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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 130, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193945

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health care systems beyond capacity resulting in many people not having access to life-sustaining measures even in well-resourced countries. Palliative and end-of-life care are therefore essential to alleviate suffering and ensure a continuum of care for patients unlikely to survive. This is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where lack of trained teams on basic palliative care and reduced access to opioids limit implementation of palliative and end-of-life care. At the same time, health care providers have to cope with local cultural conceptions of death and absence of advance care directives.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/organización & administración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Cuidado Terminal/organización & administración , Directivas Anticipadas , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Analgésicos Opioides/provisión & distribución , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Barreras de Comunicación , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Cultura , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/mortalidad , Estigma Social , Cuidado Terminal/psicología
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 148, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193963

RESUMEN

Sub-Saharan African countries have been hit by the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) since March 2020. Besides the resulting health and economic disasters is the psycho-socio-cultural problem related with the management of corpses of people dead from the disease, which might hinder the implementation of the response strategy. In Cameroon for instance, the current corpse management policy is very disputed. In fact, although they were recently made more flexible, the restrictions applied to burials still ban any transfer of dead bodies between cities. In light of the African cultural considerations of dead persons, the disputes observed between the families and the health personnel, the legislation and the available scientific evidence, this article analyses the risks and benefits of allowing families to bury their relatives. It thereafter suggests solutions that reconcile dignity (by allowing families to bury their dead relatives in their homes) and safety (by ensuring a sealed handling and the surveillance by a judiciary police officer). Applying these solutions could improve the population's trust towards the health system, and positively contribute to COVID-19 case prevention, identification and management.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Betacoronavirus , Entierro , Cadáver , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ritos Fúnebres , Prácticas Mortuorias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Entierro/ética , Entierro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Camerún , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Cultura , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/legislación & jurisprudencia , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Familia , Humanos , Prácticas Mortuorias/ética , Prácticas Mortuorias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Personeidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Opinión Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Administración de la Seguridad/ética , Administración de la Seguridad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Administración de la Seguridad/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240399, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147219

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether people who think they have had COVID-19 are less likely to report engaging with lockdown measures compared with those who think they have not had COVID-19. DESIGN: On-line cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Data were collected between 20th and 22nd April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 6149 participants living in the UK aged 18 years or over. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perceived immunity to COVID-19, self-reported adherence to social distancing measures (going out for essential shopping, nonessential shopping, and meeting up with friends/family; total out-of-home activity), worry about COVID-19 and perceived risk of COVID-19 to oneself and people in the UK. Knowledge that cough and high temperature / fever are the main symptoms of COVID-19. We used logistic regression analyses and one-way ANOVAs to investigate associations between believing you had had COVID-19 and binary and continuous outcomes respectively. RESULTS: In this sample, 1493 people (24.3%) thought they had had COVID-19 but only 245 (4.0%) reported having received a positive test result. Reported test results were often incongruent with participants' belief that they had had COVID-19. People who believed that they had had COVID-19 were: more likely to agree that they had some immunity to COVID-19; less likely to report adhering to lockdown measures; less worried about COVID-19; and less likely to know that cough and high temperature / fever are two of the most common symptoms of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: At the time of data collection, the percentage of people in the UK who thought they had already had COVID-19 was about twice the estimated infection rate. Those who believed they had had COVID-19 were more likely to report leaving home. This may contribute to transmission of the virus. Clear communications to this growing group are needed to explain why protective measures continue to be important and to encourage sustained adherence.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad , Tos/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Cultura , Femenino , Fiebre/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Distancia Social , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114542

RESUMEN

An overwhelming flood of misinformation is accompanying the pandemic of COVID-19. Fake news and conspiracy theories are so prevalent that the World Health Organization started as early as February 2020 to use the term "infodemic". This paper is focused on the assessment of the prevalence of beliefs in conspiracy theories related to COVID-19 in Polish society. The association of support for conspiracy theories with sociodemographic variables, health literacy (HL) and eHealth literacy (eHL) was studied. The analysis reported here was based on the data from an online survey of a representative sample (n = 1002) of the adult population of Polish Internet users. The multivariate linear regression for the COVID-19-related conspiracy belief score (CCBS) and logistic regression models for the support of individual conspiracy theories was developed. The percentage of supporters of particular conspiracy theories in the study sample ranged from 43% to 56%. The CCBS was significantly associated with age, education level, vocational status and both HL and eHL. However, it was lower for persons with higher HL (regression coefficient (B) = -0.04, p < 0.001) but higher for those with higher eHL (B = 0.04, p = 0.038). The most influential predictors of CCBS were age (standardised regression coefficient (ß) = -0.21) and education level (ß from 0.08 to 0.16 for respondents with lower education levels and those with master's degrees). In conclusion, younger persons rather than older, those with a lower rather than with a higher level of education, employees rather than students and persons with lower rather than higher HL were more likely to believe the conspiracy theories. Surprisingly, contrary to expectations, higher eHL was significantly associated with greater belief in such theories.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adulto , Cultura , Humanos , Internet , Polonia , Condiciones Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Med Life ; 13(3): 293-299, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072199

RESUMEN

Diabetes is a significant public health problem and one of the causes of death and disability globally. One of the main problems with diabetes control is the lack of adherence to therapeutic regimens in people with diabetes. This study investigates the experiences and views of the Iranian people with diabetes to identify the challenges of the process of adherence to treatment. A grounded theory research design was used, incorporating in-depth interviews to collect the data. Using purposeful sampling, 28 people with type 2 diabetes (9 men, 19 women) from different places were included in the study. Constant comparative analysis was undertaken to identify key categories. The main challenge in this process is losing the golden time of preventing the complications of the disease that occurs for the following reasons: cultural habits and values, religious beliefs (believing diabetes was God's will), resistance to change due to age, job conditions, lack of harmony in the family, and non-shared decision-making in the health system. People with diabetes go through trial and error in order to achieve awareness and insight, and consequently, adherence to treatment. Therefore, they need help and support to achieve insight and adherence to treatment faster and without complications. In fact, if the care plan is designed to encourage active patient participation by the treatment team in the shortest possible time, the time to achieve compliance will be shorter and will have the least side effects for these people.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Investigación Cualitativa , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Cultura , Toma de Decisiones , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Empleo , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Participación del Paciente , Religión
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5150, 2020 10 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051452

RESUMEN

It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people's values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being measures (e.g., emotional well-being, relationship support; N = 54,673). Crucially, however, value type moderates whether person-country fit is positively or negatively associated with well-being. People who value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values report lower well-being. In contrast, people who value achievement, power, and security more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values, report higher well-being. Additionally, we find that people who moderately value stimulation report the highest well-being.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Valor de la Vida , Emociones , Humanos , Percepción , Filosofía , Seguridad Social
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238109, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870929

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The global refugee population has reached a staggering 25.9 million. Approximately 16% of global refugees resettle in high-income countries which are often culturally very different from their home countries. This can create cross-cultural challenges when accessing health services, leading to inappropriate assessments, diagnoses and treatments if cultural background is not factored in. The impact of culture on the conceptualization and experience of postpartum depression (PPD) amongst migrant women has received growing attention in recent years, however, a specific focus on refugee and asylum-seeking women is lacking. Given the unique mental health challenges refugee women face, it is hypothesized that the interplay between culture and postpartum depression amongst refugee women may differ from other migrant women. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to characterize what is known about the impact of culture on the conceptualization and experience of PPD in refugee women resettled in high-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study was conducted as a scoping review in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute's Methodology for Scoping Reviews. A systematic search of studies addressing the relationship between culture and postpartum depression amongst refugee women (including asylum-seeking women) resettled in high-income countries was conducted across 6 databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO and SOCINDEX between June 2018 and August 2019. A total of 637 articles were found. Studies were eligible if they focused on refugee women who had a pregnancy during forced migration or upon resettlement in a high-income country and focused on the impact of culture on women's conceptualization and/or experience of PPD. Eight studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis, the majority of which were qualitatively driven. Four key themes emerged: 1) there are diverse conceptualizations and experiences of postpartum depression amongst refugee women; 2) mental health stigma has a significant impact on women's conceptualizations and experiences of postpartum depression and help-seeking behaviors; 3) cultural traditions and social support play protective roles in postpartum mental wellbeing; and, 4) host culture has a significant influence on the pregnancy and postpartum experience of refugee women. The overall themes align with those seen in the literature on migrant women in general, however significant research gaps remain. CONCLUSION: The studies identified through this scoping review provide a rich description of the significant impact culture has on the conceptualization and experience of postpartum depression among refugee women resettled in high-income countries. Though overall themes align with those seen in the literature on migrant women in general, further research is needed to better characterize how culture impacts refugee women's experiences of PPD as a distinct sub-group of migrant women.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Depresión Posparto/psicología , Países Desarrollados , Refugiados/psicología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Percepción
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238525, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925976

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the scope, range, and nature of the existing literature on Mexican women who remain behind in their communities of origin while their partners migrate abroad. DESIGN: A scoping review informed by an intersectionality framework was conducted over four months, January-April 2020. DATA SOURCES: The electronic databases Medline, PsyINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, Gender Studies Database, Dissertations & Theses Global, LILACS, IBECS, and Sociological Abstracts were searched. REVIEW METHODS: Articles were included if they focused on Mexican women who remain behind across transnational spaces. Two independent reviewers screened and selected articles. Data were analyzed and synthesized using descriptive statistics for quantitative data and content analysis for qualitative data. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles were included for analysis; within those, the methods used included quantitative (n = 5), qualitative (n = 11), mixed methods (n = 2), and intervention (n = 1). Most studies lacked a theoretical framework (n = 10); the majority were empirical published studies (n = 11), and most used interviews (n = 12) and surveys (n = 6) to collect data. All of the articles studied cis-heterosexual Mexican women. Major areas identified were 1) research context, 2) gender roles, and 3) women's health. CONCLUSION: Implications for practice and future research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Familia , Esposos , Migrantes , Salud de la Mujer , Cultura , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Soledad , Salud Mental , México , Factores Socioeconómicos , Mujeres
10.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 353-366, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949318

RESUMEN

There has been a noticeable increase in the number of studies assessing perceptions regarding depression (illness representations) among people diagnosed with the disorder. However, these studies have examined mainly younger adults (ages 18 to 65), and very little is known about older adults. This study examined illness representations among younger and older Israeli Arabs with depression based on the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). A total of 12 Israeli Arabs (six younger adults aged 18-64 and six older adults aged 65+) diagnosed with depression took part in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The majority of the participants in the younger group were female and married, compared to the older group which has a gender equal ratio, half of which are married. The data were analyzed thematically, guided by the SRM illness representations' dimensions (identity; timeline; cause; consequences; control/cure; cyclical and coherence; and emotional representations). Differences between younger and older adults were found in some of the illness representations. Older adults described depression as a chronic illness associated with somatic symptoms, and did not believe in psychological treatment. Younger adults did not perceive depression as chronic, reported cognitive and emotional symptoms, and believed in the efficacy of psychological treatment. Our findings indicated that participants' perceptions about depression appeared to be associated with their age, along with their unique cultural background as they are traditional but undergoing processes of modernization. This study stress the importance of illness representations in intervention programs tailored for different age groups, and considering their specific cultural needs.


Asunto(s)
Árabes/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud/etnología , Depresión/etnología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/etnología , Adulto , Anciano , Cultura , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa
11.
J Med Ethics ; 46(11): 732-735, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958693

RESUMEN

A recent update to the Geneva Declaration's 'Physician Pledge' involves the ethical requirement of physicians to share medical knowledge for the benefit of patients and healthcare. With the spread of COVID-19, pockets exist in every country with different viral expressions. In the Chareidi ('ultra-orthodox') religious community, for example, rates of COVID-19 transmission and dissemination are above average compared with other communities within the same countries. While viral spread in densely populated communities is common during pandemics, several reasons have been suggested to explain the blatant flouting of public health regulations. It is easy to fault the Chareidi population for their proliferation of COVID-19, partly due to their avoidance of social media and internet aversion. However, the question remains: who is to blame for their community crisis? The ethical argument suggests that from a public health perspective, the physician needs to reach out and share medical knowledge with the community. The public's best interests are critical in a pandemic and should supersede any considerations of cultural differences. By all indications, therefore, the physician has an ethical obligation to promote population healthcare and share medical knowledge based on ethical concepts of beneficence, non-maleficence, utilitarian ethics as well as social, procedural and distributive justice. This includes the ethical duty to reduce health disparities and convey the message that individual responsibility for health has repercussions within the context of broader social accountability. Creative channels are clearly demanded for this ethical challenge, including measured medical paternalism with appropriate cultural sensitivity in physician community outreach.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/ética , Obligaciones Morales , Pandemias/ética , Médicos/ética , Rol Profesional , Responsabilidad Social , Acceso a la Información , Beneficencia , Betacoronavirus , Códigos de Ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Competencia Cultural , Cultura , Teoría Ética , Equidad en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/ética , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias/prevención & control , Paternalismo , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Salud Pública/ética , Religión , Justicia Social
12.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 409-431, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990906

RESUMEN

This paper examines the cultural schemas underlying older persons' perception of intergenerational care roles. Thirty qualitative in-depth interviews and twenty focus group discussions (N = 120) were conducted among older women and men aged 60 and above. By using this theory, we were able to identify a series of cultural schemas found in older people's discussions of intergenerational caregiving role. The most prominent shared schemas are; caregiving for elderly is a cultural obligation not a choice, caregiving is a sign of respect, caregiving is a sign of love, caregiving is a source of pride, and caregiving leads to attachment and emotional bonds. Based on these schemas, older people perceived getting care from one's children as a cultural obligation and not an individual (child) choice. However, the findings show that older people's life experience differed greatly from the cultural schemas they had as majority were not cared for by their children. Thus, the discrepancies between schemas/expectations and realities of older people led to tension, sadness, frustration and feeling of being neglected. This study suggests that there is need to put in place interventions that encourage intergenerational caregiving. These intervention programmes should seek not only to consider but also to build upon the strength of cultural values and beliefs.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Cultura , Relaciones Intergeneracionales , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Emociones , Familia , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Tanzanía
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239362, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960905

RESUMEN

Ceramics are quintessential indicators of human culture and its evolution across generations of social learners. Cultural transmission and evolution theory frequently emphasizes apprentices' need for accurate imitation (high-fidelity copying) of their mentors' actions. However, the ensuing prediction of standardized fashioning patterns within communities of practice has not been directly addressed in handicraft traditions such as pottery throwing. To fill this gap, we analysed variation in vessel morphogenesis amongst and within traditional potters from culturally different workshops producing for the same market. We demonstrate that, for each vessel type studied, individual potters reliably followed distinctive routes through morphological space towards a much-less-variable common final shape. Our results indicate that mastering the pottery handicraft does not result from accurately reproducing a particular model behaviour specific to the community's cultural tradition. We provide evidence that, at the level of the elementary clay-deforming gestures, individual learning rather than simple imitation is required for the acquisition of a complex motor skill such as throwing pottery.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Social , Conferencias de Consenso como Asunto , Cultura , Humanos , Destreza Motora
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1393, 2020 Sep 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919467

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Seine-Saint-Denis is a deprived departement (French administrative unit) in the North-East of Paris, France, hosting the majority of South Asian migrants in France. In recent years, the number of migrants from Pakistan, which has a high prevalence of hepatitis C globally, increased. As a corollary, this study addressed the high proportion of Pakistani patients in the infectious diseases clinic of a local hospital, diagnosed with hepatitis C, but also hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It explored genealogies and beliefs about hepatitis and HIV transmission, including community, sexual and blood risk behaviours. The aim was to understand the ways these risk factors reduce or intensify both en route and once in France, in order to devise specific forms of community health intervention. METHODS: The study took place at Avicenne University-Hospital in Seine-Saint-Denis, and its environs, between July and September 2018. The design of the study was qualitative, combining semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion, and ethnographic observations. The sample of Pakistani participants was selected from those followed-up for chronic hepatitis C, B, and/or HIV at Avicenne, and who had arrived after 2010 in Seine-Saint-Denis. RESULTS: Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, until saturation was reached. All participants were men from rural Punjab province. Most took the Eastern Mediterranean human smuggling route. Findings suggest that vulnerabilities to hepatitis and HIV transmission, originating in Pakistan, are intensified along the migration route and perpetuated in France. Taboo towards sexuality, promiscuity in cohabitation conditions, lack of knowledge about transmission were amongst the factors increasing vulnerabilities. Participants suggested a number of culturally-acceptable health promotion interventions in the community, such as outreach awareness and testing campaigns in workplaces, health promotion and education in mosques, as well as web-based sexual health promotion tools to preserve anonymity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need to look at specific groups at risk, related to their countries of origin. In-depth understandings of such groups, using interdisciplinary approaches such as were employed here, can allow for culturally adapted, tailored interventions. However, French colour-blind policies do not easily permit such kinds of targeted approach and this limitation requires further debate.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Hepatitis C/prevención & control , Asunción de Riesgos , Migrantes , Adulto , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , Francia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B Crónica/prevención & control , Hepatitis C Crónica/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual , Población Suburbana , Adulto Joven
16.
Intern Med J ; 50(9): 1123-1131, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929818

RESUMEN

Rituals may be understood broadly as stereotyped behaviours carrying symbolic meanings, which play a crucial role in defining relationships, legitimating authority, giving meaning to certain life events and stabilising social structures. Despite intense interest in the subject, and an extensive literature, relatively little attention has been given to the nature, role and function of ritual in contemporary medicine. Medicine is replete with ritualistic behaviours and imperatives, which play a crucial role in all aspects of clinical practice. Rituals play multiple, complex functions in clinical interactions and have an important role in shaping interactions, experiences and outcomes. Longstanding medical rituals have been disrupted in the wake of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Medical rituals may be evident or invisible, often overlap with or operate alongside instrumentalised practices, and play crucial roles in establishing, maintaining and guaranteeing the efficacy of clinical practices. Rituals can also inhibit progress and change, by enforcing arbitrary authority. Physicians should consider when they are undertaking a ritual practice and recognise when the exigencies of contemporary practice are affecting that ritual with or without meaning or intention. Physicians should reflect on whether aspects of their ritual interactions are undertaken on the basis of sentiment, custom or evidence-based outcomes, and whether rituals should be defended, continued in a modified fashion or even abandoned in favour of new behaviours suitable for and salient with contemporary practice in the interests of patient care.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Ceremonial , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/ética , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/normas , Betacoronavirus , Cultura , Humanos , Pandemias
18.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 850-856, 2020 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910819

RESUMEN

Conspiracy theories have been proliferating during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence suggests that belief in conspiracy theories undermines engagement in pro-health behaviors and support for public health policies. Moreover, previous work suggests that inoculating messages from opinion leaders that expose conspiracy theories as false before people are exposed to them can help to prevent belief in new conspiracies. Goals of this study were to: (a) explore associations between COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions, cooperation with public health recommendations, and support for public health policies among U.S. adults and (b) investigate trusted sources of COVID-19 information to inform strategies to address conspiracy beliefs. A cross-sectional, online survey was conducted with 845 U.S. adults in April 2020. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance and multivariable regressions. One-third (33%) of participants believed one or more conspiracies about COVID-19. Participants who believed conspiracies reported that their intentions to vaccinate were 3.9 times lower and indicated less support for COVID-19 public health policies than participants who disbelieved conspiracies. There were no differences in cooperation with public health recommendations by conspiracy belief endorsement in the multivariable regression analysis. Although there were some key differences in trusted sources of COVID-19 information, doctor(s) were the most trusted source of information about COVID-19 overall with 90% of participants trusting doctor(s). Doctor(s) may play a role in addressing COVID-19 conspiracy theories before people are exposed to them to promote COVID-19 prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Política Pública/tendencias , Confianza/psicología , Vacunación/psicología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Cultura , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Rol del Médico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psicología , Práctica de Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4850, 2020 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994407

RESUMEN

Current driving behaviour models are designed for specific scenarios, such as curve driving, obstacle avoidance, car-following, or overtaking. However, humans can drive in diverse scenarios. Can we find an underlying principle from which driving behaviour in different scenarios emerges? We propose the Driver's Risk Field (DRF), a two-dimensional field that represents the driver's belief about the probability of an event occurring. The DRF, when multiplied with the consequence of the event, provides an estimate of the driver's perceived risk. Through human-in-the-loop and computer simulations, we show that human-like driving behaviour emerges when the DRF is coupled to a controller that maintains the perceived risk below a threshold-level. The DRF model predictions concur with driving behaviour reported in literature for seven different scenarios (curve radii, lane widths, obstacle avoidance, roadside furniture, car-following, overtaking, oncoming traffic). We conclude that our generalizable DRF model is scientifically satisfying and has applications in automated vehicles.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Simulación por Computador , Cultura , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Asunción de Riesgos
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