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1.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0289664, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442107

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic event exposure is a risk factor for the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Social-affective responses to trauma exposure (e.g. shame, guilt, revenge, social alienation) could moderate this relationship, but little is known about their relevance for different types of psychopathology. Moreover, the interplay of different social-affective responses to trauma exposure in predicting psychopathology is poorly understood. METHODS: In a sample of N = 1321 trauma-exposed German soldiers, we examined cross-sectional associations of trauma-related social alienation, revenge, guilt and shame with depressive disorder, alcohol use disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and dimensional measures of depression and anxiety. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify possible patterns of social-affective responses to trauma exposure, and their relation to psychopathology. RESULTS: All social-affective responses to trauma exposure predicted current posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, alcohol use disorder and higher depressive and anxiety symptoms. Three latent classes fitted the data best, reflecting groups with (1) low, (2) moderate and (3) high risk for social-affective responses to trauma exposure. The low-risk group demonstrated the lowest expressions on all psychopathology measures. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma-related social alienation, shame, guilt, and revenge are characteristic of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, alcohol use disorder, and with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. There was little evidence for distinctive patterns of social-affective responses to trauma exposure despite variation in the overall proneness to show social-affective responses. Social-affective responses to trauma exposure could represent promising treatment targets for both cognitive and emotion-focused interventions.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Ansiedad , Culpa , Vergüenza
3.
Psychooncology ; 33(3): e6318, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429990

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Clinical supervision of oncology clinicians by psycho-oncologists is an important means of psychosocial competence transfer and support. Research on this essential liaison activity remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of supervision on oncology clinicians' feelings towards patients presented in supervision. METHODS: Oncology clinicians' (n = 23) feelings towards patients presented in supervision were assessed with the Feeling Word Checklist (FWC). The FWC was filled in by supervisees prior and after their supervision sessions (n = 91), which were conducted by experienced supervisors (n = 6). Pre- post-modification of feelings was evaluated based on a selection of FWC items, which were beforehand considered as likely to change in a beneficial supervision. Items were evaluated on session level using t-tests for dependent groups. Composite scores were calculated for feelings expected to raise and feelings expected to decrease and analysed on the level of supervisees. RESULTS: Feelings related to threats, loss of orientation or hostility such as "anxious", "overwhelmed", "impotent", "confused", "angry", "depreciated" and "guilty" decreased significantly after supervision, while feelings related to the resume of the relationship ("attentive", "happy"), a better understanding of the patient ("empathic"), a regain of control ("confident") and being "useful" significantly increased. Feeling "interested" and "calm" remained unchanged. Significant increase or decrease in the composite scores for supervisees confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates modification of feelings towards patients presented in supervision. This modification corresponds to the normative, formative, and especially restorative function (support of the clinician) of supervision.


Asunto(s)
Lista de Verificación , Emociones , Masculino , Humanos , Ansiedad , Ira , Culpa
4.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 52(1): 13-17, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426758

RESUMEN

This article presents the findings of an ongoing supervision group (founded in 1999) researching the after-effects of the Nazi period on people in psychotherapy in Germany today. The unacknowledged collective shadow hidden behind half-truths, prevarications, and silence itself prevents a genuine working through of the Nazi past. Patients' lack of knowledge concerning their families' own past leads to unconscious guilt, which often then leads to psychosomatic disturbances. But this is not only a problem in Germany. Unacknowledged collective shadows are prevalent in many countries worldwide. Psychological difficulties on the individual and societal levels result.


Asunto(s)
Culpa , Nacionalsocialismo , Humanos , Alemania , Psicoterapia
5.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 34(4): 15-24, 2024.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480267

RESUMEN

In light of the increasing number and complexity of food products on offer to meet the challenges of the food transition, this article looks at the consequences for consumers’ freedom of choice. This freedom of choice cannot be based on total autonomy, which generally leads to a loss of dietary reference points and guilt, or on radical heteronomy dictated by science or hygienic-ecological rationalities, which create tensions and divisions in society. Rather, dietary freedom is an effort to free oneself from the burden of a criterion-based vision of food. It calls for the restoration of an ethic of eating together, based on values and rules capable of preserving common goods and the well-being and survival of our fellow human beings.


Asunto(s)
Libertad , Culpa , Humanos
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5400, 2024 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443486

RESUMEN

Neurotypical (NT) individuals and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make different judgments of social traits from others' faces; they also exhibit different social emotional responses in social interactions. A common hypothesis is that the differences in face perception in ASD compared with NT is related to distinct social behaviors. To test this hypothesis, we combined a face trait judgment task with a novel interpersonal transgression task that induces measures social emotions and behaviors. ASD and neurotypical participants viewed a large set of naturalistic facial stimuli while judging them on a comprehensive set of social traits (e.g., warm, charismatic, critical). They also completed an interpersonal transgression task where their responsibility in causing an unpleasant outcome to a social partner was manipulated. The purpose of the latter task was to measure participants' emotional (e.g., guilt) and behavioral (e.g., compensation) responses to interpersonal transgression. We found that, compared with neurotypical participants, ASD participants' self-reported guilt and compensation tendency was less sensitive to our responsibility manipulation. Importantly, ASD participants and neurotypical participants showed distinct associations between self-reported guilt and judgments of criticalness from others' faces. These findings reveal a novel link between perception of social traits and social emotional responses in ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Humanos , Juicio , Emociones , Culpa
7.
J Clin Psychol ; 80(5): 1147-1160, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340354

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Trauma-informed guilt reduction therapy (TrIGR), a six-session cognitive behavioral therapy targeting trauma-related guilt and distress, reduces guilt and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, yet little is known regarding how and why TrIGR may be effective. METHOD: This study examined treatment-related changes in avoidant coping and trauma-related guilt cognitions as possible mediators of treatment effects on PTSD and depression outcomes at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Data were from a randomized controlled trial for treatment of trauma-related guilt comparing TrIGR and supportive care therapy among 145 post-9/11 US veterans (Mage = 39.2 [8.1], 93.8% male). RESULTS: At pretreatment, most (86%) met PTSD criteria. Intent to treat analyses using parallel mediation models indicated changes in guilt cognitions, but not avoidant coping, mediated the effect of TrIGR on reducing PTSD severity at 3-month (a × b = -0.15, p < 0.01, 95% CI: [-0.24 to -0.06], p = 0.001) and 6-month (a × b = -0.17, 95% CI: [-0.26 to -0.07], p = 0.001) follow-up. Similarly, changes in guilt cognitions, but not avoidant coping, mediated the effect of TrIGR on reducing depression severity at 3-month (a × b = -0.10, 95% CI: [-0.18 to -0.02], p = 0.02) and 6-month (a × b = -0.11, 95% CI: [-0.20 to -0.03], p = 0.01) follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to guilt cognitions, changes in avoidant coping were less integral to downstream PTSD and depression symptom reduction. Guilt cognition change may be a salient active ingredient of PTSD and depression treatment for those with trauma-related guilt and a key therapy element to which providers should be attuned.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Depresión/psicología , Veteranos/psicología , Culpa , Cognición
8.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2315794, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372268

RESUMEN

Background: Victims of physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse commonly experience defense responses that result in feelings of guilt and shame. Although trauma-focused interventions are effective in treating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, the presence of trauma-related shame and guilt can potentially hinder the process of disclosure during treatment, thus diminishing their overall effectiveness. It is hypothesized that providing psychoeducation about common defense responses will reduce feelings of shame and guilt, thereby increasing receptivity to trauma-focused treatment.Objective: This paper describes the rationale, study design, and methods of the BLAME-LESS study. The effects of a brief online psychoeducation program will be compared with a waiting-list control group. The intervention aims to reduce feelings of trauma-related shame and guilt that adolescents experience regarding their own defense responses during and after physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse.Methods: Adolescents (12 - 18 years old) with a history of physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse who suffer from trauma-related feelings of shame and guilt can participate in the study. The study follows a two-arm RCT that includes 34 participants. The primary outcomes includes trauma-related feelings of shame and guilt. The secondary outcomes includes PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression symptoms, traumatic cognitions, readiness to disclose details of memories of the trauma, and motivation to engage in trauma-focused therapy. Assessments take place after screening, at baseline, two weeks after allocation to the intervention or waiting-list, and, only for the waiting-list participants, seven weeks after allocation to the intervention.Conclusions: There is a need for treatment approaches that target trauma-related feelings of shame and guilt. A recently developed brief online psychoeducation program on defense responses during and after trauma offers victims of physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse a free and accessible way to obtain reliable and valid information. The proposed RCT will evaluate the effectiveness of this online psychoeducation program.Trial Registration: Request is pending.


Some defense responses to physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse, such as tonic immobility and appeasement behaviour, are common but unknown and raise feelings of shame and guilt.BLAME-LESS (In Dutch: On(t)schuldig) is a newly developed online psychoeducation programme that aims to reduce feelings of trauma-related shame and guilt. This programme includes explanatory animations, in-depth interviews with experts and victims, and written information accompanied by case reports.The proposed study examines the effectiveness of the brief online psychoeducation programme BLAME-LESS in a well-controlled study.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Culpa , Vergüenza , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Psicoterapia
9.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2308439, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323870

RESUMEN

Background: Trauma-related guilt and shame are crucial for the development and maintenance of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). We developed an intervention combining cognitive techniques with loving-kindness meditations (C-METTA) that specifically target these emotions. C-METTA is an intervention of six weekly individual treatment sessions followed by a four-week practice phase.Objective: This study examined C-METTA in a proof-of-concept study within a randomized wait-list controlled trial.Method: We randomly assigned 32 trauma-exposed patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis to C-METTA or a wait-list condition (WL). Primary outcomes were clinician-rated PTSD symptoms (CAPS-5) and trauma-related guilt and shame. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, self-criticism, well-being, and self-compassion. Outcomes were assessed before the intervention phase and after the practice phase.Results: Mixed-design analyses showed greater reductions in C-METTA versus WL in clinician-rated PTSD symptoms (d = -1.09), guilt (d = -2.85), shame (d = -2.14), psychopathology and self-criticism.Conclusion: Our findings support positive outcomes of C-METTA and might contribute to improved care for patients with stress-related disorders. The study was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00023470).


C-METTA is an intervention that addresses trauma-related guilt and shame and combines cognitive interventions with loving-kindness meditations.A proof-of-concept study was conducted examining C-METTA in a wait-list randomized controlled trialC-METTA led to reductions in trauma-related guilt and shame and PTSD symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Meditación , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Culpa , Vergüenza , Cognición
10.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2299660, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285906

RESUMEN

Background: Parents have a significant role in supporting children who have been exposed to traumatic events. Little is known about parental experiences and needs in the wake of traumatic exposure, which could help in designing tailored early interventions.Objective: This qualitative study explored experiences, perceived needs, and factors impacting those needs being met, in parents of adolescents aged 11-16 years who had been exposed in the past 3 months to a potentially traumatic event, in the city of Montpellier, France.Method: We purposively sampled 34 parents of 25 adolescents aged 11-16 years meeting the inclusion criteria and used semi-structured in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was applied using a multistage recursive coding process.Results: Parents lacked trauma-informed explanations to make sense of their child's reduced functioning. They experienced stigma attached to the victim label and were reluctant to seek help. School avoidance and lack of collaboration with schools were major obstacles experienced by parents. Parents trying to navigate conflicting needs fell into two distinct categories. Those who experienced distressing levels of shame and guilt tended to avoid discussing the traumatic event with their child, pressuring them to resume life as it was before, despite this perpetuating conflictual interactions. Others adapted by revisiting their beliefs that life should go on as it was before and by trying to come up with new functional routines, which improved their relationship with their child and helped them to restore a sense of agency and hope, but at the cost of questioning their parental role.Conclusions: Key domains of parental experiences could provide potential early intervention targets, such as psychoeducation on traumatic stress, representations about recovery and the victim status, parent-child communication, and involvement of schools and primary caregivers. Further research is needed to validate the impact of these domains in early post-traumatic interventions.


Parents of teenagers exposed to traumatic events struggle to understand trauma and feel isolated.Parents feel pressured to resume life as it was before, leading to conflictual child­parent interaction.Psychoeducation, stigma, and school involvement could be early intervention targets.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Padres , Humanos , Adolescente , Investigación Cualitativa , Culpa , Apoyo Social
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 68, 2024 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167846

RESUMEN

Receiving a favor from another person may induce a negative feeling of indebtedness for the beneficiary. In this study, we explore these hidden costs by developing and validating a conceptual model of indebtedness across three studies that combine a large-scale online questionnaire, an interpersonal game, computational modeling, and neuroimaging. Our model captures how individuals perceive the altruistic and strategic intentions of the benefactor. These inferences produce distinct feelings of guilt and obligation that together comprise indebtedness and motivate reciprocity. Perceived altruistic intentions convey care and communal concern and are associated with activity in insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, while inferred strategic intentions convey expectations of future reciprocity and are associated with activation in temporal parietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. We further develop a neural utility model of indebtedness using multivariate patterns of brain activity that captures the tradeoff between these feelings and reliably predicts reciprocity behavior.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Culpa , Humanos , Corteza Prefrontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Altruismo , Intención , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos
12.
Death Stud ; 48(2): 176-186, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37092540

RESUMEN

Suicide can have a significant impact on the bereaved. Peer support groups for suicide bereavement have been shown to enhance the wellbeing of those attending. However, research is lacking on the mechanisms that underlie these benefits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 adults attending peer-facilitated support groups in Ireland and thematic analysis was used. The findings highlighted the enduring emotional impact including guilt and questioning, loss of identity, as well as wider impacts. Mechanisms of the groups included the opportunity to share experiences and feel validated, connection and belongingness and collective processing of grief. Groups were found to have a unique role alongside other informal and formal supports. This study highlights the important role of peer support groups in lessening this burden and adds to the literature through identifying potential mechanisms by which peer support groups contribute to improved wellbeing for the suicide-bereaved and practical steps to facilitate these mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Aflicción , Suicidio , Adulto , Humanos , Pesar , Suicidio/psicología , Grupos de Autoayuda , Culpa , Investigación Cualitativa
13.
Ann Behav Med ; 58(2): 131-143, 2024 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963585

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stress is a common part of college students' daily lives that may influence their physical activity (PA) and alcohol use. Understanding features of daily stress processes that predict health behaviors could help identify targets for just-in-time interventions. PURPOSE: This study used intensive longitudinal data to examine whether prior day stress processes predict current day PA or alcohol use. METHODS: Participants (N=58, Mage=20.5, 59% women, 70% White) were 18-to-25-year-old students who engaged in binge drinking at least twice monthly and used cannabis or tobacco in the past year. They wore activity (activPAL4) and alcohol (Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor) monitors for 11 days to assess daily PA (e.g., step counts) and alcohol use (e.g., drinking day), and completed daily surveys about yesterday's stress, including number of stressors (i.e., frequency), stressor intensity (i.e., severity), and frequency of affective states (e.g., guilt). Multilevel models examined prior day stress predicting current day PA or alcohol use. RESULTS: Participants had higher odds of current day drinking (odds ratio=1.21) and greater area under the curve (B=0.08) when they experienced greater than usual stress severity the prior day. Participants had higher current day peak transdermal alcohol concentration (B=0.12) and area under the curve (B=0.11) when they more frequently experienced guilt due to stressors the prior day. CONCLUSIONS: College students' unhealthy response of increasing alcohol use due to stress could adversely impact health outcomes. There is a critical need for interventions addressing students' ability to effectively manage and respond to the stress-inducing, daily demands of student life.


College students experience stress regularly, which may influence their physical activity (PA) and drinking behaviors. Understanding how daily stress predicts health behaviors could be useful for stress-reduction interventions. This study examined whether prior day stress predicted current day PA or alcohol use. Participants (N = 58) were 18- to 25-year-old college students who binge drank at least twice per month and used cannabis or tobacco in the past year. They wore PA and alcohol sensors for 11 days to assess daily PA and alcohol use, and completed daily surveys about yesterday's stress, including the number of stressors experienced (i.e., frequency), stressor intensity (i.e., severity), and mood responses related to stress (anger, anxiety, guilt, sadness). Participants were 21% more likely to drink and drank at higher intensity when they experienced greater than usual stress severity the prior day. Participants had higher current day alcohol use intensity when they more frequently experienced guilt due to stressors the prior day. College students' unhealthy response of increasing alcohol use due to stress could negatively impact short- and long-term health outcomes. There is a critical need for interventions addressing students' ability to effectively manage and respond to the stress-inducing, daily demands of student life.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Masculino , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Afecto , Ira , Culpa , Universidades , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología
14.
J Sci Med Sport ; 27(2): 72-77, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949775

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the mental health correlates of athletic shame and guilt among elite-level youth athletes and provided psychometric data on the Turkish version of the Athletic Perceptions of Performance Scale. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: An online survey was sent to 645 Turkish elite-level youth athletes incorporating standardized scales assessing athletic shame, guilt, and symptoms of high prevalence mental disorders. A subset of participants (n = 45) provided test-retest data at 30 days. RESULTS: A total of 301 elite youth athletes participated (M = 16.42 ±â€¯0.49 years; 48.7 % response rate) equally representing team and individual sports. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the Turkish version of the Athletic Perceptions of Performance Scale and test-retest data supported temporal stability. Female athletes (compared to male athletes) and athletes participating in an individual sport (compared to participating in a team sport) reported higher athletic shame-proneness scores (p < 0.01 and p = 0.04; respectively). The Turkish version of the Athletic Perceptions of Performance Scale shame-proneness and no-concern scores were associated with athlete-specific stress, anxiety, and depression scores. The Turkish version of the Athletic Perceptions of Performance Scale guilt-proneness was associated with athlete-specific stress and anxiety scores. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide cross-cultural validation of the Athletic Perceptions of Performance Scale assessing athletic shame and guilt, demonstrating that female athletes and athletes participating in an individual sport were more likely to experience athletic shame-proneness. Results suggest that athletes experiencing shame-proneness and performance concerns may benefit from supportive coaching and/or mental health supports.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Deportes , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Turquia , Culpa , Vergüenza , Atletas/psicología , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Cogn Emot ; 38(2): 199-216, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937802

RESUMEN

Previous research suggests that social anxiety symptoms are maintained and intensified by inflexible emotion regulation (ER). Therefore, we examined whether trait-level social anxiety moderates ER flexibility operationalised at both between-person (covariation between variability in emotional intensity and variability in strategy use across occasions) and within-person (associations between emotional intensity and strategy use on a given day) levels. In a sample of healthy college-aged adults (N = 185, Mage = 21.89), we examined overall and emotion-specific intensities (shame, guilt, anxiety, anger, sadness) and regulatory strategies (i.e. experiential avoidance, expressive suppression, and rumination) in response to each day's most emotionally intense event over 6 days. During the study period, we found a positive association between variability in emotional intensity and variability of experiential avoidance in individuals with lower, rather than higher, levels of trait social anxiety after controlling for key covariates (i.e. gender, personality traits, and stress exposure). However, we did not find evidence for the moderating role of trait social anxiety in ER flexibility assessed at within-person levels. Our findings highlight the need to delineate dynamic ER flexibility across everyday events.


Asunto(s)
Regulación Emocional , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Ira , Culpa
16.
Matern Child Nutr ; 20(1): e13558, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752680

RESUMEN

High perceived pressure to breastfeed and poor perceived quality of health care professional support have been associated with early breastfeeding cessation, guilt, and shame. This is problematic because guilt and shame significantly predict post-natal anxiety and depression. No previous attempts have been made to provide quantitative evidence for relationships mapped between the post-natal social context, infant feeding method and post-natal emotional well-being. The current study aimed to empirically investigate aforementioned pathways. Structural equation modelling was applied to survey data provided online by 876 mothers. Guilt and shame both significantly predicted anxiety and depression. Poor health care professional support and high pressure to breastfeed increased anxiety and depression, and these effects were explained by indirect pathways through increases in guilt and shame. Formula feeding exclusivity was negatively correlated with post-natal anxiety symptoms. This finding may be explained by feelings of relief associated with observed infant weight gain and being able to share infant feeding responsibilities others e.g., with one's partner. This relationship was counterbalanced by an indirect pathway where greater formula feeding exclusivity positively predicted guilt, which increased post-natal anxiety score. While guilt acted as mediator of infant feeding method to increase post-natal depression and anxiety, shame acted independently of infant feeding method. These identified differences provide empirical support for the transferability of general definitions of guilt (i.e., as remorse for having committed a moral transgression) and shame (i.e., internalisation of transgressive remorse to the self), to an infant feeding context. Recommendations for health care practitioners and the maternal social support network are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Depresión , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Culpa , Vergüenza , Ansiedad/psicología
17.
Psychol Trauma ; 16(2): 280-291, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37347882

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The concept of moral injury resonates with impacted populations, but research has been limited by existing measures, which have primarily focused on war veterans and asked about exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) rather than PMIE exposure outcomes. Our goal was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Moral Injury and Distress Scale (MIDS), a new measure of the possible emotional, cognitive, behavioral, social, and/or spiritual sequelae of PMIE exposure. METHOD: The MIDS was validated by surveying three groups: military veterans, healthcare workers, and first responders (N = 1,232). RESULTS: Most respondents (75.0%; n = 924) reported PMIE exposure. Analyses yielded 18 items that contributed to a single latent factor representing moral distress with fully or partially invariant configurations, loadings, and intercepts across occupational groups. The MIDS full-scale score demonstrated excellent internal consistency (α = .95) and moderate 2-week stability (r = .68, p < .001, n = 155). For convergent validity, associations between the MIDS and PMIE exposure measures, as well as putative indicators of moral injury (e.g., guilt, shame), were positive and large (r = .59-.69, p < .001), as were correlations with posttraumatic stress, depressive, and insomnia symptoms (r = .51-.67, p < .001). The MIDS was a stronger predictor of functioning than PMIE exposure measures, explaining seven times greater unique variance (9% vs. 1%-1.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The MIDS is the first scale to assess moral injury symptoms indexed to a specific PMIE that is validated across several high-risk populations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Veteranos , Humanos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Psicometría , Veteranos/psicología , Vergüenza , Culpa , Principios Morales
18.
Personal Disord ; 15(1): 22-33, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37410428

RESUMEN

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment on Oct 26 2023 (see record 2024-19662-001). In the original article, the authors changed the order of authorship from "Blair D. Batky, Allison N. Shields, Jennifer L. Tackett, and Randall T. Salekin" to "Blair D. Batky, Allison N. Shields, Randall T. Salekin, and Jennifer L. Tackett." All versions of this article have been corrected. The names appear correctly in this record.] Callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., tendencies to experience low levels of guilt and empathy) are associated with severe and persistent conduct problems in youth. However, some youth with elevated CU traits do not exhibit severe externalizing problems, and further research is needed to identify conditions under which CU traits are more versus less strongly associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior. To this end, the current preregistered study examined whether internalizing problems, five-factor model personality traits, and parenting practices moderated associations between CU traits and externalizing problems. Caregivers of 1,232 youth ages 6-18 (Mage = 11.46) reported on youths' CU traits, externalizing, internalizing, and five-factor model traits as well as on their own parenting practices. We found that the relationship between CU traits and externalizing was robust to the moderating effects of internalizing problems and parenting practices, but CU traits were more strongly related to externalizing problems at higher levels of neuroticism and at lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of externalizing problems among youth high in CU traits and may inform future longitudinal and intervention research seeking to identify factors that reduce externalizing behavior among high-CU youth. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de la Conducta , Problema de Conducta , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Empatía , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Culpa , Emociones
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 96(2): e10-e12, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828663

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: In urban, large metropolitan trauma centers, we are accustomed to seeing the most gruesome morbidity and mortality in medicine. By far, the most devastating morbidity and mortality to observe are those inflicted on one human being to another. Gun violence is pervasive in this industrialized country, and it impacts us all. Staff, residents, and faculty in trauma centers bear the brunt of this trauma, second only to the families and communities that suffer the loss of loved ones. This burden is especially heavy for health care workers who share the same ethnic background of those who are disproportionately affected by interpersonal gun violence. Survivors of gun violence exist on a spectrum of chronic illness that ranges in physical and mental morbidity and social disruption in loss of wages and capabilities. This disease not only infects those wounded or killed but also transmits through communities and generations. Urban violence exists because of historic and systematic racism. It continues to persist because racism creates inequities in the quality of education, housing, and investment in urban environments, exacerbated by residential segregation. For two providers, a trainee and a faculty member of African descent, conscious of the determinants that create gun violence, it is overwhelming. We, as health care providers, must tell our stories and the stories of those whose voices are not empowered. We can hope that, by sharing these experiences, we stimulate action and change by raising the moral consciousness of those unaware of the tragedies we witness every day.


Asunto(s)
Violencia con Armas , Sobrevivientes , Humanos , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Culpa
20.
Palliat Support Care ; 22(2): 381-386, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093581

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Existential guilt is a deep and multidimensional concept that is correlated with concepts, such as in/authenticity, existential anxiety, decisiveness, and personal and social responsibility. The aim of the present study is to investigate the experience of existential guilt among cancer patients. METHODS: The present research was conducted with a qualitative method with a content analysis design. A purposeful sampling method was used to select the participants and the sampling procedure went on until we reached data saturation. Data were obtained using semi-structured interviews with the participants. RESULTS: From a total of 18 interviews, 94 codes related to existential guilt were obtained. After the analysis, three main concepts were extracted: (1) incompleteness, (2) passivity, and (3) feelings of harm to self and others. Each of these had a number of subcategories. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The participants of the present research were found to experience existential guilt in different ways. The research showed that it is necessary to find the sources of existential guilt in order that effective therapeutic attention can be given cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Culpa , Neoplasias , Humanos , Emociones , Investigación Cualitativa , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Existencialismo
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