Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.233
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807029

RESUMEN

Natural products are gaining more interest recently, much of which focuses on those derived from medicinal plants. The common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), of the Astraceae family, is a prime example of this trend. It has been proven to be a feasible source of biologically relevant elements (K, Fe, Ca), vitamins (A, B1, B2, C) as well as bioactive compounds (inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarin derivatives, cichoric acid, phenolic acids), which exert potent pro-health effects on the human organism. It displays choleretic and digestion-promoting, as well as appetite-increasing, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action, all owing to its varied phytochemical composition. Hence, chicory is used most often to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Chicory was among the plants with potential against SARS-CoV-2, too. To this and other ends, roots, herb, flowers and leaves are used. Apart from its phytochemical applications, chicory is also used in gastronomy as a coffee substitute, food or drink additive. The aim of this paper is to present, in the light of the recent literature, the chemical composition and properties of chicory.


Asunto(s)
Achicoria/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Antiparasitarios/química , Antiparasitarios/farmacología , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/farmacología , Achicoria/fisiología , Culinaria , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/etiología , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669220

RESUMEN

This study aimed to compare folate contents in hen eggs from four different farming systems, namely organic, free range, barn, and cage one. Folate retention during egg boiling was studied as well. The contents of individual folate vitamers were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC), following trienzyme treatment. Folate content in eggs differed significantly (p < 0.05) due to the rearing system, with the highest mean content determined in the eggs from organic farming (113.8 µg/100 g). According to this study, one egg (60 g) may provide 40-86 µg of folates, which corresponds to 10-22% of the recommended daily intake for adults, 400 µg according to the Nutrition Standards for the Polish Population. The predominant folate form found in egg was 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which showed considerably greater stability under boiling compared to 10-formylfolic acid present in a lower amount. In most eggs tested, the losses in total folate content did not exceed 15%. The color of yolk of the most folate-abundant organic eggs, had the highest value of lightness (L*) and the lowest value of redness (a*). This, however, does not correspond to consumer preferences of intense golden yolk color.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Yema de Huevo/química , Huevos/análisis , Ácido Fólico/análisis , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Pollos , Niño , Preescolar , Color , Culinaria , Femenino , Ácido Fólico/química , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Ácido Poliglutámico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Poliglutámico/química , Tetrahidrofolatos/química , Adulto Joven
3.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672898

RESUMEN

The research concerns the use of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer to track real-time emissions of volatile secondary oxidation products released from rapeseed oil as a result of deep-frying of potato cubes. Therefore, it was possible to observe a sudden increase of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions caused by immersion of the food, accompanied by a sudden release of steam from a potato cube and a decrease of the oil temperature by more than 20 °C. It was possible to identify and monitor the emission of major secondary oxidation products such as saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, namely acrolein, pentanal, 2-hexenal, hexanal, 2-nonenal and 2-decenal. Each of them has an individual release characteristic. Moreover, the impact of different initial frying temperatures on release kinetics was investigated. Subsequently, it was possible to approximate the cumulative emission by a second-degree polynomial (R2 ≥ 0.994). Using the proposed solution made it possible for the first time to observe the impact of the immersion of food in vegetable oil on the early emission of thermal degradation products oil.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria , Aceite de Brassica napus/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Cinética , Oxidación-Reducción , Solanum tuberosum/química , Temperatura
4.
Food Chem ; 352: 129305, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691208

RESUMEN

The effect of potato tuber composition, frying time and temperature on acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated and a mathematical model of the kinetics of acrylamide formation is provided. Moisture-temperature-time profiles were obtained for potato slices during frying to enable the determination of the 'effective' reaction time by identifying the critical moisture content (6% dwb) for acrylamide formation to commence and using dehydration curves to calculate subsequent frying time to finished product moisture content. The chemical kinetic model conformed to the following rate equation over a one hundred-fold range of acrylamide concentrations: d[acryl]dt=k1glucoseasn+k6[fructose][asn][TAA] where [TAA] represents total amino acid concentration. The timescale of the frying process meant that the chemical reactions were all in their initial rate phase. Kinetic parameters confirm that the fructose-dependent reaction (caramelization) contributes twice as much acrylamide as the reaction of glucose (Maillard reaction).


Asunto(s)
Acrilamida/química , Culinaria , Modelos Químicos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Acrilamida/análisis , Calor , Cinética , Reacción de Maillard , Tubérculos de la Planta/química
5.
Food Chem ; 352: 129364, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657482

RESUMEN

Rice is contaminated with pesticides applied in pre and post-harvest. These contaminations could be reduced through household operations like washing and cooking. Therefore, in the present research, a pre-soaking rice cooking method was used to reduce pesticides residues. Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design was applied to minimize pesticides concentration by choosing the best soaking time and water:rice grain relation before cooking. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained. Desirability function approach gave the optimal cooking conditions as 14 h soaking time and water:rice grain relation of 3. This process allowed a pesticide elimination of 100.0%, 93.5%, 98.4%, 98.5%, 99.0%, and 95.0%, of azoxystrobin, cyproconazole, deltamethrin, epoxiconazole, kresoxim-methyl and penconazole, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria/métodos , Oryza/química , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Factores de Tiempo , Agua/química
6.
Food Chem ; 352: 129378, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667919

RESUMEN

The formations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in barbecued meatballs formulated with different animal fats [beef intermuscular and/or sheep tail (ST)] were investigated. Meatballs were also analyzed in terms of some qualitative and quantitative properties. From perspective of nutrition, meatballs formulated with ST fat at level 10% contained the highest ratios of linoleic acid (2.29%), ∑PUFA (2.52%), and ∑PUFA/∑SFA (0.05). Animal fat type had no significant effect on total HAAs amount of the samples and total HAAs amount was ranged between 1.35 and 2.91 ng/g. On the other hand, the usage of different animal fat significantly affected amount of BaP and PAH4, and the levels of BaP and PAH4 were ranged between 2.33-4.30 and 8.41-15.48 ng/g, respectively. From perspective of health risk, it can be noted that the meatballs formulated with ST fat at level 10% are more risky due to their total amounts of food toxicants.


Asunto(s)
Aminas/análisis , Culinaria , Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Análisis de los Alimentos , Ovinos
7.
Food Chem ; 352: 129380, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667923

RESUMEN

Solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a common approach to analyze the volatile profile of cooked meat. The present study aims to investigate the combined effect of sample preparation, including meat presentation (minced and steak) and cooking method (stewed and grilled), and extraction temperature (30, 60 and 80 °C) and time (30 and 50 min) on the volatile composition of cooked deer meat. The statistical results indicated that extraction temperature was the most relevant factor affecting the meat volatile profile of cooked meat followed by the extraction time. Higher extraction temperatures improved the detection of heavy volatile compounds, while sample preparation had little influence on the meat volatile profile, probably due to the accurate control of the parameters used for meat presentation and cooking methods. The results of this work can assist in the standardization of analytical procedures for the characterization of volatile compounds in cooked meat.


Asunto(s)
Métodos Analíticos de la Preparación de la Muestra/métodos , Culinaria , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Carne/análisis , Microextracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Análisis de los Alimentos , Calor , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112104, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677381

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The health effects of heavy solid fuel use in winter in rural China are of concern. The effects of air pollution resulting from domestic solid fuel combustion in rural households on rural homemakers' biomarkers were revealed in this study. METHODS: In total, 75 female homemakers from rural areas of Guanzhong Basin, the Fenwei Plain, People's Republic of China, were randomly selected and divided into three groups (biomass users, coal users, and nonusers of solid fuel user [control group]). The differences in biological indicators, including 8-hydrox-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), interlukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in urine samples as well as blood pressure (BP, including systolic BP [SBP] and diastolic BP [DBP]) and heart rate (HR) among the groups in winter and summer were investigated using statistical analysis. RESULTS: IL-6, 8-OHdG, HR, SBP, and DBP were significantly higher in winter than in summer (P < 0.05) owing to the poor air quality resulted from the excessive use of solid fuels in winter. Significant seasonal differences in 8-OHdG were observed for both coal and biomass users. After the influence of confounders was removed, only IL-6 levels in the urine of solid fuel users were significantly higher than that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 is a sensitive biomarker representing inflammatory responses to particulate matter emitted through household solid fuel combustion. Locally, excessive use of solid fuels in winter posed serious PM2.5 pollution in this area and adverse effects on inflammatory biomarkers in these rural homemakers and induced DNA damage related to oxidative stress.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Culinaria , Interleucina-6/orina , Material Particulado , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxicoguanosina/orina , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores/orina , Presión Sanguínea , China , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución Aleatoria , Población Rural , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/orina
9.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652771

RESUMEN

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the number of freeze-thaw cycles (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7) on porcine longissimus protein and lipid oxidation, as well as changes in heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their precursors. We analyzed the relationship among HAAs, AGEs, oxidation, and precursors and found the following results after seven freeze-thaw cycles. The HAAs, Norharman and Harman, were 20.33% and 16.67% higher, respectively. The AGEs, Nε-carboxyethyllysine (CEL) and Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), were 11.81% and 14.02% higher, respectively. Glucose, creatine, and creatinine were reduced by 33.92%, 5.93%, and 1.12%, respectively after seven freeze-thaw cycles. Norharman was significantly correlated with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; r2 = 0.910) and glucose (r2 = -0.914). Harman was significantly correlated to TBARS (r2 = 0.951), carbonyl (r2 = 0.990), and glucose (r2 = -0.920). CEL was correlated to TBARS (r2 = 0.992) and carbonyl (r2 = 0.933). These changes suggest that oxidation and the Maillard reaction during freeze-thaw cycles promote HAA and AGE production in raw pork.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aminas/metabolismo , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Aminas/química , Animales , Pollos , Culinaria , Congelación/efectos adversos , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos , Reacción de Maillard , Carne/análisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Carne de Cerdo/análisis , Porcinos , Sustancias Reactivas al Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/química , Sustancias Reactivas al Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 349: 129178, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607545

RESUMEN

Chinese steamed breads (CSB) and noodles are staple foods for many people. The production of frozen steamed products and boiled noodles has kept increasing. This is due to the increasing demand of ready-to-eat frozen food products from the market. Frozen storage significantly increases the self-life of the products and reduces the production costs. On the other hand, the freezing and frozen storage lead to quality loss of the frozen products. This review summarizes effects of freezing and frozen storage on diverse quality attributes (e.g., structural and textural properties) of frozen northern-type steamed breads and boiled noodles. Food safety of the frozen products related to the COVID-19 pandemic is discussed. To counteract the quality loss of the frozen products, suitable processing methods, selection of basic ingredients and uses of various food additives can be done. Research gaps to improve the textural, cooking and nutritional quality of frozen CSB and noodles are suggested.


Asunto(s)
Pan/análisis , Harina/análisis , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Culinaria , Congelación , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Vapor
11.
Mutat Res ; 861-862: 503296, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551099

RESUMEN

Studies on the toxic effects of cooking with aluminum pots are limited and none of them have explored its impact on the genetic material in germ and somatic cells. Therefore, this study investigated the cytogenotoxic effect of boiled water from new, 3- and 6-year old aluminum pots in germ and somatic cells viz-a-vis mouse sperm morphology test and sperm count; and the bone marrow micronucleus test. The mice were allowed to freely drink the boiled water from the different aluminum pots for 3, 4, and 5 weeks. The heavy metal analysis showed that As, Pb, Cd, and Al were present in the boiled water samples at different concentrations with the 6-year old pot having the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Al. There were duration of exposure and age of pot-dependent significant increase in abnormal sperm cells and a significant decrease total mean sperm count of exposed mice. Similarly, there was a statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and nuclear abnormalities in the exposed mice that increased dependently upon the age of the cookware. Finally there were significantly increased activities of serum AST and ALT; and the liver concentrations of MDA, SOD and CAT in boiled water exposed mice. The findings of this study revealed that boiled water from aluminum pots is capable of inducing cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, especially as the pot ages.


Asunto(s)
Aluminio/análisis , Aluminio/toxicidad , Utensilios de Comida y Culinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Culinaria/métodos , Daño del ADN , Espermatozoides/patología , Animales , Masculino , Ratones , Reproducción , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124683, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524885

RESUMEN

The aim of this work was to develop a soap-based method for the isolation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from bacterial biomass. The method consisted of adding soap derived from waste cooking oil to a concentrated (25%) biomass suspension, heating and centrifugal separation. Purity above 95% could be achieved with soap:cell dry mass ratios at least 0.125 g/g, making the method comparable to other surfactant-based protocols. Molecular weights Mw of products from all experiments were between 350 and 450 kDa, being high enough for future material applications. Addition of hydrochloric acid to the wastewater led to the precipitation of soap and part of non-P3HB cell mass. The resulting precipitate was utilized as a carbon source in biomass production and increased substrate-to-P3HB conversion.


Asunto(s)
Reactores Biológicos , Jabones , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Biomasa , Culinaria , Hidroxibutiratos , Poliésteres
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e015920, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605386

RESUMEN

The consumption of inadequately thermally treated fish is a public health risk due to the possible propagation of Anisakis larvae. The present study demonstrated the physiological and histopathological changes that accompanied an oral inoculation of crude extracts from fresh and thermally treated Anisakis Type II (L3) in rats. Worms were isolated from a marine fish and examined and identified using light and scanning electron microscopy. The study was performed in 6 rat groups: control (I), garlic oil (GO) inoculated (II), fresh L3 inoculated (III), thermally treated L3 inoculated (IV), fresh L3 + GO inoculated (V), and a thermally treated L3 + GO inoculated (VI) groups. Rats inoculated with fresh and thermally treated L3 showed abnormal liver and kidney functions associated with the destruction of normal architecture. GO produced a protective effect in rat groups inoculated with L3 extracts + GO via the amelioration of liver and kidney functions, which was confirmed by the marked normal structure on histology. Cooking of L3-infected fish induced severe alterations compared to uncooked fish. The administration of garlic before and after fish eating is recommended to avoid the dangerous effect of anisakids, even if they are cooked.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Alílicos , Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Sulfuros , Compuestos Alílicos/farmacología , Compuestos Alílicos/uso terapéutico , Animales , Anisakiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Anisakiasis/prevención & control , Anisakis/efectos de los fármacos , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Culinaria , Peces/parasitología , Parasitología de Alimentos , Larva , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Sulfuros/farmacología , Sulfuros/uso terapéutico
14.
Food Chem ; 348: 129073, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524692

RESUMEN

Nitrite, added to cured meat for its bacteriological and technological properties, is implicated in the formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs), such as nitrosylheme, nitrosamines and nitrosothiols, suspected to have a potential impact on human health. The mechanisms involved in NOC formation are studied in regard with the dose-response relationship of added nitrite and its interaction with ascorbate on NOC formation in a cured and cooked meat model. The impact of a second cooking stage on nitrosation was evaluated. The addition of nitrite in the cured and cooked model promoted heme iron nitrosylation and S-nitrosation but not N-nitrosation. Nitrite reduced lipid oxidation without an additional ascorbate effect. The second cooking sharply increased the nitrosamine content while the presence of ascorbate considerably lowered their levels and protected nitrosothiols from degradation. This study gives new insights on the chemical reactivity of NOCs in a cured meat model.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Culinaria , Carne/análisis , Nitritos/química , Compuestos Nitrosos/química , Animales , Humanos , Nitrosación , Oxidación-Reducción
15.
Food Chem ; 348: 129061, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550122

RESUMEN

Protein extracts from green and roasted coffee beans and from spent coffee grounds (SCG) were evaluated as bioactive peptides sources. The in silico approach revealed a high frequency of the occurrence (A) of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) (0.62) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor peptides (0.44) in the 11S coffee globulin, which could be released after digestion. After in vitro digestion of the protein, the green bean and SCG proteins were more susceptible to proteolysis, releasing smaller polypeptides (3.4 kDa), which showed higher anti-hypertensive potentials (IC50 = 0.30 and 0.27 mg soluble protein/mL). However, the antioxidant capacity only increased for the roasted coffee and SCG extracts due to antioxidant groups formed during roasting. The heat treatment applied during coffee brewing increased the sensitivity of the SCG extract to proteolysis, leading to their high anti-hypertensive and antioxidant potentials. Therefore, the 11S coffee globulin is a precursor of a series of bioactive peptides.


Asunto(s)
Café/química , Culinaria , Péptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Péptidos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/farmacología , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Dipeptidil Peptidasa 4 , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/farmacología
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145395, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578144

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many households in developing countries, including China, rely on the traditional use of solid fuels for cooking and heating. Arthritis is highly prevalent in middle-aged and older adults and is a major cause of disability. However, evidence linking indoor solid fuel use with arthritis is scarce in this age group (≥45 years) in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether exposure to indoor solid fuel for cooking and heating is associated with arthritis in middle-aged and older adults in rural China. METHODS: Data for the present study were extracted from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a longitudinal national prospective study of adults aged 45 years and older enrolled in 2010 and followed up through 2015. We included 7807 rural participants without arthritis at baseline, of whom 1548 living in a central heating area in winter were included in the heating analysis (taking the Qinling-Huaihe line as the heating boundary). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between indoor solid fuel use and arthritis, controlling for age, sex, education, marital status, smoking status, drinking status, self-reported socioeconomic status, BMI, sleep time, napping time, independent cooking, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, heart problems and stroke. We also investigated the effect of switching primary fuels and using solid fuels for both cooking and heating on arthritis risk. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the study participants was 59.2 (10.0) years old, and 48.0% of participants were women. A total of 64.8% and 63.0% of the participants reported primarily using solid fuel for cooking and heating, respectively. Arthritis incidence rates were lower among clean fuel users than solid fuel users. Compared to those using clean fuels, cooking and heating solid fuel users had a higher risk of arthritis, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.49) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.89), respectively. Switching from clean fuels to solid fuels for heating (HR: 3.28, 95% CI: 1.21, 7.91) and using solid fuels for both cooking and heating (HR, 1.71, 95% CI, 1.01-2.79) increased the risk of arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term solid fuel use for indoor cooking and heating is associated with an increased risk of arthritis events among adults aged 45 years and older in rural China. The potential benefits of reducing indoor solid fuel use in groups at high risk for arthritis merit further exploration.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Artritis , Anciano , Artritis/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Carbón Mineral , Estudios de Cohortes , Culinaria , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145412, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581534

RESUMEN

To obtain emission factors and cooking-related chemical signatures, a monitoring campaign was carried out in a modern kitchen where different dishes of the Latin cuisine were prepared. Particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were continuously measured. Passive tubes for carbonyls and a high volume PM10 sampler were simultaneously used. PM10 filters were analysed for organic and elemental carbon and for multiple organic compounds, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The toxic potential of PM10 was evaluated using a bioluminescence inhibition bioassay. Acrolein was never detected, while formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels were comparable to those in the background air. The protection limit for TVOCs was always exceeded. Fine particles comprised more than 86% of the PM10 mass concentrations. PM10 emission rates ranged from 124 to 369 µg min-1. Relatively low PAH concentrations were obtained. PM10 encompassed alcohols, acids, plasticisers, alkyl esters, sterols, sugars, polyols, glyceridic compounds, phenolics, among others. Total concentrations were 1.9-5.3 times higher during cooking than in the background air but, for some compounds, differences of tens or hundreds of times were registered. PM10 from grilled pork was found to contribute to non-negligible cancer risks and to be very toxic, while samples from other dishes were categorised as toxic.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Culinaria , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad
18.
Food Chem ; 348: 129017, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582448

RESUMEN

Extruded wheat starch (ES) was obtained by a single-screw extruder to determine its effect on the farinograph, structural properties and baking behaviors of wheat dough. XRD analysis showed that increasing extrusion temperature made the crystalline peaks less pronounced due to the partial gelatinization. In terms of FTIR results, the molecular order of extruded starch was lower than that of native starch. The dough development time was decreased from 3.2 min to 2.7 min while the stability time was increased from 14.4 min to 15.5 min, as 70 ES were added. It was accompanied with increasing levels of α-helix and ß-turn transferred from the decreased content of random coil and ß -sheet. These effects in bread were to increase loaf volume and reduced loaf hardness. These results indicated that extruded starch had a good potential for producing a high-quality bread.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria , Harina/análisis , Almidón/química , Triticum/química , Pan/análisis , Dureza , Temperatura
19.
Food Chem ; 349: 129176, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592575

RESUMEN

Yield, taste quality, and cultivar utilisation improvements are important research topics in indica rice breeding. Herein, we compared the relative effectiveness and relationship of three taste evaluation methods, namely, chemical composition, Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), and taste analyser. We assessed associations among these methods using 36 indica varieties commonly grown in Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guizhou, China. Temperature and sunlight duration during grain filling influenced rice cooking quality. Varieties with high taste quality had low amylose and protein contents; high peak viscosities and breakdowns; and low hold viscosities, setbacks, and final viscosities. Protein and combined protein and amylose explained 38.6% and 62.1% of the variation in taste value, respectively. The RVA profile was affected by protein, amylose, and amylopectin contents and explained 60.5% of the taste-value variation. This study lays the foundation for taste evaluation of high-quality rice varieties early in the breeding process, which can improve cultivation and marketing potential.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Oryza/química , Gusto , Amilopectina/análisis , Amilosa/análisis , Culinaria , Oryza/clasificación , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo , Viscosidad
20.
Food Chem ; 349: 129207, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601282

RESUMEN

The simultaneous effect of genotype, agro-climatic conditions, and cooking method was evaluated towards the contents of vitamin C, protein, and soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fibre in potato tubers from the Group Phureja. Within the tested treatments, vitamin C was affected the most (9.4-85.1 mg/100 g DW), followed by insoluble dietary fibre (3.9-16.6 g/100 DW), soluble dietary fibre (1.0-3.9 g/100 g DW), total dietary fibre (3.6-fold change), and protein (1.7-4.3 g/100 g DW). The cooking method had a high effect on the variability of the contents of vitamin C, protein, insoluble dietary fibre, and total dietary fibre (74.2-92.8% of the total variance). In contrast, not only the cooking method, but also the agro-climatic conditions had a high effect on the content of soluble dietary fibre (32.6 and 34.8% of the total variance, respectively). Total dietary fibre had a protective effect on vitamin C upon cooking.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Clima , Culinaria/métodos , Genotipo , Proteínas de Plantas/análisis , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Agricultura , Tubérculos de la Planta/química , Solanum tuberosum/crecimiento & desarrollo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...