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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261532, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928997

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Arts and cultural engagement are associated with a range of mental and physical health benefits, including promoting heathy aging and lower incidence of age-related disabilities such as slower cognitive decline and slower progression of frailty. This suggests arts engagement constitutes health-promoting behaviour in older age. However, there are no large-scale studies examining how the predictors of arts engagement vary with age. METHODS: Data from the Health and Retirement Study (2014) were used to identify sociodemographic, life satisfaction, social, and arts appreciation predictors of (1) frequency of arts engagement, (2) cultural attendance, (3) difficulty participating in the arts, and (4) being an interested non-attendee of cultural events. Logistic regression models were stratified by age groups [50-59, 60-69, ≥70] for the frequency of arts participation outcome and [50-69 vs ≥70] all other outcomes. RESULTS: Findings indicated a number of age-related predictors of frequent arts engagement, including gender, educational attainment, wealth, dissatisfaction with aging, and instrumental activities of daily living (iADL). For cultural event attendance, lower interest in the arts predicted lack of engagement across age groups, whereas higher educational attainment and more frequent religious service attendance became predictors in older age groups (≥ 70). Adults in both age groups were less likely to report difficulties engaging in the arts if they had lower neighbourhood safety, whilst poor self-rated health and low arts appreciation also predicted reduced likelihood of this outcome, but only in the younger (50-69) age group. Adults in the older (≥ 70) age group were more likely to be interested non-attendees of cultural events if they had higher educational attainment and less likely if they lived in neighbourhoods with low levels of safety. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that certain factors become stronger predictors of arts and cultural engagement and barriers to engagement as people age. Further, there appear to be socioeconomic inequalities in engagement that may increase in older ages, with arts activities overall more accessible as individuals age compared to cultural engagement due to additional financial barriers and transportation barriers. Ensuring that these activities are accessible to people of all ages will allow older adults to benefit from the range of health outcomes gained from arts and cultural engagement.


Asunto(s)
Arte , Cultura , Participación Social , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261551, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932570

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reproductive coercion and abuse is a major public health issue, with significant effects on the health and well-being of women. Reproductive coercion and abuse includes any form of behaviour that intentionally controls another person's reproductive choices. The aim of this qualitative evidence synthesis is to explore women's experiences of reproductive coercion and abuse globally, to broaden understanding of the different ways reproductive coercion and abuse is perpetrated, perceived and experienced across settings and socio-cultural contexts. METHOD: We searched Medline, CINAHL and Embase for eligible studies from inception to 25th February 2021. Primary studies with a qualitative study design that focused on the experiences and perceptions of women who have encountered reproductive coercion and abuse were eligible for inclusion. Titles and abstracts, and full texts were screened by independent reviewers. We extracted data from included studies using a form designed for this synthesis and assessed methodological limitations using CASP. We used Thomas and Harden's thematic analysis approach to analyse and synthesise the evidence, and the GRADE-CERQual approach to assess confidence in review findings. RESULTS: We included 33 studies from twelve countries in South Asia, the Asia Pacific, North America, South America, Africa and Europe. Most studies used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to discuss women's experiences of reproductive coercion and abuse. Reproductive coercion and abuse manifested in a range of behaviours including control of pregnancy outcome, pregnancy pressure or contraceptive sabotage. There were a range of reasons cited for reproductive coercion and abuse, including control of women, rigid gender roles, social inequalities and family pressure. Women's different responses to reproductive coercion and abuse included using covert contraception and feelings of distress, anger and trauma. Across contexts, perpetration and experiences of reproductive coercion and abuse were influenced by different factors including son preferences and social exclusion. CONCLUSIONS: We reflect on the importance of socio-cultural factors in understanding the phenomenon of reproductive coercion and abuse and how it affects women, as well as how the mechanisms of power and control at both individual and societal levels work to perpetuate the incidence of reproductive coercion and abuse against women.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Coerción , Cultura , Femenino , Humanos , Psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Conducta Reproductiva/psicología , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0258598, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962916

RESUMEN

Vietnam is one the most vulnerable region to climate change and extreme climatic events, such as flash floods and droughts. This present research aims to explore the farm households' beliefs, risk perception, adaptive attitude and climate change adaptation measures that they currently utilize in their farms to cope with climatic risks. Further, this study analyzed effect of climate change belief, awareness and adaptive attitudes on farmers' adaptive behavior. By using structured questionnaire, the data from 816 respondents were collected from seven provinces of Vietnam. We used ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression approach to analyze farmers' belief, perception of climatic change, and risk attitude towards climatic hazards. Results revealed that farmers in the study area are using the most common climatic risk management strategies including applying new technologies, adjustment of the seasonal calendar, and diversification. Findings further revealed that that farm households were mostly concerned about the risk in soil erosion and washout, followed by the stress of prolonging dry season and droughts. The study participants also reported a decrease in precipitation and increase in temperature and frequency and incidence of other extreme climatic events. A positive significant relationship was found between farm management practices and ecological communities. Risk perceptions and attitude toward climate change are essential factors among farm households of northern mountains of Vietnam. Thus, the climate strain linked with the institutional stress and socio-economic has serious insinuations for farm households' livelihood bases, a universal climate change adaptation scheme is required to endure farmers' livelihood.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Cambio Climático , Composición Familiar , Agricultores , Percepción , Población Rural , Adaptación Fisiológica , Concienciación , Cultura , Humanos , Riesgo , Gestión de Riesgos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vietnam , Tiempo (Meteorología)
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261308, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972107

RESUMEN

Early presentation for childhood cataract surgery is an important first step in preventing related visual impairment and blindness. In the absence of neonatal eye screening programmes in developing countries, the early identification of childhood cataract remains a major challenge. The primary aim of this study was to identify potential barriers to accessing childhood cataract services from the perspective of parents and carers, as a critical step towards increasing the timely uptake of cataract surgery. In-depth interviews were conducted using a pre-designed topic guide developed for this study to seek the views of parents and carers in nine geographic locations across eight states in India regarding their perceived barriers and enablers to accessing childhood cataract services. A total of 35 in-depth interviews were conducted including 30 at the hospital premises and 5 in the participants' homes. All interviews were conducted in the local language and audio taped for further transcription and analysis. Data were organised using NVivo 11 and a thematic analysis was conducted utilising the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), an integrative framework of behavioural theories. The themes identified from interviews related to 11 out of 12 TDF domains. TDF domains associated with barriers included: 'Environmental context and resources', 'Beliefs about consequences' and 'Social influences'. Reported enablers were identified in three theoretical domains: 'Social influences', 'Beliefs about consequences' and 'Motivations and goals'. This comprehensive TDF approach enabled us to understand parents' perceived barriers and enablers to accessing childhood cataract services, which could be targeted in future interventions to improve timely uptake.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Catarata/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Niño , Cultura , Ambiente , Objetivos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Motivación , Conducta Social
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0262001, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969056

RESUMEN

Prior research has found that East Asians are less willing than Westerners to seek social support in times of need. What factors account for this cultural difference? Whereas previous research has examined the mediating effect of relational concern, we predicted that empathic concern, which refers to feeling sympathy and concern for people in need and varies by individuals from different cultures, would promote support seeking. We tested the prediction in two studies. In Study 1, European Canadians reported higher empathic concern and a higher frequency of support seeking, compared to the Japanese participants. As predicted, cultural differences in social support seeking were influenced by empathic concern. In Study 2, both empathic concern and relational concern mediated cultural differences in support seeking. Japanese with lower empathic concern but higher relational concern were more reluctant than European Americans to seek social support during stressful times. Finally, loneliness, which was more prevalent among the Japanese than among the European Americans, was partially explained by social support seeking.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Empatía , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/etnología , Comparación Transcultural , Características Culturales , Cultura , Europa (Continente)/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/etnología , Soledad , Masculino , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959784

RESUMEN

Unhealthy dietary patterns (DPs) can lead to cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. We assessed the effects of a community-focused intervention with a traditional Atlantic diet on changes in DPs in families and the associations of these changes with weight loss. The Galiat study is a randomized, controlled trial conducted in 250 families (720 adults and children) and performed at a primary care setting with the cooperation of multiple society sectors. Over 6 months, families randomized to the intervention group received educational sessions, cooking classes, written supporting material, and foods that form part of the Atlantic diet, whereas those randomized to the control group followed their habitual lifestyle. At baseline, five DPs that explained 30.1% of variance were identified: "Caloric", "Frieds", "Fruits, vegetables, and dairy products", "Alcohol", and "Fish and boiled meals." Compared to the controls, the intervention group showed significant improvements in "Fruits, vegetables, and dairy products" and "Fish and boiled meals" and reductions in the "Caloric" and "Frieds". Changes in bodyweight per unit increment of "Frieds" and "Fruits, vegetables, and dairy products" scores were 0.240 kg (95% CI, 0.050-0.429) and -0.184 kg (95% CI, -0.379-0.012), respectively. We found that a culturally appropriate diet improved DPs associated with weight loss.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable/métodos , Salud de la Familia , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Educación en Salud/métodos , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/métodos , Culinaria , Cultura , Productos Lácteos , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Población Rural , Alimentos Marinos , España , Verduras
7.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960043

RESUMEN

Knowledge of associations between emotional, external, and restrained eating with food choices is still limited due to the inconsistent results of the previous research. The aim of the study was to adopt the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and then to examine the relationship between emotional, external, and restrained eating styles and dietary patterns distinguished on the basis of intake of fruit and vegetables (fresh and processed separately), fruit and/or vegetable unsweetened juices, sweets and salty snacks, and the adequacy of fruit and vegetable intake. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020, in a sample of 1000 Polish adults. The questionnaire consisted of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, questions on selected food groups intake, and metrics. DEBQ structure was tested using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM), while multi-group analysis was used to test measurement invariance. Logistic regression was applied to investigate the association between eating styles and dietary patterns, identified with the use of K-means cluster analysis. EFA, CFA and SEM revealed a three-factor, 29-item tool with satisfactory psychometric parameters. Restrained eating (ResEat) and external eating (ExtEat) were found to decrease chances of low intake of both favorable (fruit, vegetables, and unsweetened juices) and unfavorable (sweets and salty snacks) foods and increased the chances of their moderate intake. ResEat increased the probability of the high intake of favorable and moderate or high intake of unfavorable foods. ResEat and ExtEat were predisposed to adequate intake of fruit and vegetables while emotional eating had the opposite effect. Gender, education, and BMI were also found to determine food intake. Our results provide evidence that both eating styles and sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into account while explaining food intake as they may favor healthy and unhealthy eating in different ways.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Alimentos/clasificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Ciencias de la Nutrición , Polonia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S561-S563, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929901

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to explain the role of markobar (speech) in mangalap boru toward the bride (specifically) and women (generally) mental health in Mandailingnese. This study is concerned with explaining the phenomenon of using language used to console and strengthen the bride who will move into the groom's house. METHODS: This study used the ethnography model. The data were taken using a recording, interview, and observation. The steps in markobar of mangalap boru were analyzed based on its structure and explaining the speech that consists of advice for the bride. RESULTS: Markobar in mangalap boru produced the utterances to advise the bride to face her new situation with her groom's big family. The speech consists of an introduction by telling the steps of knowing the bride. It was then continued by a speech of accepting the bride to the grooms' big family and advice from both sides. It is covered by giving speeches of the bride's family's requests to take care of their daughter and promise from the groom's family. CONCLUSION: Tradition markobar in mangalap boru affected the bride's mental health to release her life custom with her family and move forward with her new husband. The advice pieces in markobar strengthen her spirit and mental to accept the new situation and adapt it sincerely. The language used and performance in delivering markobar is Mandailing local wisdom that should be maintained toward an agreed life system in Mandailingnese.


Asunto(s)
Matrimonio , Salud Mental , Cultura , Femenino , Humanos , Esposos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261858, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962946

RESUMEN

As a first line of defense to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, people reduced social contacts to avoid pathogen exposure. Using a panel of countries, this research suggests that this was amplified in societies characterized by high social support and future orientation. People reacted more strongly in dense environments; government orders had more effect in high power distance societies. Conversely, a focus on accomplishments was associated with lower changes. Understanding people's actual behaviors in response to health threats across societies is of great importance for epidemiology, public health, international business, and for the functioning of humanity as a whole.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Cultura , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Distanciamiento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virología , Comparación Transcultural , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Salud Pública/métodos , Cuarentena/psicología
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258220, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618837

RESUMEN

A politics of resentment has shaped a low-dialogue political environment in the United States, feeding into populism, and characterized by perceived distributive injustice, detachment between politicians and "the people", and political polarization. In this political environment, independent of editorial lines, news can spread based on populist content features and drive the political divide even further. However, we still do not understand well, how the forces of political disconnect as well as potentially unifying elements such as political knowledge and the willingness to connect with the other (political) side predict audience interest in populist news featuring people-centrism, anti-elitism, restoring popular sovereignty, and the exclusion of others. To better understand what drives (dis-)interest in populist news features, we combined self-report data from a non-student US sample (N = 440) on political attitudes with unobtrusively measured data on their selective exposure to populist news. We analyzed the data using zero-inflated negative binomial regression models, in which we simultaneously modeled selective exposure to and avoidance of populist news. The findings indicate that especially the will to connect with others explained exposure to news about anti-elitism, especially among Democrats, while Republicans' news avoidance seems to be specifically geared toward people-centrism. Populist communication features promoting "us" vs. "them" dichotomies seem to not automatically resonate with the views of resentful voters and their motivated reasoning.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Cultura , Hostilidad , Periódicos como Asunto , Política , Justicia Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257529, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610022

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the distinct barriers and knowledge level of cervical cancer screening among female university students and establish intervention strategies to overcome these barriers. METHODS: This study used a mixed-methods design with 26 female university students aged 20-29 years. We first conducted a quantitative online survey for the same study participants, divided them into three groups, and conducted focus group interviews (FGIs). Group A: participants who had sexual experience and had undergone cervical cancer screening; Group B: participants who had sexual experience and had not undergone cervical cancer screening; Group C: participants who did not have sexual experience and had not undergone cervical cancer screening. RESULTS: The participants' ages were 21.92 ± 1.26 years. The knowledge levels for cervical cancer and screening were low to moderate. The four main themes that emerged as barriers to cervical cancer screening through the FGIs were: 1) socio-cultural barrier: conservative social perception of unmarried women's sexual life, 2) knowledge barrier: lack of knowledge and information, 3) psychological barrier: discomfort, and 4) practical barrier: time-consuming. The three themes identified for strategies were: 1) socio-cultural intervention: changing social perceptions and ensuring confidentiality, 2) educational intervention: improvement of knowledge and accessibility, and 3) alternative screening intervention: comfortable screening methods. CONCLUSIONS: While university students' sexual experience rapidly increased, the socio-cultural perceptions of sexual health remained closed, and they had a reasonably low level of knowledge about cervical cancer screening. Therefore, various strategies sensitive to female university students' culture should be implemented to increase the knowledge level, and social efforts should be made to change the socio-cultural perception of unmarried young women's sexual health.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Adulto , Cultura , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Femenino , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Estudiantes , Universidades , Salud de la Mujer , Adulto Joven
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257962, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624041

RESUMEN

The objective of the paper is to diagnose organisational culture of selected universities and analyse its impact on the innovation processes within them. The subject matter of the study was organisational culture and innovation at universities. The subjects were four selected universities in Poland, Austria, Germany, and Ukraine. The paper provided a definition of organisational culture and its typology. It further discussed the organisational culture of universities and the relationships between organisational culture and innovativeness. The literature review provided foundations for building a model for the formation of a type of organisational culture at universities that is innovation-friendly, which is the added value of the paper. It offers actions worth taking to shape innovation-friendly culture at universities. It is particularly important during difficult time of changing labour market, when universities greatly impact the attitudes of young people. The knowledge of how to shape innovation-friendly organisational culture at universities is necessary for academia to profile future employees in times of continuous changes. To investigate the relationship between organisational culture and the innovativeness of universities, we designed an original survey questionnaire [S1 File]. Organisational culture was diagnosed with the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument by K.S. Cameron and R.E. Quinn. The analyses were conducted in Dell Statistica v. 13.1 (StatSoft Polska). We normalised data from the Likert rating scale using Kaufman's and Rousseeuw's formula. We used Spearman's correlation coefficient and Kendall's W to calculate correlations. The research shows that the investigated Polish and Austrian universities are dominated by hierarchy and market cultures. On the other hand, the German and Ukrainian universities host all cultures, but clan and adhocracy dominate there. Moreover, the analyses demonstrated that although the adhocracy culture was the least visible in the investigated organisations, it contributes to university innovativeness the most. The conclusions were used to build a model for promoting innovation-friendly organisational culture at universities. The model contains answers to the research questions. In addition, it offers guidelines for shaping organisational culture to bolster innovation at universities. The research identified relationships between organisational culture and university innovativeness and components that create innovation opportunities at universities as its contribution to management theory. When applied in practice, the guidelines can help form the university's organisational culture bottom-up.


Asunto(s)
Creatividad , Innovación Organizacional , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Austria/epidemiología , Cultura , Educación/tendencias , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/tendencias , Cultura Organizacional , Organizaciones , Polonia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ucrania/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5765, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599167

RESUMEN

Socioeconomic gaps in child development open up early, with associated disparities in parental investments in children. Understanding the drivers of these disparities is key to designing effective policies. We first show that parental beliefs about the impact of early parental investments differ across socioeconomic status (SES), with parents of higher SES being more likely to believe that parental investments impact child development. We then use two randomized controlled trials to explore the mutability of such beliefs and their link to parental investments and child development, our three primary outcomes. In the first trial (NCT02812017 on clinicaltrials.gov), parents in the treatment group were asked to watch a short educational video during four well-child visits with their pediatrician while in the second trial (NCT03076268), parents in the treatment group received twelve home visits with feedback based on their daily interactions with their child. In both cases, we find that parental beliefs about child development are malleable. The first program changes parental beliefs but fails to lastingly increase parental investments and child outcomes. By contrast, in the more intensive program, all pre-specified endpoints are improved: the augmented beliefs are associated with enriched parent-child interactions and higher vocabulary, math, and social-emotional skills for the children.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Cultura , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Instituciones Académicas , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 61, 2021 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663365

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicine has remained the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system among communities unable to get modern medication. Ethiopian indigenous people have a long history of traditional plant utilization for treating ailments. The objectives of this study were to identify, document, and analyze the cultural significances of medicinal plants and their associated indigenous knowledge among Guji Semi-Pastoralist People, in Suro Barguda District, West Guji Zone, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: Semi-structured interview, focus group discussions, participant observation, and walk-in-the-woods methods were used to gather medicinal plants data. The informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) values were calculated using quantitative approaches to check the level of informants' agreement on plant use and the healing potential of medicinal plant species, respectively. Indigenous knowledge of the use of medicinal plants for medicinal purposes among different informant groups was compared using t tests with R software. RESULTS: A total of 98 medicinal plant species belonging to 87 genera and 48 families were reported to be used for treating human ailments such as gastrointestinal diseases, breathing system diseases, dermatological diseases, and febrile diseases. Family Fabaceae was represented by 10 species followed by Lamiaceae (7 species). Four of the medicinal plants (Bothriocline schimperi Oliver & Hiern ex Bentham, Erythrina brucei Schweinf. emend. Gillett, Lippia adoensis Hochst. ex Walp. var. adoensis, and Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Hochst. ex Baker) were found endemic to Ethiopia and shrubs were more dominant (36 species). Ninety-one medicinal plant species were used for remedy preparation as soon as they were collected in their fresh form; 35.6% herbal medicine preparation was through crushing the plant parts and homogenizing them with cold and clean water; 159 (70.4%) traditional medicinal preparations were reported to be taken in their drinking form (orally). CONCLUSION: The study indicated that the district is rich in different species of medicinal plants used to treat human ailments and indigenous knowledge about using these resources. Species with the recorded highest consensus for curative purposes are useful sources for further phytochemical and pharmacological validation for better utilization. Declining wild medicinal flora of the area calls for conservation priority.


Asunto(s)
Etnobotánica , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Plantas Medicinales , Cultura , Etiopía , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Población Rural
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258288, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634082

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Substance use is highly prevalent among Chilean adolescents, and the damage it causes at the neurobiological, psychological, and social levels is known. However, there are no validated screening instruments that also assess risk and protective factors for this population in Chile, which is essential for evaluating future prevention interventions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychometric properties of the European Drug Addiction Prevention Trial Questionnaire (EU-Dap) questionnaire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 13 schools in the city of Santiago de Chile. The sample included 2261 adolescents ranging from 10 to 14 years old. Linguistic and cultural adaptation was assessed using focus groups with adolescents, the construct validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis, and measures of its reliability were also determined. Furthermore, the associations regarding risk and protective factors with substance use were explored. RESULTS: Substance use questions were well understood and seemed to adequately capture the consumption of different drugs. Regarding the subscales of risk and protective factors, the analyses showed that most subscales had good psychometric properties, and few needed some degree of improvement (e.g., some items were removed). After the changes, most final subscales had good or adequate goodness of fit adjustments and good or acceptable internal consistency. Finally, the main associated factors with the substance use outcomes were: future substance use and school bonding for tobacco use; negative beliefs about alcohol, future substance use, school bonding and refusal skills for alcohol use; and negative beliefs about marihuana, positive attitudes towards drugs, risk perception, and substance abuse index for marihuana use. Normative beliefs increased the risk for all substances use. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that the EU-Dap is a valid and reliable instrument, and it may help to evaluate the effectiveness of drug use prevention interventions.


Asunto(s)
Tamizaje Masivo , Factores Protectores , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Niño , Chile/epidemiología , Cultura , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Lingüística , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Prevalencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258167, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648500

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Wetlands are biologically diverse and highly productive ecosystems that support one-third of all threatened and endangered plants of the world. Wetland plants have been studied ethnobotanically much less than terrestrial plants, including in Pakistan, thus information about the uses of local wetland plants in traditional healthcare system is scare. Head Maralla is a non-recognized wetland with diversified flora that has been focused of the current study. METHODS: The ethnobotanical data were collected from four sites viz., River Tavi, Upstream Chenab, River Manawarwala Tavi, and Bhalolpur through questionnaire and interviews during field trips. Quantitative indices including informant consensus factor (ICF), cultural significant indext (CSI), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and use value (UV) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: On the whole, 119 plant species were identified belonging to 54 families, of which 87 species were dicot, 12 monocots, 11 aquatic, 5 ferns, and 4 species were bryophytes. Of these, 50% of the plant species were utilized for therapeutic purposes, followed by leaves which had more than 20% usage of total consumption. Herbs were the primary source of medicine (73 spp) followed by trees (22 spp), weeds (11 spp), shrubs (9 spp), foliose (2 spp) and thaloids (2 spp) in the area. Fic ranged from 0.66 to 0.93 for constipation and respiratory disorders with an average Fic of 0.87 reflecting a high consensus among the informants about the use of plants to treat particular ailment. Major ailments viz., urination (14%), cough (8.40%), cold (6.70%), stomach (5.90%), asthma (5.90%), skin infection (5%), constipation (5%), and diarrhea (4%) etc., were treated with local plant recipes. The highest CSI value was found for A. vesica (7.55) widely used in respiratory disorders and in digestive problems. RFC ranged from 0.92 to 0.15 with the maximum value obtained for R. communis (0.95). The use values ranged from 0.03 to 0.90 with the maximum use value for R. communis (0.90). A positive correlation was found between CSI and RFC (r = 0.29), and CSI and UV (r = 0.29). The JI values ranged from 7.14 to 0.14 indicating strong affinity with Samahani valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Unique species Osmunda regalis was first time reported from Pakistan with novel uses for renal and blood purifier. Fifteen percent (15%) plants contribute as fodder species consumed by local community for livestock while almost 6.7% species were utilized for timber and fuel purposes. CONCLUSION: The ecosystem of Head Maralla provide a complex habitat for aqauatic, terrestrial, and agriculture wetland vegetation. It is suggested that conservation efforts should be made to conserve the ethnoecological knowledge of these areas and pharmacological studies should be conducted for noval drug synthesis in future.


Asunto(s)
Etnobotánica , Plantas , Humedales , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biodiversidad , Cultura , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinales , Salud Pública , Publicaciones
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20460, 2021 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650222

RESUMEN

Recent work has found that an individual's beliefs and personal characteristics can impact perceptions of and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain individuals-such as those who are politically conservative or who endorse conspiracy theories-are less likely to engage in preventative behaviors like social distancing. The current research aims to address whether these individual differences not only affect people's reactions to the pandemic, but also their actual likelihood of contracting COVID-19. In the early months of the pandemic, U.S. participants responded to a variety of individual difference measures as well as questions specific to the pandemic itself. Four months later, 2120 of these participants responded with whether they had contracted COVID-19. Nearly all of our included individual difference measures significantly predicted whether a person reported testing positive for the virus in this four-month period. Additional analyses revealed that all of these relationships were primarily mediated by whether participants held accurate knowledge about COVID-19. These findings offer useful insights for developing more effective interventions aimed at slowing the spread of both COVID-19 and future diseases. Moreover, some findings offer critical tests of the validity of such theoretical frameworks as those concerning conspiratorial ideation and disgust sensitivity within a real-world context.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Cultura , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Confianza
19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684504

RESUMEN

Comprehensive food lists and databases are a critical input for programs aiming to alleviate undernutrition. However, standard methods for developing them may produce databases that are irrelevant for marginalised groups where nutritional needs are highest. Our study provides a method for identifying critical contextual information required to build relevant food lists for Indigenous populations. For our study, we used mixed-methods study design with a community-based approach. Between July and October 2019, we interviewed 74 participants among Batwa and Bakiga communities in south-western Uganda. We conducted focus groups discussions (FGDs), individual dietary surveys and markets and shops assessment. Locally validated information on foods consumed among Indigenous populations can provide results that differ from foods listed in the national food composition tables; in fact, the construction of food lists is influenced by multiple factors such as food culture and meaning of food, environmental changes, dietary transition, and social context. Without using a community-based approach to understanding socio-environmental contexts, we would have missed 33 commonly consumed recipes and foods, and we would not have known the variety of ingredients' quantity in each recipe, and traditional foraged foods. The food culture, food systems and nutrition of Indigenous and vulnerable communities are unique, and need to be considered when developing food lists.


Asunto(s)
Manejo de Datos/métodos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Dieta/etnología , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , /etnología , Cultura , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Grupos Focales , Asistencia Alimentaria , Humanos , Pueblos Indígenas , Población Rural , Medio Social , Uganda
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257096, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499673

RESUMEN

Bangladesh govt. launched a nationwide vaccination drive against SARS-CoV-2 infection from early February 2021. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines and examine the factors associated with the acceptance in Bangladesh. In between January 30 to February 6, 2021, we conducted a web-based anonymous cross-sectional survey among the Bangladeshi general population. At the start of the survey, there was a detailed consent section that explained the study's intent, the types of questions we would ask, the anonymity of the study, and the study's voluntary nature. The survey only continued when a respondent consented, and the answers were provided by the respondents themselves. The multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors that influence the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 605 eligible respondents took part in this survey (population size 1630046161 and required sample size 591) with an age range of 18 to 100. A large proportion of the respondents are aged less than 50 (82%) and male (62.15%). The majority of the respondents live in urban areas (60.83%). A total of 61.16% (370/605) of the respondents were willing to accept/take the COVID-19 vaccine. Among the accepted group, only 35.14% showed the willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine immediately, while 64.86% would delay the vaccination until they are confirmed about the vaccine's efficacy and safety or COVID-19 becomes deadlier in Bangladesh. The regression results showed age, gender, location (urban/rural), level of education, income, perceived risk of being infected with COVID-19 in the future, perceived severity of infection, having previous vaccination experience after age 18, having higher knowledge about COVID-19 and vaccination were significantly associated with the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. The research reported a high prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine refusal and hesitancy in Bangladesh. To diminish the vaccine hesitancy and increase the uptake, the policymakers need to design a well-researched immunization strategy to remove the vaccination barriers. To improve vaccine acceptance among people, false rumors and misconceptions about the COVID-19 vaccines must be dispelled (especially on the internet) and people must be exposed to the actual scientific facts.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/psicología , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Cultura , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Negativa a la Vacunación
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