solidificando los conocimientos en esta área.


Abstract Objective To understand the experience of mothers of tracheostomized children between 0 and 24 months old, who resumed breastfeeding with the use of the Passy-Muir® deglutition valve. Method A descriptive study with a qualitative approach and semistructured interviews conducted from June to August 2017 in which the participants were 11 mothers of tracheostomized children, by follow-up in a rehabilitation and logopedia center, which adapted the Passy-Muir® deglutition valve. The analysis was based on the assumptions of thematic content analysis. Results the mothers' experience, after the child's tracheostomy, the use of the Passy-Muir® swallowing valve minimized the difficulties in breastfeeding. Once the valve adaptation process was overcome, its benefits were realized. The mothers' feelings in the process of adapting the valve are described, their expectations with the use of the valve and pleasure and fullness for the woman in the return of breastfeeding. Conclusions and implications for practice Safety during breastfeeding, reduction in the production of secretions, and reductions in the number of airway aspirations were observed, noticing improvements in the respiratory pattern, in the vocalizations (mumbling and crying), and in the child's sleep quality. Further research is needed to address breastfeeding of tracheostomized children to deepen knowledge in this area.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Niño , Adulto , Lactancia Materna/instrumentación , Traqueostomía/rehabilitación , Deglución , Lactancia Materna/métodos , Cuidado del Niño/métodos , Investigación Cualitativa
16.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(3): e20200254, 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1142958

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivo analisar os fatores associados ao apoio social às mães de crianças que necessitam de cuidados contínuos e complexos. Método estudo observacional, analítico e transversal, de abordagem quantitativa. A coleta de dados ocorreu nos ambulatórios de um hospital pediátrico localizado no interior do estado de São Paulo. Participaram do estudo 36 mães, que responderam a um instrumento de caracterização e ao Medical Outcomes Study- Social Support Survey. Para análise estatística foram utilizados os testes Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis e Correlação de Spearman. Seguiram-se os preceitos éticos de pesquisas que envolvem seres humanos. Resultados o apoio social afetivo, material e de interação social apresentaram escores satisfatórios (acima de 80 pontos). Os escores das dimensões informação e emocional foram 78,06 e 78,33, respectivamente. A variável idade materna apresentou correlação negativa com o apoio social emocional (0,040) e de informação (0,009). Conclusão e implicações para a prática as mães, em especial as mais velhas, recebem menos apoio de pessoas que possam lhe orientar e dar conselhos, bem como de alguém de confiança para falar sobre seus problemas. Tal resultado pode subsidiar o planejamento de estratégias de intervenção com famílias, a fim de fortalecer o apoio social.


Resumen Objetivo analizar los factores asociados al apoyo social a las madres de niños que necesitan cuidados continuos y complejos. Método estudio observacional, analítico y transversal, con enfoque cuantitativo. La recolección de datos tuvo lugar en las clínicas ambulatorias de un hospital pediátrico ubicado en el interior del estado de São Paulo. 36 madres participaron del estudio, quienes respondieron a un instrumento de caracterización y al Estudio de Resultados Médicos - Encuesta de Apoyo Social. Para el análisis estadístico, se utilizaron las pruebas de correlación de Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis y Spearman. Se siguieron los preceptos éticos de la investigación en seres humanos. Resultados participaron 36 madres. El apoyo social afectivo, material y de interacción social tuvo puntajes satisfactorios (más de 80 puntos Los puntajes para las dimensiones de información y emocional fueron 78,06 y 78,33, respectivamente. La variable edad materna mostró una correlación negativa con el apoyo social emocional (0.040) e información (0.009). Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica las madres, especialmente las mayores, reciben menos apoyo de personas que pueden guiar y dar consejos, así como alguien en quien pueden confiar para hablar sobre sus problemas. Este resultado puede apoyar la planificación de estrategias de intervención con las familias para fortalecer el apoyo social.


Abstract Objective to analyze the factors associated with social support for mothers of children who need continuous and complex care. Method an observational, analytical and cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach. Data collection took place in the outpatient clinics of a pediatric hospital located in the inland of the state of São Paulo. A total of 36 mothers participated in the study, who answered a characterization instrument and the Medical Outcomes Study - Social Support Survey. For statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman correlation tests were used. The ethical precepts of research involving human beings were followed. Results affective, material and social interaction social support had satisfactory scores (above 80 points). The scores for the information and emotional dimensions were 78.06 and 78.33, respectively. The maternal age variable showed a negative correlation with emotional (0.040) and information (0.009) social support. Conclusion and implications for the practice the mothers, especially older ones, receive less support from people who can guide and give advice, as well as someone they can trust to talk about their problems. This result can support the planning of intervention strategies with families in order to strengthen social support.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adulto , Apoyo Social , Cuidado del Niño/psicología , Madres , Estudios Transversales
17.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(3): e20200278, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1142959

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivo Descrever o uso do brinquedo terapêutico no cuidado domiciliar de crianças com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1. Método Estudo qualitativo do tipo Estudo de Caso, realizado com crianças com diagnóstico de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1, residentes no interior do Paraná. Os dados foram coletados em 2018, por meio de entrevista com as mães, sessões de brinquedo terapêutico com as crianças e anotações no diário de campo. A análise dos dados foi realizada seguindo os preceitos da análise de conteúdo. Resultados As crianças simularam situações cotidianas com o brinquedo terapêutico com naturalidade, evidenciando que cuidados com a glicemia e aplicação da insulina fazem parte da rotina. Contudo, demonstram sinais de insatisfação com a própria saúde, traçando comparações com crianças que não apresentam a doença e demonstrando suas angústias quando submetidas a procedimentos dolorosos. Conclusão A utilização do brinquedo terapêutico permitiu a abertura de um canal efetivo de comunicação entre criança e profissional, possibilitando ao pesquisador compreender a percepção das crianças sobre sua condição de saúde e desenvolver orientações e cuidados direcionados. Implicações para a prática Ao utilizar o brinquedo terapêutico, recurso de intervenção na assistência de enfermagem, como tecnologia de cuidado, amplia-se as possibilidades de atuação da enfermagem pediátrica, auxiliando crianças em condições crônicas.


Resumen Objetivo Describir el uso de juguetes terapéuticos en el cuidado domiciliario de niños con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1. Método Estudio de caso tipo estudio cualitativo realizado con niños diagnosticados de Diabetes mellitus tipo 1, residentes del interior de Paraná. Los datos fueron recolectados en 2018, a través de entrevistas con madres, sesiones de juego terapéutico con niños y notas en el diario de campo. El análisis de datos se realizó siguiendo los preceptos del análisis de contenido. Resultados Los niños simularon situaciones cotidianas con el juguete terapéutico de forma natural, demostrando que los cuidados con la aplicación de glucosa e insulina son parte de su rutina. Sin embargo, muestran signos de insatisfacción con su propia salud, haciendo comparaciones con niños que no padecen la enfermedad y demostrando su angustia al ser sometidos a procedimientos dolorosos. Conclusión El uso de juguetes terapéuticos permitió la apertura de un canal de comunicación eficaz entre los niños y los profesionales, posibilitando al investigador comprender la percepción de los niños sobre su estado de salud, y desarrollar orientaciones y cuidados focalizados. Implicaciones para la práctica Al utilizar el juguete terapéutico, recurso de intervención en el cuidado de enfermería, como tecnología asistencial, se amplían las posibilidades del trabajo de enfermería pediátrica y se presta ayuda a los niños en condiciones crónicas.


Abstract Objective To describe the use of therapeutic toys in home care for children with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Method A qualitative case study carried out with children diagnosed with type 1 Diabetes mellitus, residents in the inland of Paraná. Data was collected in 2018, through interviews with mothers, therapeutic play sessions with children and notes in the field diary. Data analysis was performed following the precepts of content analysis. Results The children simulated everyday situations with the therapeutic toy naturally, showing that the care measures with blood glucose and insulin application are part of the routine. However, they show signs of dissatisfaction with their own health, drawing comparisons with children who do not suffer from the disease and demonstrating their distress when subjected to painful procedures. Conclusion The use of therapeutic toys allowed for the opening of an effective communication channel between children and professionals, enabling the researcher to understand the children's perception of their health condition, and to develop guidelines and targeted care measures. Implications for the practice When using the therapeutic toy, a resource for intervention in Nursing care, as a care technology, the possibilities for pediatric Nursing work are expanded, helping children in chronic conditions.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Juego e Implementos de Juego/psicología , Cuidado del Niño/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Enfermería Pediátrica/métodos , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(1): 37-46, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340466

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Millions of children globally are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential because of early adversities. We hypothesised that responsive caregiving and learning opportunities, components of nurturing care, at pre-school ages might mitigate the effects of adversities. METHODS: We analysed longitudinal birth cohort data from Brazil (1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort, n=632) and South Africa (Birth to Twenty Plus [Bt20+] Birth Cohort, n=1130) to assess whether responsive caregiving and learning opportunities at pre-school ages (2-4 years) modified associations between cumulative early adversities and adolescent human capital. The cumulative adversities score (range 0-9) included household wealth and crowding; mothers' schooling, height, age, and mental health; and children's birthweight, gestational age, and length at age 12 months. We extracted data on responsive caregiving and learning opportunities from the Early Childhood Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory, assessed at age 4 years (1993 Pelotas cohort) and 2 years (Bt20+ cohort). We examined three human capital indicators: intelligence quotient (IQ) assessed at age 18 years (1993 Pelotas cohort) and 16 years (Bt20+ cohort); psychosocial adjustment assessed at age 15 years and 14 years, respectively; and height assessed at age 18 years and 16 years, respectively. We used linear models with interaction terms between cumulative adversities, and responsive caregiving and learning opportunities, to predict adolescent human capital. FINDINGS: For each additional Z score of total cumulative adversity, adolescent IQ decreased by 5·89 (95% CI -7·29 to -4·50) points in the 1993 Pelotas cohort (p<0·0001) and 2·69 (-4·52 to -0·86) points in the Bt20+ cohort (p=0·0039). After adjusting for total cumulative adversities, adolescent IQ points increased by 5·47 (95% CI 4·20 to 6·74) with each additional Z score of learning opportunities and by 2·26 (0·93 to 3·59) with each additional Z score of responsive caregiving in the 1993 Pelotas cohort, but not in the Bt20+ cohort (0·86 [-0·12 to 1·83] and 0·65 [-0·32 to 1·61], respectively). Associations between early adversities and IQ were modified by learning opportunities in the 1993 Pelotas cohort (beta coefficient for interaction 1·74, 95% CI 0·43 to 3·04; p=0·0092) and by responsive caregiving in the Bt20+ cohort (2·24, 0·94 to 3·54; p=0·0075). High nurturing environment attenuated the negative effects of early cumulative adversities on IQ. INTERPRETATION: Early nurturing home environments protect young children against effects of early adversities on adolescent IQ, with long-term positive associations on adolescent cognition in two middle-income countries. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Adolescente , Brasil , Cuidado del Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Países en Desarrollo , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Sudáfrica
20.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20200329, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1145170

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the experience of being a mother of a child and a nurse working in the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a research study with a qualitative approach, conducted with 17 participants from different cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection took place in the months of April and May 2020, through semi-structured interviews conducted via an open access virtual communication platform. The data were thematically analyzed, based on the Complexity Paradigm. Results: the absence and mismatch of scientific and systematic information at the beginning of the pandemic, the fragile institutional support, and the concern of contamination of the children generated stress and anguish in the mother-nurses. The support previously offered by schools and family members was hindered by the pandemic, leading to a greater demand for parental care. Creative strategies to provide distraction, as well as religiousness and spirituality were valued to face the chaos experienced. Conclusion: nurses, while being valued as important frontline professionals in the fight against the pandemic, are invisible in their personal-affective dimension and in that of being a mother. The study indicates the need for structural institutional policies so that mother-nurses are placed in a position of equality and safety for the full exercise of the profession and a healthy intra-family relationship, especially in contexts of adversity such as that experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comprender la experiencia de ser madre de un niño y enfermera en ejercicio de la profesión durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Método: investigación con enfoque cualitativo, realizada con 17 participantes de diferentes municipios del estado de San Pablo, Brasil. La recolección de datos tuvo lugar en los meses de abril y mayo de 2020 por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas a través de una plataforma virtual de comunicación de acceso libre. Los datos fueron analizados temáticamente, sobre la base del Paradigma de la Complejidad. Resultados: la ausencia y disparidad de información científica y sistemática al inicio de la pandemia, el débil apoyo institucional y la preocupación por contaminar a los hijos generaron estrés y angustia en las madres enfermeras. El apoyo antes ofrecido por las escuelas y los familiares se vio perjudicado por la pandemia, derivando en una mayor demanda de cuidados por parte de los padres. Se valorizaron estrategias creativas para proporcionar distracción, al igual que la religiosidad y la espiritualidad, para enfrentar el caos de la presente realidad. Conclusión: las enfermeras, a la vez que son valorizadas como importantes profesionales importantes de la primera línea de lucha contra la pandemia, se encuentran invisibilizadas en su dimensión personal-afectiva e de ser madres. El estudio indica la necesidad de implementar políticas institucionales estructurantes para que las madres enfermeras sean colocadas en una posición de igualdad y seguridad para el pleno ejercicio de la profesión para hacer posible una relación intrafamiliar saludable, especialmente en contextos de adversidades como el vivido durante la pandemia del COVID-19.


RESUMO Objetivo: compreender a experiência de ser mãe de criança e enfermeira atuante na pandemia da COVID-19. Método: pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, com 17 participantes de diferentes municípios do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu nos meses de abril e maio de 2020, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas via plataforma virtual de comunicação de acesso livre. Os dados foram analisados tematicamente, apoiados no Paradigma da Complexidade. Resultados: a ausência e desencontro de informações científicas e sistemáticas no início da pandemia, o frágil apoio institucional e a preocupação de contaminação dos filhos geraram estresse e angústia nas mães enfermeiras. O suporte antes ofertado pelas escolas e familiares foi prejudicado pela pandemia, levando a maior demanda de cuidado parental. Estratégias criativas para proporcionar distração, bem como a religiosidade e a espiritualidade foram valorizadas para o enfrentamento do caos vivido. Conclusão: as enfermeiras, ao mesmo tempo que são valorizadas enquanto profissionais importantes da linha de frente no combate à pandemia, são invisibilizadas na sua dimensão pessoal-afetiva e do ser mãe. O estudo indica a necessidade de políticas institucionais estruturantes para que as mães enfermeiras sejam colocadas numa posição de igualdade e segurança para o exercício pleno da profissão e da relação intrafamiliar saudável, especialmente em contextos de adversidades como o vivenciado na vigência da pandemia pela COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adulto , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Investigación Cualitativa , Pandemias , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Enfermeras y Enfermeros
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