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1.
Violence Vict ; 39(1): 88-103, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453370

RESUMEN

Polyvictimization has received substantial scholarly attention globally since it has been put forward two decades ago. However, the current lack of understanding of the causes of polyvictimization hinders the design of intervention programs. This study aims to integrate social bonding theory and lifestyle-routine activity theory to understand the etiology of polyvictimization in the Chinese context. Our results suggest that social bonding exerted not only a direct effect on polyvictimization (ß = -.030, p < .001) but also an indirect effect through delinquency and association with delinquent peers. Surprisingly, we found that the pathways linking social bonding and polyvictimization do not differ across genders. Implications for practice and theories are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Delincuencia Juvenil , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estilo de Vida , Asunción de Riesgos , Pueblos del Este de Asia
2.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 134, 2024 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459519

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment stands as a salient risk factor in the etiology of juvenile delinquency, with a profound impact on the behavioral trajectories of young offenders. However, there is limited research on latent profile analysis to explore distinctive patterns of childhood maltreatment in Chinese juvenile offenders. Consequently, there is a lack of understanding regarding the associations between maltreatment profiles and relevant variables in this context. The present study aimed to explore meaningful subgroups of childhood maltreatment in juvenile offenders, and we further examined the associations between subgroups and multiple outcomes especially psychopathy. METHODS: The data was obtained from a sample of Chinese juvenile offenders (N = 625, M age = 17.22, SD = 1.23). This study employed a latent profile analysis (LPA) based on factor scores of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form to identify the subgroups and examined the differences across subgroups using outcomes variables including psychopathy, callous-unemotional traits, aggression and anxiety. This study includes three self-report measures to evaluate psychopathy, with due regard for the nuanced considerations on the factor structure inherent in the conceptualization of psychopathy. RESULTS: Two subgroups were identified, including the non-maltreatment subgroup (80.2%) and the maltreatment subgroup (19.8%). Maltreatment subgroup was characterized by a greater level of all types of maltreatment with particularly higher of emotion neglect. Besides, we found that maltreatment subgroup showed a significantly higher level of psychopathy across multiple self-report measures, and greater callous-unemotional traits, lack of empathy, aggression and anxiety. We found two subgroups of child maltreatment in Chinese juvenile offenders. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may provide a further understanding of childhood maltreatment and the clinical intervention on psychopathy in the early period.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Criminales , Delincuencia Juvenil , Pruebas Psicológicas , Autoinforme , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , China/epidemiología
3.
Evol Psychol ; 22(1): 14747049241241432, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528754

RESUMEN

While a wealth of research has focused on testing several arguments from Moffitt's developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior-mainly the presence of life-course-persistent vs. adolescence-limited offending and predictors of each trajectory-much less attention has been devoted to examining how evolutionarily adaptive lifestyle factors common during adolescence may condition the relationship between the maturity gap and delinquent offending. One factor that may play a role during this period of development is alcohol use, as many adolescents begin to experiment with consuming alcohol in varying degrees in social settings to model adult-like behaviors. Yet presently much is unknown about the role of alcohol use on the association between the maturity gap and delinquency. The current study aims to address this void in the literature by analyzing data from a U.S. sample of adolescent males (N = 1,276) to assess whether alcohol use moderates the relationship between the maturity gap and delinquent behavior. Findings suggest that the maturity gap is associated with delinquent behavior and that the association becomes weaker at higher levels of alcohol use. The implications of these findings for Moffitt's maturity gap thesis and male offending from an evolutionary perspective are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Delincuencia Juvenil , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Evolución Biológica , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología
4.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 52(1): 51-60, 2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467440

RESUMEN

Multisystemic therapy (MST) is an intense, family-focused, community-based treatment designed for youth with criminal behaviors. Literature on its usefulness among juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs) remains limited. We conducted a systematic review of published studies assessing effectiveness of MST among JSOs. A comprehensive search of published studies, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, was undertaken using multiple databases. Search terms included "multisystemic therapy" or "multisystemic family therapy." A total of 542 articles were obtained on initial search. After excluding duplicates, 297 articles were included in further analysis that yielded 48 articles for full-text analysis. Six randomized controlled trials of MST, comprising 231 juvenile sex-offenders, were assessed for final review. MST performed favorably relative to alternative treatments among juvenile sex offenders while also demonstrating lasting treatment effect on sustained follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Delincuencia Juvenil , Delitos Sexuales , Humanos , Adolescente , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Psicoterapia , Conducta Sexual , Terapia Familiar
5.
Evol Psychol ; 22(1): 14747049231225146, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225172

RESUMEN

Despite clear aversion to such labels, one of the most impactful criminological theories is rooted in cognitive science. Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory has been repeatedly tested, replicated relatively well, and has since reached beyond its original scope to explain other important outcomes like victimization. However, the work never viewed itself as part of a larger scientific landscape and resisted the incursion of neuroscience, cognitive science, and evolutionary theory from the start. This missed opportunity contributes to some of the theory's shortcomings. We begin by considering relevant literatures that were originally excluded and then conduct a new analysis examining the cognitive underpinnings of victimization in a high-risk sample of adolescents. We used the Future of Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 3,444; 48% female; 49% Black, 25% Hispanic) which contained sound measures of self-control and intelligence, as well as four types of adolescent victimization. Self-control was robustly associated with all forms of victimization, whereas intelligence had generally no detectable effect. We discuss how these findings fit into a broader understanding about self-control and victimization.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Delincuencia Juvenil , Autocontrol , Niño , Adolescente , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Autocontrol/psicología , Ciencia Cognitiva
6.
Assessment ; 31(2): 444-459, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37039543

RESUMEN

Youth self-reports are a mainstay of delinquency assessment; however, making valid inferences about delinquency using these assessments requires equivalent measurement across groups of theoretical interest. We examined whether a brief 10-item delinquency measure exhibited measurement invariance across non-Hispanic White (n = 6,064) and Black (n = 1,666) youth (ages 10-11 years old) in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Developmentsm Study (ABCD Study®). We detected differential item functioning (DIF) in two items. Black youth were more likely to report being arrested or picked up by police than White youth with the same score on the latent delinquency trait. Although multiple covariates (income, urgency, and callous-unemotional traits) reduced mean-level difference in overall delinquency, they were generally unrelated to the DIF in the Arrest item. However, the DIF in the Arrest item was reduced in size and no longer significant after adjusting for neighborhood safety. Results illustrate the importance of considering measurement invariance when using self-reported delinquency scores to draw inferences about group differences, and the utility of measurement invariance analyses for helping to identify mechanisms that contribute to group differences generally.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Delincuencia Juvenil , Autoinforme , Niño , Humanos , Cognición , Negro o Afroamericano , Blanco , Sesgo
7.
Sex Abuse ; 36(3): 349-380, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37095700

RESUMEN

Maltreatment is a risk factor for both sexual and non-sexual delinquency. Little is known about how specific forms of maltreatment relate to the distinct offending outcomes. Though trauma symptoms have been associated with maltreatment and delinquency, the intervening role of trauma symptoms in pathways from maltreatment to offending is not well understood. The goal of the current study was to test social learning and general strain theory explanations for sexual and non-sexual delinquency in adolescence, exploring trauma symptoms as a mediator between the four major types of maltreatment and offending outcomes. Data were collected via surveys of 136 incarcerated youth at seven residential treatment and community corrections facilities in a Midwestern state. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to establish a measurement model, and structural equation modeling was employed to test direct and indirect pathways from maltreatment to offending. Individual forms of maltreatment had differential relationships with offending outcomes, with neglect having a significant association with non-sexual delinquency, and sexual abuse having a significant direct relationship with sexual delinquency. Trauma symptomology did not mediate these relationships. Future research should explore developmentally appropriate proxies for measuring childhood trauma. Practice and policy should consider the role of maltreatment victimization history in the inception of delinquency behaviors, prioritizing therapeutic alternatives to detention and incarceration.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Víctimas de Crimen , Delincuencia Juvenil , Delitos Sexuales , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Conducta Sexual
8.
Assessment ; 31(2): 418-430, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37038332

RESUMEN

The Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF) is a widely used structured professional judgment (SPJ) tool. Its indices have predictive validity regarding desistance from future violence in adult correctional/forensic psychiatric populations. Although not intended for applied use with youth, SAPROF items lend themselves to an investigation of whether their operationalizations capture only strengths or also risks. With 229 justice-involved male adolescents followed for a fixed 3-year period, promotive, risk, and mixed effects were found. Most SAPROF items exerted a mixed effect, being associated with higher and lower likelihoods of violent and any reoffending at opposite ends of their trichotomous ratings. Summing items weighted using their promotive and risk odds ratios produced statistically significant improvements in predictive accuracy, improvements found also with a cross-validation sample of 171 justice-involved youth. The nature of strengths and implications for the development of SPJ tools and training in their use were discussed.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Delincuencia Juvenil , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Factores Protectores , Medición de Riesgo , Predicción , Violencia/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Criminales/psicología
10.
J Relig Health ; 63(1): 531-550, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37755625

RESUMEN

Adolescent delinquency and substance use are global problems. African American adolescents are especially susceptible to the life-changing consequences of these problem behaviors. Religiosity is a notable protective factor that has been shown to mitigate these behaviors. This study uses a person-centered approach to examine the extent to which religiosity is associated with lower rates of delinquency and substance use among urban African American adolescents in the United States. Latent Class Analysis was used to examine the heterogeneity in five religiosity items among a sample of adolescents ages 13-18. After identifying religiosity classes through a class enumeration process, we examined predictors of the classes using multinomial logistic regression. The classes were then used to predict several substance use and delinquency outcomes. Three religiosity classes were identified; "low religious beliefs and engagement," (15.19%, n = 94), "religious with low active engagement," (56.70%, n = 351), and "religious with high active engagement," (28.11%, n = 174). Protective effects of religiosity on substance use (e.g., alcohol) and delinquency were found (e.g., assault). Implications for research and practice are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Negro o Afroamericano , Delincuencia Juvenil , Religión , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Humanos , Conducta del Adolescente/etnología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Negro o Afroamericano/psicología , Negro o Afroamericano/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etnología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Delincuencia Juvenil/etnología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 341: 116513, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134711

RESUMEN

Juvenile delinquency has significant social costs for perpetrators, victims, and communities. To understand the distribution of delinquency offenses this study considers the spatial clustering of juvenile delinquency with lead, race, and neighborhood deprivation using a longitudinal ecological design (N = 4390) and a hierarchical model implemented in a Bayesian methodology that allows space-time interaction. The results show lead exposure is positively related to delinquency offense rates, and over time delinquency rates have become more concentrated in areas with higher levels of lead exposure and shares of Black or African American residents. The study emphasizes the isolation of neighborhoods with social problems and the importance of monitoring patterns of lead and crime at local levels as communities implement lead exposure mitigation programs.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Delincuencia Juvenil , Plomo , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Negro o Afroamericano , Crimen , Plomo/administración & dosificación , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos
12.
Addict Behav ; 151: 107939, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141319

RESUMEN

A growing body of research suggests a potential role of cannabis use on aggressive behaviors. In literature on adolescents, the lack of consideration of important confounders, such as adolescent's affiliation with delinquent peers, limits the possibility to determine whether there might be a direct or indirect link between cannabis use and aggression. Therefore, we sought to examine the effect of delinquent peers on the association between cannabis use and violence. We re-analyzed data from 850 ninth graders who were followed from mid-adolescence to early adulthood. Generalized Estimations Equations (GEE) were conducted to examine whether affiliation with delinquent peers may mediate the relationship between cannabis use and violence. Cross-Lagged Panel Models were also conducted to estimate the directionality of these relationships over time. We additionally tested whether similar relationships may be identifiable when examining rule-breaking behaviors and/or alcohol use. GEE models revealed that both cannabis use and affiliation with delinquent peers were statistically associated with aggressive behaviors. Cannabis use, alcohol use and delinquent peers also predicted rule-breaking behaviors. More precisely, cross-lagged models showed that affiliation with delinquent peers played a partially mediating role in the cannabis-aggression link, and that similar cross-lagged estimates were observed when examining rule-breaking behaviors instead of aggression. Our results indicate that cannabis use may be associated with aggression as well as rule-breaking behaviors, suggesting a broader effect on conduct problems. More importantly, our study highlights the non-negligible role of affiliating with delinquent peers during adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Cannabis , Delincuencia Juvenil , Problema de Conducta , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto , Amigos , Violencia , Agresión , Grupo Paritario
13.
Law Hum Behav ; 47(6): 654-665, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38127549

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although reciprocity between variables is a topic of interest in the field of criminology, we cannot simply assume that all or even most criminological relationships are bidirectional without testing them empirically. The objective of the current investigation was to test whether delinquency and antisocial cognition are reciprocally or bidirectionally related. HYPOTHESES: The hypotheses evaluated as part of the present study proposed that antisocial cognition would predict delinquency, delinquency would predict antisocial cognition, and bidirectional models would display significantly better fit than the unidirectional models on which they are based. METHOD: Using data from the Pathways to Desistance study (1,354 serious justice-involved youths), I explored whether antisocial cognition predicts delinquency and a change in delinquency and whether delinquency predicts antisocial cognition and a change in antisocial cognition. I paired two forms of antisocial cognition-moral neutralization and cognitive impulsivity-with delinquency to predict a single future outcome with a zero-order correlation and a lagged outcome or change with a partial correlation. RESULTS: Findings showed that 40 out of 40 prospective zero-order correlations and 36 out of 40 prospective partial correlations achieved significance, with moderate and small effect sizes, respectively. Structural equation modeling revealed that the bidirectional models linking moral neutralization to delinquency and cognitive impulsivity to delinquency using lagged outcome measures both achieved significantly better fit than the unidimensional models on which they were based. CONCLUSION: The results of this study are congruent with the conclusion that the relationship between antisocial cognition and delinquency is reciprocal and that antisocial cognition is as much a predictor of delinquency as delinquency is a predictor of antisocial cognition. Thus, both patterns need to be taken into account for the purposes of theory integration in criminology, clinical practice in forensic psychology, and policy implementation in criminal justice. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Delincuencia Juvenil , Adolescente , Humanos , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Cognición , Conducta Impulsiva
15.
J Correct Health Care ; 29(5): 347-354, 2023 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37695816

RESUMEN

Justice-involved youth are known to be at elevated risk of substance use disorder (SUD). This review examines literature published over a 10-year period and summarizes evidence-based practices for screening, treatment, and linkage to care for justice-involved youth as well as barriers and facilitators that may arise during implementation. Strategies to incorporate a health equity lens and trauma-informed approaches are discussed. Despite high prevalence of substance use and research showing that treatment reduces recidivism, few juvenile justice systems universally screen and treat youth with SUD. There is limited developmentally appropriate guidance available for those seeking to better address substance use in juvenile justice settings. This review highlights gaps in the literature, which must be addressed to increase access to treatment and improve outcomes for this vulnerable youth population.


Asunto(s)
Delincuencia Juvenil , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Adolescente , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Prevalencia
16.
Rev. crim ; 65(3): 65-79, 20230910. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538049

RESUMEN

This article is a literature review describing and analysing the main theoretical and empirical developments that have addressed the concept of identity and its role in crime based on criminology and other disciplines. The literature review was based on a search both in Spanish and English in the Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Scielo databases. The exposition of theoretical proposals follows a chronological and disciplinary field order, including identity perspective, the sociology of deviance, developmental criminology, and several of the leading contemporary approaches. It highlights the dissemination and importance of identity perspective between the 1950s and 1970s and the subsequent criticism that it was reductionist, lacking theoretical support, and not in dialogue with other criminological proposals. Thereupon, emphasis is placed on the subsequent contributions and proposals, which demonstrate the consistency of the concept, as well as its versatility and articulation with different disciplinary approaches to the understanding of the criminal phenomenon. The conclusion highlights the richness of the concept, its projections, and the importance of its revitalisation.


Este artículo es una revisión bibliográfica en la que se describen y analizan los principales desarrollos tanto teóricos como empíricos que han abordado el concepto de identidad y su rol asociado a la delincuencia, desde la criminología y otras disciplinas. La revisión bibliográfica se basó en una búsqueda en español e inglés en las bases de datos Web of Knowledge, Scopus y Scielo. La exposición de propuestas teóricas sigue un orden cronológico y de campo disciplinar, incluyendo la perspectiva de la identidad, la sociología de la desviación, la criminología del desarrollo y algunos de los principales planteamientos contemporáneos. Se destaca la difusión e importancia que tuvo la perspectiva de la identidad entre los años cincuenta y setenta, y la posterior crítica que la señaló como reduccionista, carente de sustento teórico y poco dialogante con otras propuestas criminológicas. Luego se enfatiza en las contribuciones y propuestas posteriores, las que dan cuenta de la consistencia del concepto, así como de su versatilidad y articulación con distintas aproximaciones disciplinares abocadas a la comprensión del fenómeno delictivo. Se concluye destacando la riqueza del concepto, sus proyecciones y la importancia de su revitalización.


Este artigo é uma revisão bibliográfica que descreve e analisa os principais desenvolvimentos teóricos e empíricos que abordaram o conceito de identidade e seu papel associado ao crime, a partir da criminologia e de outras disciplinas. A revisão bibliográfica baseou-se em uma busca em espanhol e inglês nas bases de dados Web of Knowledge, Scopus e Scielo. A apresentação das propostas teóricas segue uma ordem cronológica e disciplinar de campo, incluindo a perspectiva identitária, a sociologia do desvio, a criminologia do desenvolvimento e algumas das principais abordagens contemporâneas. Destaca-se a difusão e importância que a perspectiva identitária teve entre as décadas de 1950 e 1970. E as críticas posteriores que a apontaram como reducionista, carente de respaldo teórico e pouco diálogo com outras propostas criminológicas. Em seguida, destacam-se as contribuições e propostas subsequentes, que dão conta da consistência do conceito, bem como da sua versatilidade e articulação com diferentes abordagens disciplinares destinadas à compreensão do fenómeno criminal. Conclui-se destacando a riqueza do conceito, suas projeções e a importância de sua revitalização.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Conducta Criminal , Delincuencia Juvenil
17.
Violence Vict ; 38(4): 556-572, 2023 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37380344

RESUMEN

This study was designed to shed light on the relationship between victimization and offending, a pattern commonly known as the victim-offender overlap, by exploring whether victimization and pessimism toward the future interact in association with self-reported delinquency. This study was performed on 1,300 (444 males, 645 females, and 211 sex not identified) members of the 2018 High School Senior Monitoring the Future cross-sectional study. Multiple regression analysis was conducted using a maximum likelihood estimator and bias-corrected bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals. The analysis revealed that victimization and the victimization × pessimism interaction correlated significantly with delinquency, after controlling for a series of demographic, family, and peer factors. These results indicate that pessimism toward the future may exacerbate the already strong relationship known to exist between victimization and delinquency.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Delincuencia Juvenil , Pesimismo , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Autoinforme
18.
Law Hum Behav ; 47(3): 422-435, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37326549

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Responding to the concern about racial/ethnic disparities (R/ED) in the use of risk assessment instruments (RAIs) in justice systems, previous research has overwhelmingly tested the extent to which RAI scores consistently predict recidivism across race and ethnicity (predictive bias). However, little is known about R/ED in the association between RAI measures and court dispositions (disparate application) for justice-involved youths. This study investigated predictive bias and disparate application of three risk measures-criminal history, social history, and the overall risk level-produced by the Positive Achievement Change Tool (PACT) for White, Black, and Hispanic justice-involved youths. HYPOTHESES: Given the mixed evidence in existing research for predictive bias and lack of evidence for disparate application, we did not make any specific hypothesis but conducted exploratory analyses. From a clinical perspective, however, we anticipated little or no evidence to support predictive bias and disparate application of the PACT among White, Black, and Hispanic youths in the jurisdiction we examined. METHOD: The sample consisted of 5,578 youths (11.4% White, 43.9% Black, and 44.7% Hispanic) who completed the PACT while in the Harris County Juvenile Probation Department, Texas. The outcome variables included recidivism (general and violent reoffending) and court dispositions (deferred adjudication, probation without placement, and probation with placement). We ran a series of moderating binary logistic regression models and moderating ordinal logistic regression models to evaluate predictive bias and disparate application. RESULTS: Race and ethnicity influenced how the criminal history score related to violent recidivism: This compromised the validity of the score as a predictor of recidivism. Moreover, evidence showed that the overall risk of reoffending was associated with harsher sanctioning decisions for Black and Hispanic youths than for White youths. CONCLUSION: Ensuring that RAI results are consistently interpreted and used in informing decisions is as important as ensuring that RAI scores function equally well in predicting recidivism regardless of race and ethnicity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Delincuencia Juvenil , Reincidencia , Adolescente , Humanos , Etnicidad , Hispánicos o Latinos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Blanco , Negro o Afroamericano
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37297594

RESUMEN

(1) Background: This study aims to examine and describe the policies of three Latin American countries: Colombia, Brazil, and Spain, and identify how they implement their support systems for health, mental health, mental health for children and adolescents, and juvenile justice systems that support judicial measures with treatment and/or therapeutic approaches specialized in mental health. (2) Methods: Google Scholar, Medline, and Scopus databases were searched to identify and synthesize of the literature. (3) Results: Three shared categories were extracted to construct the defining features of public policies on mental health care in juvenile justice: (i.) models of health and mental health care, (ii.) community-based child and adolescent mental health care, and (iii.) mental health care and treatment in juvenile justice. (4) Conclusions: Juvenile justice in these three countries lacks a specialized system to deal with this problem, nor have procedures been designed to specifically address these situations within the framework of children's rights.


Asunto(s)
Delincuencia Juvenil , Salud Mental , Niño , Adolescente , Humanos , Protección a la Infancia , Estatus Social , Brasil , Colombia , España , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Justicia Social
20.
Child Dev ; 94(6): 1697-1712, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37307304

RESUMEN

Using psychological network analysis, this study explored the heterogeneity of the network structure between extracurricular time-use and delinquency using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of at-school students in China (N = 10,279, 47.3% female, average age 13.6, 91.2% Han ethnicity). The results are threefold: First, time stimulation of activities occurs on weekdays, while time displacement and stimulation occur on weekends. Second, delinquent behaviors are positively correlated, forming a problem behavior syndrome. Smoking or drinking is the central delinquent behavior. Third, negative consequences of specific time-use behaviors are more likely to occur on weekends than on weekdays, and time-use behavior may function differently on weekdays versus weekends. Among them, going to coffeenets or game-centers serves as the bridge with the highest potential of triggering delinquency.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Delincuencia Juvenil , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adolescente , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , China , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología
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