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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 610623, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816415

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as a significant and global public health crisis. Besides the rising number of cases and fatalities, the outbreak has also affected economies, employment and policies alike. As billions are being isolated at their homes to contain the infection, the uncertainty gives rise to mass hysteria and panic. Amidst this, there has been a hidden epidemic of "information" that makes COVID-19 stand out as a "digital infodemic" from the earlier outbreaks. Repeated and detailed content about the virus, geographical statistics, and multiple sources of information can all lead to chronic stress and confusion at times of crisis. Added to this is the plethora of misinformation, rumor and conspiracy theories circulating every day. With increased digitalization, media penetration has increased with a more significant number of people aiding in the "information pollution." In this article, we glance at the unique evolution of COVID-19 as an "infodemic" in the hands of social media and the impact it had on its spread and public reaction. We then look at the ways forward in which the role of social media (as well as other digital platforms) can be integrated into social and public health, for a better symbiosis, "digital balance" and pandemic preparedness for the ongoing crisis and the future.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Comunicación , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Decepción , Alfabetización en Salud , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias
2.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 33(2): e8-e12, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878290

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In representative cases of Munchausen by internet (MBI), an individual (or "poser") goes online to falsely report or exaggerate illnesses or life crises. The principal goal, as in factitious disorder imposed on self or another, is to garner emotional satisfaction. We provide the first evidence that MBI can target a specific type of health care provider-in this case, birthing doulas. METHODS: We describe 5 cases in which individuals have utilized social media platforms to report factitious perinatal illnesses and crises, including neonatal death, in real time. Current health headlines, such as those involving the COVID-19 pandemic, can be relevant to the ruses. Posers can engage in deceptions with several health care professionals concurrently or serially, and may portray multiple people ("sock puppets") at the same time. RESULTS: MBI has consequences that can be highly disruptive. In the cases highlighted in this report, many hours of support were given to individuals who had fabricated their pregnancies, infants, and perinatal complications. The doulas experienced feelings ranging from resignation to anger and betrayal. CONCLUSIONS: Health care professionals of all types who offer services online should be vigilant to the risks of potential MBI.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Doulas , Trastornos Fingidos , Simulación de Enfermedad , Síndrome de Munchausen , Telemedicina , Adulto , Comunicación , Doulas/ética , Doulas/psicología , Trastornos Fingidos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Fingidos/psicología , Femenino , Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Humanos , Síndrome de Munchausen/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Munchausen/epidemiología , Síndrome de Munchausen/psicología , Atención Perinatal , Telemedicina/ética , Telemedicina/métodos
3.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(104): 63-73, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812365

RESUMEN

One of the keys to overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic is the development of the vaccine in order to immunize the population. In addition to the medical complications to obtain the vaccine, we highlight the presence of other problems, such as the dissemination of fake news that add difficulties to overcoming the global problem, especially due to its incidence in the field of anti-vaccine movements, which have developed, with special presence in Italy in recent years. For this, we warn of the need to be prepared to overcome the two pandemics that are developing in parallel, the one caused by the virus and the one generated by the fake news.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Decepción , Inmunización , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Opinión Pública , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0245900, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711025

RESUMEN

The coronavirus pandemic has seen a marked rise in medical disinformation across social media. A variety of claims have garnered considerable traction, including the assertion that COVID is a hoax or deliberately manufactured, that 5G frequency radiation causes coronavirus, and that the pandemic is a ruse by big pharmaceutical companies to profiteer off a vaccine. An estimated 30% of some populations subscribe some form of COVID medico-scientific conspiracy narratives, with detrimental impacts for themselves and others. Consequently, exposing the lack of veracity of these claims is of considerable importance. Previous work has demonstrated that historical medical and scientific conspiracies are highly unlikely to be sustainable. In this article, an expanded model for a hypothetical en masse COVID conspiracy is derived. Analysis suggests that even under ideal circumstances for conspirators, commonly encountered conspiratorial claims are highly unlikely to endure, and would quickly be exposed. This work also explores the spectrum of medico-scientific acceptance, motivations behind propagation of falsehoods, and the urgent need for the medical and scientific community to anticipate and counter the emergence of falsehoods.


Asunto(s)
/patología , Decepción , /virología , Campos Electromagnéticos , Fraude/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Revelación de la Verdad , Vacunación , Tecnología Inalámbrica
5.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 51, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783652

RESUMEN

The paper argues that the large extent of disinformation has increased the number of deaths from coronavirus due to the proliferation of hoaxes spread via digital tools and media. It is noted that this problem could worsen in the post-COVID society and as such should be understood as having significant political import. Moreover, the phenomenon of disinformation has raised ethical questions around how to actively prevent deaths indirectly caused by hoaxes, as well as epistemological questions around maintaining criteria of truthfulness.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Decepción , /mortalidad , Humanos
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 215: 103295, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752141

RESUMEN

Recent studies have demonstrated that lying can affect memory and that such memory effects are based on the cognitive load required in performing the lie. The present study aimed to verify whether the impact of two deceptive strategies (i.e., false denials and fabrication) depends on individuals' cognitive resources in terms of Executive Functions (i.e., EF: Shifting, Inhibition, and Updating). A sample of 147 participants watched a video of a robbery and then were instructed to either fabricate (i.e., fabrication condition), deny (i.e. false denial condition), or tell the truth (i.e., truth-telling condition) to some questions about the crime. Two days later, all participants had to provide an honest account on a final memory test where they indicated their memory for having discussed details (i.e., fabricated, denied, or told the truth) and their memory for the video. Finally, their EF resources were also assessed. Our findings demonstrated that individual differences in EFs played a role in how the event was recalled and on the effects of lying on memory. That is, memory for the event after having lied depended especially on individuals' Shifting resources. We also found that the two deceptive strategies differentially affected individuals' memory for the interview and for the event: Denying affected memory for the interview while fabricating affected memory for the event. Our findings can inform legal professionals on the possibility to assess individuals' EF as an indicator of witnesses' credibility.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Función Ejecutiva , Crimen , Humanos , Memoria , Recuerdo Mental
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673095

RESUMEN

Internet, new technologies and social networks have changed the consumption and dissemination of information. The world is witnessing the proliferation of so-called false news, especially since the beginning of 2020, when COVID-19 became the main issue on the global agenda. Alleged government actions, remedies, advice, etc., are the cause of a multitude of messages that are often false. Through surveys (1115 responses were obtained) and a review of the literature, we explore how the proliferation of COVID-19's false news affects and impacts public opinion in Spain. We also examine how citizens are being informed about the pandemic, identify the main channels of communication used and discover the impact of misinformation. The main conclusions are that, in Spain, citizens are interested in information related to the coronavirus, but there is a lack of media credibility and reliability; the social networks and instant messaging are considered the channels that transmit the greatest amount of false news.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Decepción , Opinión Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(2): 113, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715146
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 968, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579910

RESUMEN

How can deceptive communication signals exist in an evolutionarily stable signalling system? To resolve this age-old honest signalling paradox, researchers must first establish whether deception benefits deceivers. However, while vocal exaggeration is widespread in the animal kingdom and assumably adaptive, its effectiveness in biasing listeners has not been established. Here, we show that human listeners can detect deceptive vocal signals produced by vocalisers who volitionally shift their voice frequencies to exaggerate or attenuate their perceived size. Listeners can also judge the relative heights of cheaters, whose deceptive signals retain reliable acoustic cues to interindividual height. Importantly, although vocal deception biases listeners' absolute height judgments, listeners recalibrate their height assessments for vocalisers they correctly and concurrently identify as deceptive, particularly men judging men. Thus, while size exaggeration can fool listeners, benefiting the deceiver, its detection can reduce bias and mitigate costs for listeners, underscoring an unremitting arms-race between signallers and receivers in animal communication.


Asunto(s)
Tamaño Corporal , Decepción , Voz/fisiología , Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicación Animal , Animales , Percepción Auditiva , Evolución Biológica , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Humanos , Juicio , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573013

RESUMEN

The public health crisis created by COVID-19 represents a challenge for journalists and the media. Specialised information in healthcare and science has turned into a need to deal with the current situation as well as the demand for information by society. In this context of increased uncertainty, the circulation of fake news on social networks and messaging applications has proliferated, producing what has been known as 'infodemic'. This paper is focused on the fact-checking of journalistic content using a combined methodology: content analysis of information denied by the main Spanish fact-checking platforms (Maldita and Newtral) and an in-depth questionnaire to these stakeholders. The results confirm the quantitative and qualitative evolution of disinformation. Quantitatively, more fact-checking is performed during the state of alarm. Qualitatively, hoaxes increase in complexity as the pandemic evolves, in such a way that disinformation engineering takes place, and it is expected to continue until the development of a vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Decepción , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Pública , España/epidemiología
15.
Biol Psychol ; 159: 108026, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460780

RESUMEN

Research on deception focused on the investigation of event-related potentials (ERP) to facilitate our knowledge on cognitive-motivational processes underlying deception. We investigated the reliability of the frontal N2 amplitude in a modified Concealed Information Test (CIT) (N = 64 participants). Variations of Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were examined for number of epochs per stimulus type, task modality and types of ERP quantification. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients of the N2 increased with the number of epochs across task modality, stimulus types and electrode positions. In a pictorial CIT, the frontal N2 indicated excellent Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (≥ 0.90) across electrode positions and quantification methods for 25 epochs per stimulus type. At least 15 epochs were necessary to achieve excellent Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (≥ 0.90) of the peak-to-peak N2 in a modified CIT across electrode positions and stimulus types. We provide best-practice advises for the necessity to assess N2 in a modified CIT with excellent reliability.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Potenciales Evocados , Humanos , Motivación , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 213: 103250, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Deception detection is a prevalent problem for security practitioners. With a need for more large-scale approaches, automated methods using machine learning have gained traction. However, detection performance still implies considerable error rates. Findings from different domains suggest that hybrid human-machine integrations could offer a viable path in detection tasks. METHOD: We collected a corpus of truthful and deceptive answers about participants' autobiographical intentions (n = 1640) and tested whether a combination of supervised machine learning and human judgment could improve deception detection accuracy. Human judges were presented with the outcome of the automated credibility judgment of truthful or deceptive statements. They could either fully overrule it (hybrid-overrule condition) or adjust it within a given boundary (hybrid-adjust condition). RESULTS: The data suggest that in neither of the hybrid conditions did the human judgment add a meaningful contribution. Machine learning in isolation identified truth-tellers and liars with an overall accuracy of 69%. Human involvement through hybrid-overrule decisions brought the accuracy back to chance level. The hybrid-adjust condition did not improve deception detection performance. The decision-making strategies of humans suggest that the truth bias - the tendency to assume the other is telling the truth - could explain the detrimental effect. CONCLUSIONS: The current study does not support the notion that humans can meaningfully add the deception detection performance of a machine learning system. All data are available at https://osf.io/45z7e/.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Detección de Mentiras , Sesgo , Humanos , Intención , Juicio , Probabilidad
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 396-403, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395379

RESUMEN

Efforts to address misinformation on social media have special urgency with the emergence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In one effort, the World Health Organization (WHO) designed and publicized shareable infographics to debunk coronavirus myths. We used an experiment to test the efficacy of these infographics, depending on placement and source. We found that exposure to a corrective graphic on social media reduced misperceptions about the science of 1 false COVID-19 prevention strategy but did not affect misperceptions about prevention of COVID-19. Lowered misperceptions about the science persisted >1 week later. These effects were consistent when the graphic was shared by the World Health Organization or by an anonymous Facebook user and when the graphics were shared preemptively or in response to misinformation. Health organizations can and should create and promote shareable graphics to improve public knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Información de Salud al Consumidor/métodos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adulto , Comunicación , Decepción , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción , Organización Mundial de la Salud
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 650-652, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496232

RESUMEN

We conducted a survey among 735 parents to determine differences in endorsement of misinformation related to the coronavirus disease pandemic between parents of children in cancer treatment and those with children who had no cancer history. Parents of children with cancer were more likely to believe misinformation than parents of children without cancer.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Información de Salud al Consumidor , Neoplasias , Padres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Decepción , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Adv Mind Body Med ; 35(1): 34-37, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513584

RESUMEN

"Second victims" are clinicians who are traumatized after an unanticipated adverse patient event, medical error, or patient-related injury. Less recognized is the profound sense of betrayal and trauma that can occur in the context of patient deception. The implicit patient-healthcare provider contract assumes that patients are truthful with providers so they may obtain accurate diagnoses and effective treatments. Betrayal by deception can feel like a traumatic death; not of a person, but of a previously intimate and trusting relationship. Healthcare professionals are no better at detecting lies than the lay public and hold inaccurate beliefs about detectable signs of deception. Thus, healthcare professionals may be more vulnerable to betrayal by deception than they realize. The 2 clinical cases presented here reveal the ease with which healthcare providers can be misled, emotionally manipulated by individuals who superficially appear to be psychologically healthy and traumatized by betrayal by deception.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Decepción , Personal de Salud/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Confianza , Humanos
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