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1.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 401-405, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098688

RESUMEN

Pathological myopia, an important blinding eye disease worldwide, has caused a heavy social burden. The patients have become younger in recent years. In general, people have limited knowledge of pathological myopia. They often confuse pathological myopia with high myopia, and do not fully realize that pathological myopia is not only an ametropia disease, but also a fundus disease. Fundus complications of pathological myopia are the main causes of visual impairment, including posterior staphyloma, macular degeneration, and secondary choroidal neovascularization. All of them are related to axial length and can progress throughout the life, while the treatment is limited. At present, myopia prevention has become a national strategy, and pathological myopia is the key and difficult point in myopia prevention. The whole society should pay attention to the prevention and treatment for fundus complications of pathological myopia, take comprehensive measures, and increase scientific researches to protect the eye health of the people. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 401-405).


Asunto(s)
Neovascularización Coroidal , Oftalmopatías , Degeneración Macular , Miopía Degenerativa , Neovascularización Coroidal/etiología , Neovascularización Coroidal/prevención & control , Fondo de Ojo , Humanos , Miopía Degenerativa/complicaciones , Miopía Degenerativa/prevención & control
2.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 433-439, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098692

RESUMEN

Objective: To observe the efficacy of macular buckling in the treatment of highly myopic traction maculopathy. Methods: Retrospective case series study. The patients with high myopia who underwent macular buckling at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University from June 2014 to June 2019 were enrolled, including 136 males and 212 females. The age was (56.68±11.59) years old. The outcomes measured included retinal reattachment rate, foveoschisis recovery rate, macular hole closure rate, postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), axial length (AL), and complications. The measurements were recorded preoperatively and at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years postoperatively. The data was statistically analyzed using paired t test. Results: A total of 378 eyes were included, including 216 eyes with foveoschisis and macular detachment and 162 eyes with macular holes and macular detachment. Among them, 296 eyes underwent macular buckling, and the other 82 eyes underwent macular buckling combined with pars plana vitrectomy. During the follow-up period, 373 eyes (98.68%) achieved retinal reattachment; in patients with foveoschisis, 204 eyes (94.44%) were recovered; in patients with macular holes, 89 eyes (54.09%) achieved closure. All the postoperative results of BCVA were better than the preoperative value (1.459±0.841). BCVA continued to increase from postoperative month 1, remained stable at 1 year, and reached 0.908±0.606 at 3 years (t=6.896, P<0.01). All the postoperative results of AL were shorter than the preoperative value. The AL shortened by (4.423±1.740)mm at one month (t=33.144, P<0.01), increased gradually thereafter, remained stable at 1 year, and shortened by (2.101±1.643) mm at three years (t=6.392, P<0.01). The common complications included transient high intraocular pressure in 98 eyes (25.92%), epiretinal hemorrhage in 67 eyes (17.72%), and vitreous hemorrhage in 9 eyes (2.38%), which all resolved spontaneously within 1 month. In the early postoperative period, all patients had a certain degree of eye movement limitation, and 39 eyes (10.31%) had diplopia which resolved within 6 months without treatment. The strabismus surgery was arranged to treat esotropia in 6 eyes (1.58%). The macular buckle was removed from 1 eye (0.26%) because of the inability to tolerate diplopia. There were 8 eyes (2.11%) requiring a second operation to adjust the position of the buckle. The macular buckle was also removed from 4 eyes (1.05%) due to the implant rejection. Conclusion: Macular buckling can effectively shorten the AL, resolve posterior scleral staphyloma, and improve vision in the treatment of highly myopic traction maculopathy. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 433-439).


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Macular , Miopía Degenerativa , Desprendimiento de Retina , Perforaciones de la Retina , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miopía Degenerativa/cirugía , Desprendimiento de Retina/cirugía , Perforaciones de la Retina/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Curvatura de la Esclerótica , Tracción , Agudeza Visual , Vitrectomía
3.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 470-476, 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098698

RESUMEN

Myopia has become an important global public health problem, especially in East Asia. Due to its high prevalence and multiple ocular complications, it is imperative to take effective measures against the development of myopia. Recent studies have shown that outdoor activity is one of the protective factors for myopia and sunlight can delay the progression of myopia. As a possible mediator between sunlight and myopia, vitamin D gradually comes into public view. Vitamin D refers to a kind of secosteroids responsible for regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism. In addition to this main function, it is also correlated with many eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma etc. This review summarizes relevant epidemiologic and genetic studies as well as possible biological mechanisms to provide theoretical reference for the plausible application of vitamin D in the prevention and therapy of myopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 470-476).


Asunto(s)
Retinopatía Diabética , Degeneración Macular , Miopía , Ojo , Humanos , Miopía/etiología , Miopía/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Vitamina D
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013029, 2021 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097768

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in high-income countries. The majority of cases of AMD are of the non-exudative type. Experts have proposed photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy as a non-invasive procedure to restore mitochondrial function, upregulate cytoprotective factors and prevent apoptotic cell death in retinal tissue affected by AMD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of PBM compared to standard care, no treatment or sham treatment for people with non-exudative AMD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (Issue 5, 2020), Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, ISRCTN, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP to 11 May 2020 with no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on participants receiving any type of PBM therapy for non-exudative AMD compared to standard care, sham treatment or no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We considered the following outcome measures at 12 months: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ; contrast sensitivity; near vision; low luminance density score; reading speed; vision-related quality of life score; and adverse events such as progression of AMD and conversion to exudative AMD. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included two published RCTs from single centres in the UK and Canada, which recruited 60 participants (60 eyes) and 30 participants (46 eyes) respectively. Participants in these trials were people with non-exudative AMD with Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) categories 2 to 4. One study compared single wavelength PBM with no treatment. This study was at risk of performance bias because the study was not masked, and there was attrition bias. One study compared multi-wavelength PBM with sham treatment and conflicts of interest were reported by study investigators. We also identified three eligible ongoing RCTs from searching the clinical trials database. When comparing PBM with sham treatment or no treatment for non-exudative AMD, there was no evidence of any meaningful clinical difference in BCVA at 12 months (mean difference (MD) 0.02 logMAR, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.02 to 0.05; 2 RCTs, 90 eyes; low-certainty evidence). One study comparing multi-wavelength PBM with sham treatment showed an improvement in contrast sensitivity at Level E (18 cycles/degree) at 12 months (MD 0.29 LogCS, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.35; 1 RCT, 46 eyes; low-certainty evidence). Visual function and health-related quality of life scores were comparable between single wavelength PBM and no treatment groups at 12 months (VFQ-48 score MD 0.43, 95% CI -0.17 to 1.03; P = 0.16; 1 RCT, 47 eyes; low-certainty evidence). When comparing PBM with sham treatment or no treatment for non-exudative AMD, there was no evidence of any meaningful clinical difference in conversion to exudative AMD (risk ratio (RR) 0.97, 95% CI 0.17 to 5.44; 2 RCTs, 96 eyes; very low-certainty evidence) at 12 months. There was inconclusive evidence that single wavelength PBM prevents the progression of AMD (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.53; P = 0.48; 1 RCT, 50 eyes; low-certainty evidence). Disease progression was defined as the development of advanced AMD or significant increase in drusen volume. No included study reported near vision, low luminance vision or reading speed outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently there remains uncertainty whether PBM treatment is beneficial in slowing progression of non-exudative macular degeneration. There is a need for further well-designed controlled trials assessing dosimetry, powered for both effectiveness and safety outcomes. Consideration should be given to the adoption of agreed clinical outcome measures and patient-based outcome measures for AMD.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad/métodos , Degeneración Macular/radioterapia , Sesgo , Intervalos de Confianza , Sensibilidad de Contraste , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad/efectos adversos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Placebos , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Agudeza Visual
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 249-257, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248973

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Purpose: Paraoxonase-1 activity is associated with age-related macular degeneration. Two polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R) were shown to increase paraoxonase-1 activity and have been implicated in the development of age-related macular degeneration. The results of studies that have examined these polymorphisms are conflicting, showing no effect, as well as increased or decreased risk. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of these polymorphisms on age-related macular degeneration. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, LILACS, and Scopus databases, as well as and the retrieved bibliographies of publications were searched for case-control studies that examined for paraoxonase-1 polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.2 and the NCSS Statistical Version 2020 software. Genotype distributions were extracted and, depending on the level of heterogeneity, fixed effects or random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, and allelic genetic models. Results: Overall, for the L55M polymorphism, none of the genetic models demonstrated a significant association. However, for non-Asian populations, a significant association was determined for the heterozygous and dominant genetic models (ORrange=1.24-1.27, p<0.05). For the Asian population, the heterozygous, dominant, and allelic genetic models demonstrated a benefit/protective factor (ORrange=0.29-0.35, p<0.05). For the Q192R polymorphism, none of the genetic models demonstrated a significant association. However, when the cohort was grouped by ethnicity, a significant association was determined in the Asian population for the recessive and allelic genetic models (ORrange=1.63-2.08, p<0.05). However, for the non-Asian population, there was no association observed. Also, there was no identifiable risk when the cohort was stratified into exudative and non-exudative cases. Conclusions: The paraoxonase-1L55M polymorphism increases the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration in non-Asian populations, whereas in Asian populations, the polymorphism exerts a protective effect. However, for the paraoxonase-1 Q192R polymorphism, only the Asian population demonstrated a risk of developing age-related macular degeneration.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: A atividade da paraoxonase1 está associada à degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Dois polimorfismos (L55M e Q192R) mostraram aumentar a atividade da paraoxonase1 e foram implicados no desenvolvimento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Os estudos que examinaram esses polimorfismos apresentaram resultados conflitantes: nenhum efeito, risco aumentado ou diminuído. Assim, esta meta-análise foi realizada para determinar o efeito desses polimorfismos na degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Métodos: Foi feita uma busca nos bancos de dados PubMed, EBSCO, LILACS e SCOPUS, bem como nas bibliografias compiladas das publicações, buscando-se estudos caso-controle que tivessem analisado os polimorfismos da paraoxonase1 e a degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Os dados foram analisados com software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, versão 2.2, e NCSS Statistical, versão 2020. As distribuições de genótipos foram extraídas e, dependendo do nível de heterogeneidade, modelos de efeitos fixos ou aleatórios foram utilizados para calcular razões de probabilidade (RPs) combinadas, com intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC 95%) para os modelos genéticos heterozigoto, homozigoto, dominante, recessivo e alélico. Resultados: Em geral, nenhum dos modelos genéticos demonstrou associação significativa para o polimorfismo L55M. Entretanto, em populações não asiáticas, foi determinada uma associação significativa para os modelos genéticos heterozigoto e dominante (RPfaixa=1,24-1,27, p<0,05). Para a população asiática, os modelos heterozigoto, dominante e alélico mostraram um fator benéfico ou protetor (RPfaixa=0,29-0,35, p<0,05). Para o polimorfismo Q192R, nenhum dos modelos genéticos demonstrou qualquer associação significativa. Porém, quando a coorte foi agrupada por etnia, determinou-se uma associação significativa na população asiática para os modelos genéticos recessivo e alélico (RPfaixa=1,63-2,08, p<0,05). Contudo, nenhuma associação foi observada para a população não asiática. Não houve risco identificável quando a coorte foi estratificada em exsudativa e não exsudativa. Conclusões: Determinamos que o polimorfismo L55M da paraoxonase1 de fato aumenta o risco de desenvolvimento de degeneração macular relacionada à idade em populações não asiáticas, enquanto que em populações asiáticas, esse polimorfismo tem um efeito protetor. Porém, para o polimorfismo Q192R da paraoxonase1, apenas a população asiática demonstrou risco de desenvolver degeneração macular relacionada à idade.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Arildialquilfosfatasa , Degeneración Macular/etiología , Grupos Étnicos
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 225-229, May-June 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248976

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate visual function and changes in the central macular thickness of patients with unresponsive neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched from ranibizumab (Lucentis®) to aflibercept (Eylea®) treatment at 30 months. Methods: This retrospective study examined patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched to aflibercept after ≥6 previous intravitreal ranibizumab injections at 4- to 8-week intervals. All patients were switched to intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg) and analyzed after 3 consecutive injections followed by a prore nata dosing regimen and after 30 months of treatment. Best corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopic examination, intraocular pressure, fundus examination, and central macular thickness were recorded at the start of treatment, before the transition to intravitreal aflibercept treatment, and at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of intravitreal aflibercept treatment. Results: A total of 33 eyes met the inclusion criteria. The median age of the patients was 73.57 ± 7.98 years, and 21 (61.8%) patients were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Before the transition, the patients received a mean of 16.8 ± 8.8 ranibizumab injections (range 6-38).After the transition to intravitreal aflibercept treatment, the mean number of aflibercept injections was 9.09 ± 3.94. No significant differences were observed in best corrected visual acuity after the aflibercept switch in any of the months. The central macular thickness was significantly decreased at 6, 12, 18, and 30 months (p=0.01, p=0.03, p=0.05, p=0.05, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched to intravitreal aflibercept treatment due to unresponsiveness to intravitreal ranibizumab exhibited a significant anatomic improvement in the retina, and although this state persisted, there was no significant functional gain.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar, depois de 30 meses, a função visual e as alterações na espessura macular central de pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade sem resposta terapêutica ao ranibizumabe (Lucentis®) que mudaram seu tratamento para o aflibercepte (Eylea®). Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com degeneração macular neovascular relacionada à idade que mudaram o tratamento para o aflibercepte após 6 ou mais injeções intravítreas de ranibizumabe a intervalos de 4-8 semanas. Todos os pacientes mudaram para o aflibercepte intravítreo (2,0 mg) e depois de 3 injeções consecutivas, seguidas de um regime de dosagem pro re nata, foram avaliados após 30 meses de tratamento. A melhor acuidade visual corrigida, o exame biomicroscópico, a pressão intraocular, a fundoscopia e a espessura macular central foram registrados no início do tratamento, antes da transição para o tratamento com aflibercepte intravítreo e aos 6, 12, 18, 24 e 30 meses de tratamento com o aflibercepte intravítreo. Resultados: Satisfizeram aos critérios de inclusão 33 olhos. A mediana da idade dos pacientes foi de 73,57 ± 7,98 anos. Dos pacientes, 21 (61,8%) eram homens e 12 (35,3%) eram mulheres. Antes da transição para o tratamento com o aflibercepte intravítreo, os pacientes receberam em média 16,8 ± 8,8 injeções de ranibizumabe (faixa 6-38).Depois da transição, o número médio de injeções de aflibercepte foi de 9,09 ± 3,94. Não houve diferenças significativas na melhor acuidade visual corrigida depois da mudança para o aflibercepte em qualquer das avaliações. Houve diminuição significativa da espessura macular central aos 6, 12, 18 e 30 meses (respectivamente, p=0,01, p=0,03, p=0,05, p=0,05 e p<0,001). Conclusão: Pacientes com degeneração macular neovascular relacionada à idade que mudaram seu tratamento para o aflibercepte intravítreo devido à falta de resposta ao ranibizumabe intravítreo, tiveram melhora anatômica significativa da retina; mas embora esse estado tenha persistido, não foi observado nenhum ganho funcional significativo.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Retina/patología , Agudeza Visual , Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/uso terapéutico , Ranibizumab/uso terapéutico , Degeneración Macular/fisiopatología , Estudios Retrospectivos
7.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the outcomes of home monitoring of distortion caused by macular diseases using a smartphone-based application (app), and to examine them with hospital-based assessments of visual acuity (VA), optical coherence tomography-derived central macular thickness (CMT) and the requirement of intravitreal injection therapy. DESIGN: Observational study with retrospective analysis of data. METHODS: Participants were trained in the correct use of the app (Alleye, Oculocare, Zurich, Switzerland) in person or by using video and telephone consultations. Automated threshold-based alerts were communicated based on a traffic light system. A 'threshold alarm' was defined as three consecutive 'red' scores, and turned into a 'persistent alarm' if present for greater than a 7-day period. Changes of VA and CMT, and the requirement for intravitreal therapy after an alarm were examined. RESULTS: 245 patients performing a total of 11 592 tests (mean 46.9 tests per user) were included and 85 eyes (164 alarms) examined. Mean drop in VA from baseline was -4.23 letters (95% CI: -6.24 to -2.22; p<0.001) and mean increase in CMT was 29.5 µm (95% CI: -0.08 to 59.13; p=0.051). Sixty-six eyes (78.5%) producing alarms either had a drop in VA, increase in CMT or both and 60.0% received an injection. Eyes with persistent alarms had a greater loss of VA, -4.79 letters (95% CI: -6.73 to -2.85; p<0.001) or greater increase in CMT, +87.8 µm (95% CI: 5.2 to 170.4; p=0.038). CONCLUSION: Smartphone-based self-tests for macular disease may serve as reliable indicators for the worsening of pathology and the need for treatment.


Asunto(s)
Inyecciones Intravítreas/estadística & datos numéricos , Degeneración Macular , Consulta Remota/estadística & datos numéricos , Teléfono Inteligente , Agudeza Visual/fisiología , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Degeneración Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneración Macular/patología , Masculino , Aplicaciones Móviles , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 255, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957968

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypotony maculopathy has been classically reported as a complication of glaucoma surgery or ocular trauma. There have been only a few reports of hypotony maculopathy following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Here, we report two cases of hypotony maculopathy occurring after PPV for epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal and characteristic photoreceptor folds observed on optical coherence tomography (OCT). CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old Korean woman (case 1) underwent phacoemulsification and posterior chamber lens implantation combined with 25-gauge PPV for ERM removal in the right eye. On the following day, she had severe ocular hypotony, with an intraocular pressure (IOP) that was unmeasurable using a pneumatic tonometer. Despite normalization of IOP, macular retinal and photoreceptor folds with photoreceptor disruptions developed, and Henle's fiber layer hyperreflectivity was identified. Thereafter, retinal and photoreceptor folds gradually disappeared but photoreceptor disruption and Henle's fiber layer hyperreflectivity did not improve until 1 year postoperatively, with persistent central visual field distortion and visual acuity worse than that at the preoperative state. A 20-year-old Korean man (case 2) underwent an additional 25-gauge PPV for ERM removal in the left eye. Examination on the following day showed ocular hypotony and retinal folds with peripheral choroidal detachment. Although IOP was normalized, further OCT revealed photoreceptor folds and photoreceptor disruptions. Since then, the photoreceptor folds resolved; however, the photoreceptor disruption remained in the macula at the 1-year follow up, with persistent distorted vision and visual acuity worse than that at the preoperative state. CONCLUSIONS: Early hypotony after vitrectomy for ERM could result in maculopathy leading to irreversible visual decline and metamorphopsia. Photoreceptor folds on OCT are characteristic features and the predominant mechanism of central visual loss in cases of hypotony maculopathy.


Asunto(s)
Membrana Epirretinal , Degeneración Macular , Hipotensión Ocular , Enfermedades de la Retina , Adulto , Membrana Epirretinal/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hipotensión Ocular/etiología , Hipotensión Ocular/cirugía , Enfermedades de la Retina/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Vitrectomía , Adulto Joven
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(6): 1430-1439, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011714

RESUMEN

Purpose: The aim of this study was to present the outcomes of the Vitreo-retinal Society of India (VRSI) Practice Pattern Survey 2020 in medical retina. Methods: An online survey of members of VRSI was conducted in April 2020 regarding their practice-patterns on varied medical and surgical retina topics concerning imaging and management approach. The results were evaluated by two independent experts in this field and compared with the evidence and other practice patterns in the world. Results: A total of 107 VRSI members participated in the online survey. Responses were obtained on management of wide-ranging chorioretinal disorders such as Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR), Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV), Neovascular age related macular degeneration (n-AMD), Retinal Vein Occlusions (RVO), and Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). Participants were also surveyed regarding their attitudes and perceptions about anti-VEGF practice patterns and role of imaging in their current practice. Each of the survey question responses were then compared to contemporary literature, including evidence-based guidelines, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), real-world evidence and analogous international surveys. Comprehensive analysis related to this has been put forward in the article. Conclusion: This survey represents the contemporary practice patterns amongst vitreoretinal specialists in India. The survey results are vital for fellow practitioners to understand the 'standard of care' practice in medical retina. This will guide them to devise the best possible individualized treatment strategy for most favorable clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Coriorretinopatía Serosa Central , Enfermedades de la Coroides , Degeneración Macular , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Retina
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(6): 1464-1468, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011721

RESUMEN

Purpose: To compare morphological features of staphyloma (type and grade) with structural and functional outcomes in 11 patients with symptomatic myopic tractional maculopathy (MTM) who underwent macular buckle surgery. Methods: A retrospective observational case series, where a chart review was conducted of the type (Curtin classification) and grade of staphyloma (USG B-scan based). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) macula analysis done preoperatively and postoperatively 1 and 6-8 weeks), Visual acuity was recorded in log mar. Results: With an average myopia of -10.35 D (-5 to -14.5 D), there were four patients with types II and IX staphyloma and seven with type I staphyloma. The average axial length was 28.6 ± 0.98 mm in type II/IX and 26.2 ± 0.8 mm in type I. Preoperative OCT features were outer retinal layer schisis (11), retinal detachment (foveal: 2, macular: 8), macular hole (lamellar: 3, full thickness: 4), and taut posterior hyaloid (3). Postoperatively, patients with type II/IX staphyloma had significant gain in visual acuity from 1.05 ± 0.3 to 0.74 ± 0.2 Log Mar. The structural features also responded better in patients with types II/IX staphyloma, with all patients having more than 90% reduction in schisis and retinal attachment at 6 weeks. Whereas only two patients with type I staphyloma had similar reduction in schisis at 6 weeks and only one had complete retinal attachment. Conclusion: In patients with MTM, the staphyloma characteristics preoperatively can help us prognosticate about structural and functional success after macular buckle surgery. In our small case series, patients with type II/IX staphyloma and larger axial length had better structural and functional outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Macular , Miopía Degenerativa , Perforaciones de la Retina , Humanos , Miopía Degenerativa/complicaciones , Miopía Degenerativa/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Tracción
11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(6): 1469-1474, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011722

RESUMEN

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and morphological response of intravitreal ranibizumab biosimilar (Razumab) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD) up to 12 weeks. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 20 eyes of n-AMD receiving 4 weekly intravitreal Razumab. Main outcome measures were mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraretinal-fluid (IRF), subretinal-fluid (SRF), central-subfield thickness (CSFT), maximum central-retinal thickness (CRT), and dimensions of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) from baseline to weeks 4, 8 and 12. Results: Improvement in BCVA was seen at all visits, although not significantly (4 weeks: P = 0.18; 8 weeks: P = 0.4; 12 weeks: P = 0. 06). At 12 weeks, 90% of eyes either maintained or had an improvement in BCVA, with 40% of them showing an improvement of ≥3-lines and only 5% of them losing ≥3-lines of visual acuity. The median PED height and PED width reduced by 20.5 µm (P = 0.03) and 557.5 µm (P = 0.14), respectively, along with a mean reduction of 57.26 µmin CSFT (P < 0.001) and 44.15 µm in CRT (P = 0.004), respectively, at 12 weeks. On qualitative analysis, resolution of SRF and IRF was observed in 45% and 25% of eyes ' at 12 weeks. There were no serious ocular or systemic side effects identified. Conclusion: In real-world scenario, Razumab is an efficacious and economical anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agent for optimal management of n-AMD. The therapeutic outcomes demonstrated reasonable stabilization and improvement in visual acuity, favorable anatomical outcomes pertaining to OCT-biomarkers with an acceptable safety profile.


Asunto(s)
Biosimilares Farmacéuticos , Degeneración Macular , Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Lactante , Inyecciones Intravítreas , Degeneración Macular/tratamiento farmacológico , Ranibizumab/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Resultado del Tratamiento , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular
13.
Orv Hetil ; 162(22): 851-860, 2021 05 30.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052799

RESUMEN

Összefoglaló. A látószerv különbözo betegségei, valamint egyes szisztémás megbetegedések részben vagy kifejezetten az ideghártya károsodásával járnak. A patológia segítségével ma már tudjuk, hogy ezek a betegségek a retina mely rétegének vagy rétegeinek elváltozásait okozzák: míg az idoskori maculadegeneratio a külso retinában található fotoreceptorokat érinti kifejezetten a fovea centralis területén, addig a glaucoma a belso retina ganglionsejtjeinek pusztulásával, valamint e sejtek opticusrostjainak károsodásával jár a stratum ganglionaréban és a stratum neurofibrarumban. Az emberi retina sejtjei azonban egyelore nem maradéktalanul karakterizáltak, az egyes sejttípusok számát csak becsülni tudjuk, így nem írhatók le az egyes sejtszintu elváltozások sem kello pontossággal. A szövettani feldolgozás és vizsgálat megfelelo részletességgel tájékoztat a diagnózisról és az elváltozás súlyosságáról, értelemszeruen azonban ez a módszer in vivo nem használható a mindennapi klinikai gyakorlatban. A sejtszintu elváltozások ismerete az egyes kórképekben felvetette és szükségessé tette olyan in vivo, a klinikumban is alkalmazható vizsgálómódszerek kifejlesztését, amelyek lehetoséget nyújtanak a retina neurális és egyéb sejtjeinek celluláris és szubcelluláris szintu vizsgálatára, ideértve a vér alakos elemeit is, amelyek egészséges vagy neovascularis eredetu erekben áramlanak. A jelenleg is használt klinikai vizsgálatok mellett ezek a képalkotó módszerek segítségül szolgálhatnak a diagnózis megerosítésében vagy elvetésében, emellett az elváltozás súlyosságának megítélésében, valamint a progresszió vagy remisszió monitorozásában. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(22): 851-860. Summary. Diseases of the visual system as well as many systemic illnesses are usually associated with retinal damage. With the help of pathology, we can clearly identify the affected layer(s): while age-related macular degeneration mostly damages the photoreceptors in the outer retina at the central fovea, glaucoma promotes ganglion cell death in the ganglion cell layer and damages respective neural fibers. However, the diverse cell types of the human retina have not been fully characterized yet, thus in most cases our knowledge on cellular pathologies is not precise enough. While histopathological preparation and examination of the retinal tissue provide more detailed information about the diagnosis and the severity of the condition, unfortunately, it cannot be used in vivo in everyday clinical practice. Our understanding of the cellular changes in different diseases has revealed a need for new everyday clinical examination methods that can be used in vivo to asses cellular and subcellular changes in neural and other cells of the retina, such as blood cells flowing in healthy vessels or in vessels of neovascular origin. In addition to the currently used clinical examination methods, these imaging methods could help confirm or dismiss diagnoses, assess the severity of a condition, and monitor disease progression or remission. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(22): 851-860.


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Macular , Enfermedades de la Retina , Diagnóstico por Imagen , Humanos , Neuronas , Retina
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946898

RESUMEN

Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and death of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), a polarized monolayer that maintains retinal health and homeostasis, lead to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Several studies show that the naturally occurring antioxidant Lutein (Lut) can protect RPE cells from oxidative stress. However, the poor solubility and low oral bioavailability limit the potential of Lut as a therapeutic agent. In this study, lutein diglutaric acid (Lut-DG), a prodrug of Lut, was synthesized and its ability to protect human ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress was tested compared to Lut. Both Lut and Lut-DG significantly decreased H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and protected RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced death. Moreover, the immunoblotting analysis indicated that both drugs exerted their protective effects by modulating phosphorylated MAPKs (p38, ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK) and downstream molecules Bax, Bcl-2 and Cytochrome c. In addition, the enzymatic antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) were enhanced in cells treated with Lut and Lut-DG. In all cases, Lut-DG was more effective than its parent drug against oxidative stress-induced damage to RPE cells. These findings highlight Lut-DG as a more potent compound than Lut with the protective effects against oxidative stress in RPE cells through the modulation of key MAPKs, apoptotic and antioxidant molecular pathways.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Luteína/análogos & derivados , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Profármacos/farmacología , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de la Apoptosis/biosíntesis , Proteínas Reguladoras de la Apoptosis/genética , Catalasa/biosíntesis , Catalasa/genética , Línea Celular , Citocromos c/biosíntesis , Citocromos c/genética , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Glutatión/biosíntesis , Glutatión/genética , Glutatión Peroxidasa/biosíntesis , Glutatión Peroxidasa/genética , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/toxicidad , Luteína/química , Luteína/farmacología , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Degeneración Macular/tratamiento farmacológico , Estructura Molecular , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/citología
15.
Cesk Slov Oftalmol ; 77(2): 55-59, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985334

RESUMEN

AIMS: The aim of the work is to point out the transmission of electrical voltage changes in the visual analyser and thus the efficiency of the bionic eye. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The review deals with the question of the transmission of electrical changes in visual path voltage under physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, it points to feedback autoregulatory damage not only of primarily altered cellular structures, but of all other, both horizontally and vertically localized. Based on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological methods, it shows the pathology of the entire visual pathway in three eye diseases: retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. RESULTS: The thesis also provides an overview of possible systems that are used to replace lost vision, from epiretinal, subretinal, suprachoroidal implants, through stimulation of the optic nerve, corpus geniculatum laterale to the visual cortex. CONCLUSION: Due to the pathology of neurotransmission, bionic eye systems cannot be expected to be restored after stabilization of binocular functions.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Estimulación Eléctrica , Degeneración Macular , Prótesis Visuales , Humanos , Transmisión Sináptica , Visión Ocular
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925284

RESUMEN

High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol has traditionally been considered the "good cholesterol", and most of the research regarding HDL cholesterol has for decades revolved around the possible role of HDL in atherosclerosis and its therapeutic potential within atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Randomized trials aiming at increasing HDL cholesterol have, however, failed and left questions to what role HDL cholesterol plays in human health and disease. Recent observational studies involving non-cardiovascular diseases have shown that high levels of HDL cholesterol are not necessarily associated with beneficial outcomes as observed for age-related macular degeneration, type II diabetes, dementia, infection, and mortality. In this narrative review, we discuss these interesting associations between HDL cholesterol and non-cardiovascular diseases, covering observational studies, human genetics, and plausible mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/efectos adversos , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/fisiología , Aterosclerosis , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Enfermedad/etiología , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapéutico , Degeneración Macular , Factores de Riesgo
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922669

RESUMEN

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease of the retina featured by dysfunction of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) and loss of photoreceptor cells under oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions. Vitamin D and antioxidants have beneficial effects against retinal degenerative diseases, such as AMD. We investigated the impact of associating vitamin D (ND) with a nutritional antioxidant complex (Nutrof Total®; N) on oxidative stress and inflammation-like induced conditions by H2O2 and LPS, respectively, in human retinal epithelial (ARPE-19) and human retinal endothelial (HREC) cells. Application of either N or ND treatments to H2O2-induced media in ARPE-19 cells counteracted late apoptosis, attenuated oxidative DNA damage, and increased cell proliferation. Significant reduction in the expression levels of MCP1, IL-8, and IL6 cytokines was observed following application of either N or ND treatments under LPS-induced conditions in ARPE-19 cells and in MCP-1 and IL12p70 cytokine levels in HREC cells. ND and not N revealed significant downregulation of IFNγ in ARPE-19 cells, and of IL-6 and IL-18 in HREC cells. In conclusion, adding vitamin D to Nutrof Total® protects in a synergistic way against oxidative and inflammatory stress-induced conditions in retinal epithelial and endothelial cells.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Células Endoteliales/patología , Degeneración Macular/patología , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/patología , Vitamina D/farmacología , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxicoguanosina/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Oxidación-Reducción/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/efectos de los fármacos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920232

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is evaluate the efficacy and safety of medicinal products containing the original Age-Related Eye Disease group (AREDS) formulation at doses approved in Europe (EU, control group; n = 59) with a product that adds DHA, lutein, zeaxanthin, resveratrol and hydroxytyrosol to the formula (intervention group; n = 50). This was a multicenter, randomized, observer-blinded trial conducted in patients aged 50 years or older diagnosed with unilateral exudative Age related Macular Degeneration AMD. At month 12, the intervention did not have a significant differential effect on visual acuity compared with the control group, with an estimated treatment difference in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of -1.63 (95% CI -0.83 to 4.09; p = 0.192). The intervention exhibited a significant and, in most cases, relevant effect in terms of a reduction in some inflammatory cytokines and a greater improvement in the fatty acid profile and serum lutein and zeaxantin concentration. In patients with unilateral wet AMD, the addition of lutein, zeaxanthin, resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol and DHA to the AREDS EU recommended doses in the short-term did not have a differential effect on visual acuity compared to a standard AREDS EU formula but, in addition to improving the fatty acid profile and increasing carotenoid serum levels, may provide a beneficial effect in improving the proinflammatory and proangiogenic profile of patients with AMD.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos/efectos adversos , Degeneración Macular/dietoterapia , Nutrientes/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Luteína/administración & dosificación , Luteína/efectos adversos , Degeneración Macular/sangre , Degeneración Macular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nutrientes/efectos adversos , Alcohol Feniletílico/administración & dosificación , Alcohol Feniletílico/efectos adversos , Alcohol Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Resveratrol/administración & dosificación , Resveratrol/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Agudeza Visual , Xantófilas/administración & dosificación , Zeaxantinas/administración & dosificación , Zeaxantinas/efectos adversos
19.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 227: 222-230, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831342

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a mobile application, the Checkup Vision Assessment System, could reliably monitor visual acuity (VA) and metamorphopsia remotely versus standard VA reference tests in the clinic. With the current COVID-19 pandemic, an even greater need for remote monitoring exists. Mobile tools enhance the ability to monitor patients virtually by enabling remote monitoring of VA and Amsler grid findings. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter reliability analysis. METHODS: Participants: Patients (N = 108) with near corrected VA better than 20/200 and a diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, or healthy patients without retinal disease (best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA] of 20/32 or better). INTERVENTION: participants were tested using the Checkup, reference VA, and Amsler tests, with the order of testing (Checkup or reference) randomized. Patients monitored their vision using Checkup at least twice a week at home between office visits. Main outcome measurements were near corrected VA and Amsler grid test results. RESULTS: Agreement was strong between Checkup and reference tests for VA (r = 0.86) and Amsler grid (sensitivity: 93%; specificity: 92%). Home versus clinic testing showed excellent agreement (r = 0.96). Patients reported successful home use. There were no serious adverse events or discontinuations. Patients rated the usability of Checkup to be excellent. CONCLUSIONS: There was good agreement between Checkup and in-clinic test results for VA and Amsler grid. The low variance of Checkup testing, agreement between in-clinic and home results, and excellent usability support Checkup as a reliable method for monitoring retinal pathology in clinic and home settings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Retinopatía Diabética/fisiopatología , Degeneración Macular/fisiopatología , Aplicaciones Móviles , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Agudeza Visual , Campos Visuales/fisiología , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Retinopatía Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatía Diabética/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Degeneración Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneración Macular/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , SARS-CoV-2
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