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1.
; Fiocruz.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47067

RESUMEN

A Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) esclarece que é falsa a mensagem que vem circulando no WhatsApp e em redes sociais, atribuída à instituição, com orientações de como se proteger contra a Covid-19.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Decepción
3.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46981

RESUMEN

Quando novas doenças surgem, começam também os boatos sobre elas. E com o novo coronavírus não está sendo diferente. Diante deste cenário, temos todos os dias, novas notícias e informações sobre o novo coronavírus, uma doença respiratória grave, que surgiu na China há algumas semanas. E no meio de tantas notícias, temos aquelas que são verdadeiras e as que são falsas, as famosas Fake News que possuem uma força de propagação enorme, por meio das redes sociais e de aplicativos de mensagens.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Decepción , Infecciones por Coronavirus
5.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(2): 198-202, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972566

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Science and its public perception are compromised by scientific fraud and predatory journals, and also by the general erosion of the meaning of truth in the so-called post-truth era. These developments have significant influence on scientific medicine and their impact on the public discourse. The purpose of this article is to show how fake science, and also the uncritical dissemination of compromised results in public and social media, threatens scientific medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: As social media rises to the preferred source of information of ever larger parts of the modern societies, the dissemination of falsified scientific results within the communities is almost unstoppable. With growing numbers of predatory journals and repetitive cases of fake science, the risk of publication of false results increases. Due to the underlying mechanisms of the post-truth era and social media, these compromised results find their way to the public discourse and continue to be disseminated even when they were, beyond all doubt, proven to be a lie. In medical sciences, dissemination of falsified results directly threats health and life of patients. SUMMARY: In the post-truth era, publication of false results in predatory journals and by fraudulent authors become even more dangerous for the health and life of patients, as their dissemination via new social media is nearly unstoppable and in the public perception truth is losing its meaning. The scientific community has implemented specific counter-measures to minimize the chances of false results being published. However, it is even more important that every participant in the scientific process assumes the responsibility according to his or her role. An orientation towards the values that have constituted and formed science is helpful in fulfilling this responsibility.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Opinión Pública , Edición/normas , Ciencia , Humanos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
6.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(2): 192-197, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876786

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Predatory publishing poses a serious educational end ethical threat to the credibility of science. The aim of this review is to discuss the main features of this deceptive open-access model, its potential consequences and relevance for the whole scientific community. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports showed that scholars and clinicians from all research fields, including anesthesiology, are facing an alarming invasion of predatory journals and, more recently, fake conferences. This review discusses key elements of these phenomena and proposes countermeasures to tackle the problem. SUMMARY: Predatory journals and conferences are two sides of the same coin. As here reviewed, their deceptive practices have negative implications for scientists and clinicians, both educational and ethical. These range from publication of experimental data that are unreliable and poorly verified to inflated curricula and 'doped' academic careers. Because clinical practice is heavily based on research data, a solution is needed to ultimately ensure patients' safety.


Asunto(s)
Congresos como Asunto , Decepción , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Anestesiología/educación , Anestesiología/normas , Humanos , Edición/normas
7.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12883, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254425

RESUMEN

The current study examined the influence of observing another's lie- or truth-telling - and its consequences - on children's own honesty about a transgression. Children (N = 224, 5-8 years of age) observed an experimenter (E) tell the truth or lie about a minor transgression in one of five conditions: (a) Truth-Positive Outcome - E told the truth with a positive outcome; (b) Truth-Negative Outcome - E told the truth with a negative outcome; (c) Lie-Positive Outcome - E lied with a positive outcome; (d) Lie-Negative Outcome - E lied with a negative outcome; (e) Control - E did not tell a lie or tell the truth. Later, to examine children's truth- or lie-telling behavior, children participated in a temptation resistance paradigm where they were told not to peek at a trivia question answer. They either peeked or not, and subsequently lied or told the truth about that behavior. Additionally, children were asked to give moral evaluations of different truth- and lie-telling vignettes. Overall, 85% of children lied. Children were less likely to lie about their own transgression in the TRP when they had previously witnessed the experimenter tell the truth with a positive outcome or tell a lie with a negative outcome.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil/psicología , Decepción , Aprendizaje , Revelación de la Verdad , Asociación , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Principios Morales , Motivación
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224216, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851688

RESUMEN

Cybersecurity cannot be ensured with mere technical solutions. Hackers often use fraudulent emails to simply ask people for their password to breach into organizations. This technique, called phishing, is a major threat for many organizations. A typical prevention measure is to inform employees but is there a better way to reduce phishing risks? Experience and feedback have often been claimed to be effective in helping people make better decisions. In a large field experiment involving more than 10,000 employees of a Dutch ministry, we tested the effect of information provision, simulated experience, and their combination to reduce the risks of falling into a phishing attack. Both approaches substantially reduced the proportion of employees giving away their password. Combining both interventions did not have a larger impact.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad Computacional/normas , Simulación por Computador , Decepción , Correo Electrónico/normas , Fraude/prevención & control , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102935, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715443

RESUMEN

Truth tellers provide less detail in delayed than in immediate interviews (likely due to forgetting), whereas liars provide similar amounts of detail in immediate and delayed interviews (displaying a metacognitive stability bias effect). We examined whether liar's flawed metacognition after delays could be exploited by encouraging interviewees to provide more detail via a Model Statement. Truthful and deceptive participants were interviewed immediately (n = 78) or after a three-week delay (n = 78). Half the participants in each condition listened to a Model Statement before questioning. In the Immediate condition, truth tellers provided more details than liars. This pattern was unaffected by the Model Statement. In the Delayed condition, truth tellers and liars provided a similar amount of detail in the Model Statement-absent condition, whereas in the Model Statement-present condition, liars provided more details than truth tellers.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Acústica/psicología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Decepción , Revelación , Relaciones Interpersonales , Metacognición/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007165, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574086

RESUMEN

Seasonal influenza is a sometimes surprisingly impactful disease, causing thousands of deaths per year along with much additional morbidity. Timely knowledge of the outbreak state is valuable for managing an effective response. The current state of the art is to gather this knowledge using in-person patient contact. While accurate, this is time-consuming and expensive. This has motivated inquiry into new approaches using internet activity traces, based on the theory that lay observations of health status lead to informative features in internet data. These approaches risk being deceived by activity traces having a coincidental, rather than informative, relationship to disease incidence; to our knowledge, this risk has not yet been quantitatively explored. We evaluated both simulated and real activity traces of varying deceptiveness for influenza incidence estimation using linear regression. We found that deceptiveness knowledge does reduce error in such estimates, that it may help automatically-selected features perform as well or better than features that require human curation, and that a semantic distance measure derived from the Wikipedia article category tree serves as a useful proxy for deceptiveness. This suggests that disease incidence estimation models should incorporate not only data about how internet features map to incidence but also additional data to estimate feature deceptiveness. By doing so, we may gain one more step along the path to accurate, reliable disease incidence estimation using internet data. This capability would improve public health by decreasing the cost and increasing the timeliness of such estimates.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional/métodos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Decepción , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Incidencia , Internet , Modelos Teóricos , Vigilancia de la Población , Salud Pública , Registros , Estaciones del Año
12.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 26(1)2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488498

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare data have significant value as a potential target for hackers. Phishing is a method of exploitation for malicious reasons using targeted communications (email/messaging). This study reports on an internal evaluation targeting hospital staff and summarises peer-reviewed literature regarding phishing and healthcare. METHODS: An assessment was performed as part of cybersecurity activity during a designated test period using multiple credential harvesting approaches through staff email. We also searched the medical-related literature to identify relevant phishing-related publications. RESULTS: During the 1-month testing period, the organisation received 858 200 emails: 139 400 (16%) marketing, 18 871 (2%) identified as potential threats. Of 143 million internet transactions, around 5 million (3%) were suspected threats. 468 employee email addresses were identified from public data and targeted through phishing using a range of payloads including attachments and malicious links; however, no credentials were recovered or malicious files downloaded. Several hospital employees were, however, identified on social media profiles, including some tricked into accepting false friend requests. DISCUSSION: Healthcare organisations are increasingly moving to digital systems, but healthcare professionals have limited awareness of threats. Increasing emphasis on 'cyberhygiene' and information governance through mandatory training increases understanding of these risks. While no credentials were harvested in this study, since up to 5% of emails/internet traffic are suspicious, the need for robust firewalls, cybersecurity infrastructure, IT policies and, most importantly of all, staff training, is emphasised. CONCLUSION: Hospitals receive a significant volume of potentially malicious emails. While many staff appear to be aware of phishing and respond appropriately, ongoing education is required across the spectrum of cybersecurity, with specific emphasis around 'leakage' of information on social media.


Asunto(s)
Concienciación , Seguridad Computacional/normas , Decepción , Prestación de Atención de Salud/normas , Correo Electrónico , Hospitales , Humanos , Personal de Hospital/educación , Personal de Hospital/normas , Gestión de Riesgos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
13.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395622

RESUMEN

A 530-g girl born at 22 weeks and 6 days' gestation (determined by an ultrasound at 11 weeks) was admitted to the NICU. Her mother had received prenatal steroids. At 12 hours of age, she was stable on low ventilator settings. Her blood pressure was fine. Her urine output was good. After counseling, her parents voiced understanding of the risks and wanted all available life-supporting measures. Many nurses were distressed that doctors were trying to save a "22-weeker." In the past, 4 infants born at 22 weeks' gestation had been admitted to that NICU, and all had died. The attending physician on call had to deal with many sick infants and the nurses' moral distress.


Asunto(s)
Edad Gestacional , Cuidado del Lactante/ética , Recien Nacido Extremadamente Prematuro , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal/ética , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/ética , Decepción , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Inutilidad Médica/ética , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/psicología , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Embarazo , Estrés Psicológico , Confianza
14.
Br Dent J ; 227(3): 176, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399652

Asunto(s)
Decepción
15.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919867902, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409128

RESUMEN

Deceptive affectionate messages (DAMs) have been proposed to act as relational maintenance techniques and, as such, might be part of a greater repertoire of mate retention behaviors. We analyzed data from 1,993 Mechanical Turk participants to examine the relations between DAMs and mate retention, and whether these relations were mediated by the perceived risk of partner infidelity. In line with predictions, frequency of DAMs positively predicted general mate retention and cost-inflicting mate retention through the perceived risk of partner infidelity. In line with our nondirectional prediction, we also found that frequency of DAMs negatively predicted benefit-provisioning mate retention behaviors. In an exploratory mediation analysis of DAMs on benefit-provisioning mate retention via perceived partner infidelity, we surprisingly found that DAMs negatively predicted benefit-provisioning behavior due to the perceived risk of partner infidelity, suggesting that DAMs-but not benefit-provisioning mate retention-are deployed under the threat of partner infidelity. Overall, these findings suggest that DAMs might belong to a greater repertoire of mate retention (especially cost-inflicting) behaviors to thwart the possibility of partner infidelity.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Relaciones Extramatrimoniales/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Comunicación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 48(9): 245, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435036
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4698-4706, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446524

RESUMEN

This study examines how the awareness of social situation affects rule learning in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using computer-based distrust and deception games. Twenty-eight 4- to 7-year-old children with ASD and 28 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) peers learned the distrusting and deceptive rules in a non-social condition, in which they were playing with a computer, or a social condition with another person pretending to interact via a computer. Results showed intact rule-learning ability in the ASDs in the non-social condition, but poorer overall performance and slower learning process than TD children when they thought that they interacted with a human opponent. Rule learning in ASD was affected by their beliefs about the social context.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Decepción , Medio Social , Habilidades Sociales , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Masculino , Grupo Paritario
18.
Nurse Res ; 27(2): 26-30, 2019 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468885

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Internet-based research is increasing in popularity, but concerns remain about ethical issues and guidance is sparse in relation to generating data using online forums. AIM: To describe and discuss ethical considerations concerning the collecting of data through online forums by using the authors' research exploring women's views and experiences of birth plans. DISCUSSION: Using online discussion forums helped to generate data rapidly. However, ethical concerns required attention throughout the study. The authors engage with debates about the public/private nature of online research, the complexities of ensuring consent in this context is informed, and questions about anonymity and confidentiality, where data are traceable and identifiable through search engines. CONCLUSION: Research undertaken using online forums generates ethical issues similar to those seen in 'real world' studies. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Researchers need to explore how the designs of their studies are affected by issues such as ensuring informed consent and mitigating for the publicly viewable and searchable nature of the data obtained.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Confidencialidad/ética , Recolección de Datos/ética , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Internet , Parto , Decepción , Ética en Investigación , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Investigación Cualitativa , Investigadores/ética , Reino Unido
20.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 77: 101184, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326326

RESUMEN

I develop a rate-distortion analysis of signaling games with imperfect common interest. Sender and receiver should be seen as jointly managing a communication channel with the objective of minimizing two independent distortion measures. I use this analysis to identify a problem with 'functional' theories of deception, and in particular Brian Skyrms's: there are perfectly cooperative, non-exploitative instances of channel management that come out as manipulative and deceptive according to those theories.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Conducta Cooperativa , Decepción , Teoría del Juego , Humanos
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