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1.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047809

RESUMEN

Objetivo: caracterizar a produção científica acerca da violência contra mulher e suas repercussões sociais, em periódicos online no âmbito da saúde, publicados no período de 2011 a 2016. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada através das bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Bases de Dados de Enfermagem (BDENF). Resultados: a análise dos 15 artigos evidenciou a caracterização da violência, a atuação e percepção dos profissionais de saúde acerca da violência e do aborto legal, destacando a relevância de estudar a violência e suas repercussões sociais, com o objetivo de proporcionar uma melhor assistência. Conclusão: conclui-se que fortalecer às políticas de erradicação da violência contra a mulher, oferecer uma rede de apoio multiprofissional eficiente e a intensificar as políticas de conscientização são imprescindíveis a nossa sociedade


Objective: to characterize the scientific production about violence against women and its social repercussions in online health journals published in the period from 2011 to 2016. Method: this is an integrative review of the literature, carried out through databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (MEDLINE), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Nursing Databases (BDENF). Results: the analysis of the 15 articles showed the characterization of violence, the performance and perception of health professionals about violence and legal abortion, highlighting the relevance of studying violence and its social repercussions, in order to provide better care. Conclusion: it is concluded that strengthening policies to eradicate violence against women, providing an efficient multiprofessional support network, and intensifying awareness-raising policies are essential to our society


Objetivo: caracterizar la producción científica acerca de la violencia contra la mujer y sus repercusiones sociales, en periódicos online en el ámbito de la salud, publicados en el período de 2011 a 2016. Método: se trata de una revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada a través de las bases de datos (MEDLINE), Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS), Bases de Datos de Enfermería (BDENF). Resultados: el análisis de los 15 artículos evidenció la caracterización de la violencia, la actuación y percepción de los profesionales de salud acerca de la violencia y del aborto legal, destacando la relevancia de estudiar la violencia y sus repercusiones sociales, con el objetivo de proporcionar una mejor asistencia. Conclusión: se concluye que fortalecer a las políticas de erradicación de la violencia contra la mujer, ofrecer una red de apoyo multiprofesional eficiente intensificar las políticas de concientización son imprescindibles para nuestra sociedad


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Delitos Sexuales , Sistema Único de Salud , Violencia Doméstica , Violencia contra la Mujer , Salud Pública , Aborto Legal , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Promoción de la Salud
2.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(8): 460-467, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683336

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: A pilot study was conducted to test a newly developed inventory for the assessment of malpractice in psychotherapy and its consequences. We aimed to examine the frequency of boundary crossings and violations in the context of psychotherapy from a patient's perspective and the resulting burden as well as to identify potential predictors. METHODS: Data assessment was realized in an online-based survey. The final sample existed of N  = 165 patients who underwent prior psychotherapeutic treatment. RESULTS: Patients reported M = 16.21 events which can be interpreted in terms of malpractice resulting in a mediocre level of distress. While malpractice summarized as "inadequate use of diagnostics/techniques" was reported most frequently, sexual boundary violations were associated with the highest levels of distress. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the need of a differential and systematic assessment of malpractice in psychotherapy. The new inventory especially seems to be suited for research purposes.


Asunto(s)
Mala Praxis , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Psicoterapia , Alemania , Humanos , Mala Praxis/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos Piloto , Psicoterapia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Delitos Sexuales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conducta Sexual
3.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 304-311, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687979

RESUMEN

Semen is crucial evidence for some sex crimes, with its sole confirmation being sperm detection. The success of sperm detection is dependent on all levels of preanalytic and analytic procedures. Specimen collection must be performed by well-trained and competent forensic physicians as well as forensic nurses, with preservation done properly before laboratory transfer. Laboratory procedures should consider archival sperm identification, by visualization, with adequate amounts separated from other cells to obtain male DNA profiles. Differential extraction is robust and accepted as the forensic standard but is time consuming and may result in male DNA loss. Thus, alternative methods and microdevices have been developed. Challenges in sperm isolation from vaginal or buccal epithelium mixes and discrimination in multiperpetrator cases have been overcome by single-cell profiling; however, problems inherent in identical twin discrimination and azoospermia have yet to be solved. Epigenetics and future molecular biomarkers may hold the key; therefore, all laboratory processes must consider DNA and RNA protection. Long-term specimen preservation should be done when possible in light of future confirmatory tests.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes , Espermatozoides/citología , Separación Celular , Dermatoglifia del ADN , Metilación de ADN , Femenino , Humanos , Captura por Microdisección con Láser , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Mensajero/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas de Secreción de la Vesícula Seminal/aislamiento & purificación , Delitos Sexuales , Coloración y Etiquetado , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17716, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651904

RESUMEN

South Africa has adopted pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventive strategy for populations at-risk for HIV, though uptake is low among adolescents and young adults. We examined the awareness and use of PrEP among adolescents and young adults in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.This cross-sectional study was conducted between June and November 2018 among 772 adolescents and young adults (aged 16-24 years) selected using stratified random sampling in a South African university. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit demographic information, behavioral, family-related characteristics, awareness and use of PrEP. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the predictors of PrEP awareness.The overall level of PrEP awareness was 18.8%; however, only 1.7% of participants had used PrEP, 7.5% of had seen it, 4.8% knew how much it cost, and 14.8% knew where and how to get it. In the adjusted regression analysis, only adequate family support (AOR: 2.11; CI: 1.47-3.04) and discussions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections with sexual partners (AOR: 1.78; CI: 1.19-2.67) were associated with a higher likelihood of being aware of PrEP.The level of awareness and use of PrEP is still very low among adolescents and young adults who may need it to prevent HIV infection. Poor awareness of PrEP among adolescents and young adults in high HIV risk settings may limit its use. Thus, concerted efforts are needed to promote awareness and access to PrEP among young South African adults.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
Rev Prat ; 69(6): 676-678, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626433

RESUMEN

Today, people all over the world are on the move. Women and girls account for nearly half of the 244 million migrants. They are sometimes forced to leave their country of origin to flee physical, psychological or sexual violence and gender discrimination. Then the migratory route and the new life in the country of asylum expose them to situations of vulnerability and they are therefore at risk of physical, psychological or sexual abuse. The risk of HIV infection is high. Practitioners in host countries receive these women for various reasons in consultation. Knowing their background allows us to support them and offer them care adapted to their needs and requests. The first step is systematic screening by professionals. Secondly, multidisciplinary care is essential: social actors, psychologists, sexologists, infectiologists, gynaecologists, pain specialists, etc. This requires specific training for professionals confronted with these populations.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Refugiados , Delitos Sexuales , Migrantes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Refugiados/psicología , Migrantes/psicología , Violencia
7.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 341-345, oct. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184124

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Conocer la epidemiología de las consultas en urgencias por amnesia global transitoria (AGT), ya sea pura, asociada al consumo de tóxicos o en el contexto de una agresión sexual. Método. Estudio retrospectivo de enero a diciembre de 2018. Se revisaron las AGT atendidas en intoxicados (AGTtox), en víctimas de agresiones sexuales (AGTsex) y las amnesias puras (AGTpur), evaluando la presencia de tóxicos. Resultados. Se identificaron 287 AGT: 169 AGTsex (58,9%), 62 AGTpur (21,6%) y 56 AGTtox (19,5%). De ellas, 218 (76%) fueron mujeres y la edad osciló entre 16 y 90 años (60,6% menores de 30 años). Reconocieron consumo de alcohol 201 casos (72,8%), con etanolemia positiva en 105 (49,1%) (media de 0,74 g/l y máxima de 3,9 g/l). Admitieron consumo de cannabis 20 pacientes (7,1%), con analítica positiva en 39 casos (17,3%); cocaína 14 (4,9%), con analítica positiva en 28 (12,4%), y anfetaminas 5 (1,7%), con analítica positiva en 20 (8,8%). Presentaron sínto-mas de intoxicación 58 casos (20,1%). Cuatro pacientes ingresaron en coma. Se realizó una tomografía computariza-da (TC) craneal a 66 pacientes (23%), se hospitalizaron 7 y no hubo ningún fallecimiento. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de AGT es mayor si se incluyen los intoxicados y las agresiones sexuales, modificando la determinación de tóxicos la epidemiología de la AGT en urgencias


Objectives. To study the epidemiology of emergency department visits for transient global amnesia (TGA) by itself or associated with substance abuse or sexual assault. Methods. Retrospective study of cases treated from January to December 2018. Data for all patients with TGA were extracted, and cases were classified as associated with substance abuse (TGASUB), sexual assault (TGASEX), or neither (TGAONLY). Results. A total of 287 TGA cases were found: 169 (58.9%) were TGASEX, 62 (21.6%) TGAONLY, and 56 (19.5%) TGASUB. Two hundred eighteen (76%) were female and 69 (24%) were male. Ages ranged from 16 to 90 years; 174 (60.6%) were under the age of 30 years. Two hundred one patients (72.8%) reported consuming alcohol; and 105 (49.1%) were positive on testing (mean blood alcohol concentration, 0.74 g/L; maximum, 3.9 g/L. Twenty patients (7.1%) reported using cannabis, and 39 (17.3%) had positive test results; 14 reported using cocaine (4.9%) and 28 (12.4%) tested positive; 5 (1.7%) reported using amphetamines and 20 (8.8%) tested positive. Fifty-eight (20.1%) had symptoms of intoxication. Four were admitted in coma. A computed tomography scan was ordered for 66 patients (23%), 7 patients were hospitalized, and none died. Conclusions. The prevalence of TGA is higher if cases of substance abuse and sexual assault are counted. Toxicolgy testing changes the epidemiology of TGA in emergencies


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Amnesia Global Transitoria/complicaciones , Amnesia Global Transitoria/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Delitos Sexuales , Síntomas Toxicológicos/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Coma/complicaciones , Coma/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión , Etanol/toxicidad , Cocaína/toxicidad , Cannabis/toxicidad , Anfetaminas/toxicidad , Análisis de Varianza
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 78, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553381

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize data about the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) among refugees around the world. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from the search in seven bibliographic databases. Studies on the prevalence of SV among refugees and asylum seekers of any country, sex or age, whether in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, were eligible. RESULTS: Of the 2,906 titles found, 60 articles were selected. The reported prevalence of SV was largely variable (0% to 99.8%). Reports of SV were collected in all continents, with 42% of the articles mentioning it in refugees from Africa (prevalence from 1.3% to 100%). The rape was the most reported SV in 65% of the studies (prevalence from 0% to 90.9%). The main victims were women in 89% of the studies, all the way, especially when still in the countries of origin. The SV was perpetrated particularly by intimate partners, but also by agents of supposed protection. Few studies have reported SV in men and children; the prevalence reached up to 39.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Approximately one-third of the studies (32%) were carried out in refugee camps and more than half (52%) in health services using mental health assessment tools. No study has addressed the most recent migratory crisis. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: SV is a prevalent problem affecting refugees of both sexes, of all ages, throughout the migratory journey, particularly those from Africa. Protection measures are urgently needed, and further studies, with more appropriate tools, may better measure the current magnitude of the problem.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
9.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 227-238, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478289

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviour towards another person who does not or cannot consent to it causes serious harm to its victims. Understandable tendencies towards isolating or shaming the offenders, however, may actually increase risks of recidivism and further such harms. AIM: The study aims to consider evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for sex offenders, mainly in a U.K. context, across four areas: criminal justice system programmes, medication, interventions for sex offenders with personality disorder and a community-based model for the reintegration-Circles of Support and Accountability, and identify key evidence gaps. METHODS: We searched for reviews in the following four strands of work-psychosocial programmes, medication, personality focused therapies, and Circles of Support and Accountability-and identified gaps in knowledge. FINDINGS: Randomised controlled trials in this field are rare but have been achieved. Findings from more naturalistic outcome studies of sex offender treatment programmes are disappointing, but recidivism rates among released sex offender prisoners are low, regardless. Medication relying on substantial physiological change raises substantial ethical concerns. Not all sex offenders have a mental disorder but up to half have been diagnosed with a personality disorder, which may need specific treatment. Evidence is growing that lay work such as Circles of Support and Accountability is a valuable adjunct to other interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: In this field, where tensions between attributions swing between "madness" and "badness," there is growing evidence for optimism that complexity of history and presentation can be met through cooperation between the many disciplines, integrative strategies, and wider community engagement. The need now is for large, prospective controlled trials of interventions, with long periods of follow-up. Perhaps, the most exciting developments have come from the wider public. More research into the qualities of these volunteers might inform public education and health strategies supporting wider safety.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Criminales/psicología , Libido/efectos de los fármacos , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Grupos de Autoayuda , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual/efectos de los fármacos , Responsabilidad Social , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/efectos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Prisioneros , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1131, 2019 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420028

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to be associated with poor maternal healthcare utilisation and poor pregnancy outcomes. IPV can be seen both as the cause and result of low socioeconomic status and lack of maternal autonomy that can limit women's access to resources and motivation necessary for seeking healthcare during pregnancy. This paper aims to study the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the utilisation of facility delivery services in Nigeria. METHODS: We applied propensity score matching (PSM) approach to examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the utilisation of facility delivery services. PSM is a popular strategy for reducing sampling bias through balancing sample characteristics, a technique that mimics randomization on cross-sectional data. Data were collected from Nigeria DHS surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. IPV was the main explanatory variable of interest for delivery at health facility which was defined as delivering at any health institution including health clinics. RESULTS: PSM generated 20,446 cases distributed into two equal groups i.e. those who delivered at health facility versus those who did not. The prevalence of facility delivery in 2013 was 56.8% (95%CI 55.0-58.6) indicating a moderate increase from its 2008 level of 43.2% (41.4-45.0%). Lifetime prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse was respectively 21.5%(95%CI 20.6, 22.4), 14.9% (14.2, 15.7) and 5.0% (4.6-5.4). In the multivariable analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, ever experiencing emotional abuse was associated increased odds of not delivering at a health facility. (AOR = 1.228, 95%CI, 1.095-1.679). CONCLUSION: Women experiencing emotional violence are less likely to use institutional delivery services, and hence are susceptible to increased risk of reproductive complications. IPV is a complex issue that needs to be tackled by introducing evidence based strategies contextually relevant to local sociocultural environment. Further studies are required to understand the roots of IPV and the pathways through which it hindrances healthcare utilisation among women.


Asunto(s)
Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Puntaje de Propensión , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(658): 1397-1400, 2019 Aug 14.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411830

RESUMEN

While some sexual traumas are anecdotal, others are more serious and require specific and urgent medical care. This article reviews the main problems that can arise during sexual acts and reminds the importance of detecting and treating sexually transmitted diseases.


Asunto(s)
Consejo , Delitos Sexuales , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Humanos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16103, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Evidence showed that reoffending habits are increasing among offenders with violent sexual behaviors. Given the recidivism rates, a psychotherapeutic intervention becomes imperative. This study examined the efficacy of prison-based cognitive behavioral rehabilitation intervention (PCBRI) on violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Nigerian prisons. METHOD: A total of45 participants were the sample size. Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory and Hypersexual Behavior Inventory were employed in assessing the participants at 3 points. Using a simple random allocation sequence, 23 participants were exposed to PCBRI programme and 22 participants allocated to control condition. The data obtained were analyzed using repeated measures 2-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Results indicated a significant effect of the treatment on violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Nigerian prisons exposed to the PCBRI programme when compared to the no-intervention group. Result also showed a significant interaction effect of time and group on sex offenders with violent sexual behaviors. Follow-up tests showed significant decrease in violent sexual behaviors after 6 months for the PCBRI group in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that PCBRI approach is a type of psychotherapy that reduces violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Southeast Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Criminales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Prisiones , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Reincidencia/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(3): 111-123, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325294

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nurses are more likely to be exposed to violence at their workplace in comparison with other employees. OBJECTIVE: To determine various aspects of violence against nurses in Shiraz public hospitals. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2017 to 2018, using a multistage random sampling method. Violence including verbal threats, verbal abuse, physical and sexual abuse as well as ethnical types, violence from patients, patients' companions and coworkers, and causes of violence were investigated using a checklist. RESULTS: 405 nurses with a mean age of 30.2 (SD 7.1) years and female to male ratio of 4.2 were interviewed. 363 (89.6%) nurses had experienced at least one kind of violence; 68.4% suffered from more than one type of violence. Verbal abuse (83.9%), verbal threats (27.6%), physical violence (21.4%), sexual abuse (10.8%), and ethnical harassment (6.1%) were the most common types of violence experienced by the nurses. Patients' companions, patients, and physicians were reported as the sources of violence in 70.6%, 43.1%, and 4.1% of cases, respectively. Nurses with non-official employment status and non-Farsi ethnicity, having a disease, with non-evening shift work, and those with short or long employment period were more affected. Unrealistic expectations by patients' companions and long working hours were the most common attributing factors. CONCLUSION: Violence against nurses, as a strenuous and health-threatening crisis, has become epidemic in public hospitals in our region. Effective interventions are warranted to sort out these problems.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Universidades , Armas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
19.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 23(4): 455-460, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274215

RESUMEN

Violence against women is a hot topic in the spotlight of contemporary science. In the academy, most of the courses are structured in a hierarchical system, in which students-especially female-become potentially vulnerable to emotional, physical and even sexual harm. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and the study-associated factors of emotional, physical and sexual violence against female students in medical, dental and psychological courses in South Brazil. A questionnaire-based survey was performed combining two previously validated tools for the investigation of workplace violence. The questionnaires were digitally provided to women undergoing medicine, dentistry and psychology courses in South Brazil. The study was conducted between April and July, 2018. The final sample consisted of 241 students (57 medical students; 91 dental students and 93 psychology students). Reports of general violence reached a prevalence rate of 45.2%. In particular, emotional violence reached 78.9% of the cases, whilst physical and sexual violence reached 4.6% and 8.3%, respectively. Amongst the identified offenders, professors figured as the most prevalent (18.4%). Alarming rates of violence against women were detected in this study. Institutional preventive strategies must be designed to protect female students in their study/workplace and enable a safe routine of academic activities.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Delitos Sexuales , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Prevalencia , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 15(3): 382-391, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359307

RESUMEN

In order to better understand risk factors associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), this study examined complainant-specific and contextual factors, as well as the toxicological profile of DFSA in Victoria, Australia. Clinical files and toxicological analysis results collected by the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) for all cases of alleged DFSA in Victoria that occurred between 1st January 2011 - 31st December 2013 were reviewed. Two hundred and four cases of alleged DFSA were identified; complainants were predominately female (93%), and their median age was 26 years (range = 18-54). Self-reported premorbid depression (21.1%) and drug and alcohol abuse (9.8%) were four and two times higher than 12-month prevalence rates in Australia, respectively. All assailants were male, half were known to the complainant and half of alleged assaults occurred in private residences. Most (93.6%) complainants reported voluntary consumption of psychoactive substances prior to the alleged DFSA. Alcohol was the most commonly self-reported substance consumed (n = 164; 64%) and concomitant use of alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs was also commonly self-reported (24%). There were 14 cases that produced a positive toxicology result where the complainant did not report voluntary consumption, which suggests these drugs may have been used covertly to facilitate sexual assault. The results of this study indicate that Females in their mid-20's who exhibit higher rates of mental health concerns represent a sub-group of the Australian population with increased vulnerability to DFSA, which typically occurs in a familiar setting in the context of voluntary alcohol and other substance use.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mal Uso de Medicamentos de Venta con Receta/estadística & datos numéricos , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Adulto Joven
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