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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 134, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331528

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of adolescents and young adults who were victims of sexual violence at some point in their lives and to compare the presence of depressive and anxious symptoms, quality of life, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among this population and those who were not abused. METHODS: Validated questionnaires and instruments were applied in a group of university students to assess: sexual profile and behavior, socioeconomic status, presence or not of sexual violence (Questionnaire on Exposure to Traumatizing Events), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory), quality of life (World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment) and the use or abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs (Smoking, Alcohol, and Substance Involvement Screening Test). RESULTS: Out of the 858 students who participated, 71 (8.3%) were victims of sexual violence, 52 girls (73.2%). In the victims of violence group there were more students who already had the first sexual intercourse (p = 0.029), students who already had become pregnant (p = 0.001), students with higher scores for depressive (p < 0.001) and anxious symptoms (p = 0.001), students with worse quality of life (p < 0.001), and who used more tobacco (p = 0.008) and marijuana (p = 0.025) as well as abused hypnotics or sedatives (p = 0.048) than in the non-victim group. CONCLUSION: The abuses are presented in several forms and affect, even in long term, the survivors' life. The sexual violence theme should be addressed and widely discussed in all spheres of society in order to mobilize, to sensitize, and provide society with knowledge, demystifying this subject and drawing attention to this important social issue.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Embarazo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180481, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059142

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the knowledge and attitude of school adolescents regarding sexual violence. Method: a qualitative study with data gathering, based on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception, conducted in April 2018 with 12 adolescents from a state school in Recife, using the focus group technique. For data systematization, thematic content analysis was used in the following steps: pre-analysis, material exploration, treatment of results and interpretation. Results: three thematic categories were established: adolescents' perceptions of sexual violence; reflective construction of adolescents on the factors of exposure to sexual violence; and facilitating aspects for the prevention of adolescent sexual violence. Conclusion: the perception of adolescents regarding sexual violence is influenced by cultural, structural, social, economic, psychological and biological aspects, which should be considered in the planning of actions aimed at preventing sexual violence for this public.


RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar el conocimiento y la actitud de los adolescentes escolares con respecto a la violência sexual. Método: un estudio cualitativo con captura de datos, basado en la Fenomenología de la percepción de Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizado en abril de 2018 con 12 adolescentes de una escuela estatal en Recife, utilizando la técnica de grupos focales. Para la sistematización de datos, el análisis de contenido temático se utilizó en los siguientes pasos: preanálisis, exploración de materiales, tratamiento de resultados e interpretación. Resultados: se establecieron tres categorías temáticas: percepción de los adolescentes de la violencia sexual; construcción reflexiva de adolescentes sobre los factores de exposición a la violencia sexual; y facilitando aspectos para la prevención de la violencia sexual adolescente. Conclusión: la percepción de los adolescentes con respecto a la violencia sexual está influenciada por aspectos culturales, estructurales, sociales, económicos, psicológicos y biológicos, que deben tenerse en cuenta al planificar acciones destinadas a prevenir la violencia sexual para este público.


RESUMO Objetivo: investigar o conhecimento e a atitude de adolescentes escolares a respeito da violência sexual. Método: estudo qualitativo, com apreensão dos dados, embasada na Fenomenologia da Percepção de Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizada em abril de 2018 com 12 adolescentes de uma escola estadual do Recife, por meio da técnica de grupo focal. Para sistematização dos dados, utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo temática nas seguintes etapas: pré-análise, exploração do material, tratamento dos resultados e interpretação. Resultados: foram estabelecidas três categorias temáticas: percepções dos adolescentes sobre violência sexual; construção reflexiva de adolescentes sobre os fatores de exposição à violência sexual; e aspectos facilitadores para a prevenção da violência sexual dos adolescentes. Conclusão: a percepção dos adolescentes em relação a violência sexual é influenciada por aspectos culturais, estruturais, sociais, econômicos, psicológicos e biológicos, que devem ser considerados no planejamento de ações que visem a prevenção da violência sexual para esse público.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Delitos Sexuales , Educación en Salud , Adolescente , Enfermería , Promoción de la Salud
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 53-60, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190649

RESUMEN

Intimate partner sexual violence has countless consequences for women suffering it. This research analyse the effect of the type of sexual coercion tactic and partner dependence on both the attribution of responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. In Study 1, six scenarios for different sexual tactics were presented (coaxing, coercion, and aggression) to 5 experts in order to select those with better evidence of content validity regarding the construct evaluated. In Study 2, the three selected scenarios were presented to 304 Spanish participants from the general population, analysing the effect of the type of tactic and dependence on attributed responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. Results showed that in the sexual aggression scenario, participants assigned the highest responsibility to the aggressorand showed the strongest likelihood of leaving the relationship. Further, results revealed that in the coaxing scenario, dependence had an indirect effect on the probability of leaving the relationship through a lower responsibility attributed to the aggressor. As a conclusion, this study emphasises the importance of the sexual tactic used by aggressors in individuals' perception about sexual coercion, contributing to increasing the visibility of this unacceptable action, especially in its more subtle and normalised form


La violencia sexual en las relaciones de pareja tiene innumerables consecuencias para las mujeres que la sufren. Esta investigación analiza el efecto del tipo de táctica de coerción sexual y la dependencia de la pareja en la atribución de responsabilidad y la probabilidad de dejar la relación. En el Estudio 1 se presentaron seis escenarios sobre diferentes tácticas sexuales(persuasión, coerción y agresión) a 5 expertos con la finalidad de seleccionar a aquellos que mostraran una mayor validez de contenido con respecto al constructo evaluado. En el Estudio 2, 304 participantes leyeron los tres escenarios seleccionados y se analizó el efecto del tipo de táctica y la dependencia en la responsabilidad atribuida y en la probabilidad de dejar la relación. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes responsabilizaban más al agresor y dejarían con más probabilidad la relación en la condición de agresión sexual que en la condición de coerción sexual o persuasión sexual. Además, los resultados revelan que en el escenario más sutil (persuasión) la dependencia tiene un efecto indirecto sobre probabilidad de dejar la relación a través de una menor responsabilidad atribuida al agresor. Como conclusión, esta investigación enfatiza la importancia que tiene la táctica sexual utilizada por el agresor en la percepción de la coerción sexual, contribuyendo a aumentar la visibilidad de este acto inaceptable, especialmente en su forma más sutil y normalizada


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Dependencia Psicológica , Manejo Psicológico , Factores de Riesgo
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(47): 1757-1761, 2020 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237890

RESUMEN

Sexual violence is prevalent and, for many victims, begins early in life (1). In the United States, one in five women and one in 38 men report completed or attempted rape victimization during their lifetime, with 43.2% of female and 51.3% of male victims reporting that their first rape victimization occurred before age 18 years (1). Media have been shown to act as a socializing agent for a range of health and social behaviors (2). Media portrayals might influence, reinforce, or modify how the public responds to incidents of sexual violence and their support for prevention efforts and media might construct a lens through which the public can understand who is affected by sexual violence, what forms it takes, why it happens, and who is responsible for addressing it (3). Media portrayals of sexual violence were assessed using a systematic random sample of newspaper articles from 48 of the top 50 distributed traditional print media outlets that were examined for sexual violence content and potential differences by geographic region and year of publication. Differences by year and region in type of sexual violence covered, media language used, and outcomes reported were identified, highlighting an opportunity for public health officials, practitioners, and journalists to frame sexual violence as a preventable public health issue and to incorporate best practices from CDC and the National Sexual Violence Resource Center's Sexual Violence Media Guide (4).


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
Harefuah ; 159(11): 793-796, 2020 11.
Artículo en Hebreo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210848

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center is the first of its kind in Israel. It was launched in 2000 by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and has since served over 4000 victims. The center provides care by a multidisciplinary team of gynecologists, social workers, forensic physicians, and police investigators, in a single place and with a supporting atmosphere. AIMS: To review the characteristics of female victims who were treated in the Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center between 2000 and 2017. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study. The data of all female victims who were treated in our center were retrieved from the medical files. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: During the study period, 3598 (90.5%) women and 376 (9.5%) men were treated in our center. The mean age of the female victims was 23.0 years, of whom 27.1% were minors. Most victims (69.8%) arrived at the center within 24 hours from the assault. The victim knew the perpetrator before the assault in half of the cases. About half of the assaults occurred on weekends. The victims reported a high rate of alcohol and drug use before the assault (36.2% and 8.1%, respectively), and this rate has increased over the years. Most victims (70.4%) filed a police report, though this rate has decreased over the years. DISCUSSION: The Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center treats many victims each year. The challenges that we will face in the future are education against irresponsible use of alcohol and drugs, and efforts to increase the proportion of victims willing to report to the police.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Delitos Sexuales , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 97, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146302

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of violence during pregnancy and the association with the socioeconomic, behavioral and clinical characteristics of pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a low-risk maternity hospital in the municipality of Cariacica, Espírito Santo. A total of 330 puerperal women were interviewed from August to October 2017. Information on socioeconomic, behavioral, reproductive and clinical characteristics, as well as life experiences, was collected through a questionnaire. To identify the types of violence, the proper World Health Organization instrument was used. Gross bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed and adjusted for Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: Prevalence was 16.1% (95%CI 2.5-20.4) for psychological violence, 7.6% (95%CI 5.1-11.0) for physical violence and 2.7% (95%CI 1.4-5.2) for sexual violence. Psychological violence remained associated with age, family income, beginning of sexual life, disease in pregnancy, desire to interrupt pregnancy and number of partners. Physical violence was associated with schooling, beginning of sexual life and disease in pregnancy. Sexual violence remained associated with marital status and desire to interrupt pregnancy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological violence by an intimate partner was the most prevalent among pregnant women. Women that were younger, had lower income and less schooling, who started their sexual life before the age of 14 and who wished to interrupt pregnancy, experienced violence more frequently during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Maltrato Conyugal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Abuso Físico/psicología , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología
9.
Neurology ; 95(19): e2605-e2609, 2020 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004606

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Asylum seekers experience a high burden of physical and psychological trauma, yet there is a scarcity of literature regarding the epidemiology and sequelae of head injury (HI) in asylum seekers. We examined HI prevalence and association with neuropsychiatric comorbidities in asylum seekers. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through review of 139 medical affidavits from an affidavit database. Affidavits written from 2010 to 2018 were included. Demographic and case-related data were collected and classified based on the presence of HI. For neuropsychiatric sequelae, the primary study outcome was headache and the secondary outcomes were depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the association between HI and neuropsychiatric sequelae, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 139 medical affidavits of asylum seekers were included. The mean age was 27.4 ± 12.1 years, 56.8% were female, and 38.8% were <19 years. Almost half (42.5%) explicitly self-reported history of HI. Compared to clients who did not report HI, clients with HI were older and more likely to report a history of headache, physical abuse, physical trauma, concussion, and loss of consciousness. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, clients with HI had greater odds for neuropsychological sequelae such as headache (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-8.7) and depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HI in asylum seekers. Comprehensive screening for HI and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is encouraged when evaluating asylum seekers.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Cefalea/epidemiología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , El Salvador/etnología , Femenino , Guatemala/etnología , Haití/etnología , Cefalea/psicología , Honduras/etnología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos de la Memoria/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Memoria/psicología , México/etnología , Nicaragua/etnología , Oportunidad Relativa , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Prevalencia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Refugiados/psicología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Inconsciencia/epidemiología , Inconsciencia/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/psicología , Adulto Joven
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1098-1103, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115196

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the association between precollege sexual abuse experiences at different periods and adult attachment in college students. Methods: In October 2018,a total of 4 034 college students were selected from 4 colleges in Hefei City by using the stratified cluster sampling method. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the demographic characteristics, sexual abuse experience, and attachment style of participants. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the association between different periods, types of precollege sexual abuse experiences and attachment style in college students. Results: The rate of total precollege sexual abuse, noncontact sexual abuse, and contact sexual abuse was 14.1% (569), 12.7% (512) and 5.4% (219), respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that secure attachment [ß(95%CI)=-0.205 (-0.292, -0.117)] was negatively correlated with total precollege sexual abuse experiences, whereas anxiety attachment [ß(95%CI)=0.211 (0.110, 0.310)], avoidant attachment [ß(95%CI)=0.117 (0.020, 0.216)] were positively correlated with total precollege sexual abuse experiences. The number of periods of precollege noncontact sexual abuse was negatively correlated with secure attachment [ß(95%CI)=-0.106(-0.171, -0.041)]and positively correlated with anxiety attachment [ß(95%CI)=0.158 (0.084, 0.231)]and avoidant attachment [ß(95%CI)=0.080 (0.008, 0.152)]. The noncontact [ß(95%CI)=0.427 (0.018, 0.775)] and contact sexual abuse [ß(95%CI)=0.468 (0.251, 0.687)] in high school were positively correlated with anxiety attachment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Different periods, types of precollege sexual abuse experiences were all associated with adult attachment in college students.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales , Estudiantes , Adulto , Ansiedad , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237965, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044980

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Conflict and humanitarian crises increase the risk of both intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence against women and girls. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of different forms of violence against women and girls in South Sudan, which has suffered decades of conflict, most recently in 2013. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among women aged 15-64 in three conflict-affected sites in South Sudan: Juba, Rumbek, and the Protection of Civilian Sites (PoCs) in Juba between 2015 and 2016. FINDINGS: A total of 2,244 women between the ages of 15-64 were interviewed. Fifty percent (in the Juba PoCs) to 65% (in Juba and Rumbek) of all female respondents experienced either physical or sexual violence from a partner or non-partner in the course of their lifetimes. Approximately 35% of respondents have experienced rape, attempted rape or other forms of sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetime. For ever-partnered women, lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence ranged between 54% in the Juba PoCs and 73% in Rumbek. Restrictive marital practices and gender norms, and experiences of conflict were major drivers of both partner and non-partner violence. CONCLUSION: Women and girls in South Sudan suffer among the highest levels of physical and sexual violence in the world. Although the prevalence of sexual assault by non-partners is four times the global average, women are still at greatest risk of physical and sexual assault from intimate partners. Conflict-related and intimate partner violence reinforce each other and are upheld by restrictive gender norms and marital practices. Expansion of comprehensive services, including health and psycho-social support for survivors is urgently needed. Moreover, policies and laws to prevent violence against women and provide survivors with access to justice should be given high priority within the ongoing peacebuilding process in South Sudan.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflictos Armados/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Violencia Étnica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudán del Sur/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
12.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 242-248, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119458

RESUMEN

The vulnerability of adolescents and young adults in South Africa to HIV and sexual violence is well documented. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is available for victims of sexual abuse in the country but awareness of this measure is required to maximise its HIV-prevention benefits. This study examined levels of PEP awareness and its correlates and the uptake of PEP among 772 students (16-24 years) in a South African university using stratified random sampling. Overall, we included more females (477) than males (295), reflecting the male-female ratio at the university. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models were used to determine correlates of PEP awareness, which was low (24.1%), particularly among those who experienced sexual violence in the past year (19.8%) compared those who had not (24.8%). Only 2.6% of participants had used PEP, while 7.5% had seen it, and 14.6% knew where to get it. In the adjusted model, adequate family support (AOR: 2.22; CI: 1.54-3.20) and prior HIV testing (AOR: 2.65; CI: 1.59-4.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of PEP awareness. The study concluded that awareness of PEP was low in the study setting and especially among those who need it. Social marketing of PEP is needed in the study settings to realise the maximum benefits of PEP in preventing new HIV infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Profilaxis Posexposición/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
13.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(269): 4741-4750, out.2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1145406

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Analisar os dados de vitimização de homens, com idade entre 20 e 59 anos, pelas distintas formas de violência física e sexual, registrados no Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes/SIVVA da cidade de São Paulo (SP). Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de abordagem quantitativa, descritivo, retrospectivo. Realizado por meio das notificações do Sistema de Informação para a Vigilância de Violência e Acidentes (SIVVA) da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde da cidade de São Paulo, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2014 na cidade de São Paulo, sendo composto por 6658 homens na faixa etária entre 20 a 59 anos. Resultados: O número de casos de violência física foram 6.624 casos e violência sexual 34 casos contra homens com idade entre 20 e 59 anos. O vínculo do agressor em relação a vítima era familiar ou conhecido da vítima; 61,8% violência sexual e 42,8% violência física. Conclusão: O estudo evidenciou que as vítimas eram predominantemente adultos jovens. A violência na maioria dos estudos é vista como um grande problema social que atinge toda a sociedade, sendo responsável pelo adoecimento e mortes causadas por ações realizadas por indivíduos ou, provocando danos físicos, emocionais as vítimas; além de gerar despesas para os serviços público.(AU)


Objective: the analyze the victimization data of men, aged between 20 and 59 years, by the different forms of physical and sexual violence, registered in the Violence and Accident Surveillance System / SIVVA in the city of São Paulo (SP). Method: This is a cross-sectional study, with a quantitative, descriptive, retrospective approach. Carried out through the notifications of the Information System for the Surveillance of Violence and Accidents (SIVVA) of the Municipal Health Department of the city of São Paulo, in the period from January to December 2014 in the city of São Paulo, consisting of 6658 men aged between 20 and 59 years. Results: The number of cases of physical violence was 6,624 cases and sexual violence 34 cases against men aged between 20 and 59 years. The aggressor's relationship with the victim was familiar or known to the victim; 61.8% of sexual violence and 42.8% of physical violence. Conclusion: The study showed that the victims were predominantly young adults. Violence in most studies is seen as a major social problem that affects the whole of society, being responsible for illness and deaths caused by actions performed by individuals or, causing physical harm, emotional victims; in addition to generating expenditure for public services.(AU)


Objetivo: Analizar los datos de victimización de hombres, de entre 20 y 59 años, debido a las diferentes formas de violencia física y sexual, inscritas en el Sistema de Vigilancia de La Violencia y Accidentes/SIVVA de la ciudad de Sao Paulo (SP). Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal, con un enfoque cuantitativo, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Realizado a través de las notificaciones del Sistema de Información para la Vigilancia de la Violencia y accidentes (SIVVA) del Departamento Municipal de Salud de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, en el período de enero a diciembre de 2014 en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, con una crianza de 6658 hombres de entre 20 y 59 años. Resultados: El número de casos de violencia física fue de 6.624 casos y violencia sexual 34 casos contra hombres de entre 20 y 59 años. El vínculo del agresor con la víctima era familiar o conocido por la víctima; 61,8% de violencia sexual y 42,8% de violencia física. Conclusión: El estudio mostró que las víctimas eran predominantemente adultos jóvenes. La violencia en la mayoría de los estudios es vista como un problema social importante que afecta a toda la sociedad, siendo responsable de enfermedades y muertes causadas por acciones realizadas por individuos o, causando daño físico, víctimas emocionales; además de generar gastos para los servicios públicos.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Educación Sexual , Delitos Sexuales , Violencia , Abuso Físico , Factores de Riesgo , Salud del Hombre
14.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(10): 1239-1242, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006492

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV)-defined as physical, psychological, sexual, and/or economic violence typically experienced by women at home and perpetrated by their partners or expartners-is a pervasive form of violence that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem, with important negative consequences on physical and psychological health. Many reports from several countries have underlined a remarkable increase in the cases of IPV during the COVID-19 emergency. In this opinion article, we discussed the hypothesis that such an increase may be related to the restrictive measures enacted to contain the pandemic, including women's forced cohabitation with the abusive partner, as well as the exacerbation of partners' pre-existing psychological disorders during the lockdown. In addition, we retrospectively analyzed some data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral center for sexual and domestic violence (Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence [SVSeD]). These data interestingly revealed an opposite trend, that is, a decrease in the number of women who sought assistance since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Such a reduction should be interpreted as a negative consequence of the pandemic-related restrictive measures. Although necessary, these measures reduced women's possibilities of seeking help from antiviolence centers and/or emergency services. Owing to the COVID-19 outbreak, there is an urgent need for developing and implementing alternative treatment options for IPV victims (such as online and phone counseling and telemedicine), as well as training programs for health care professionals, especially those employed in emergency departments, to facilitate early detection of IPV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Maltrato Conyugal/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/tendencias , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoimagen , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/tendencias , Distancia Social , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Maltrato Conyugal/tendencias
15.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 152, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028424

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the global pandemic of corona virus (COVID-19) spreads across continents and communities, people are forced to respond with strict preventive measures such as staying at home and keeping social distance. In relation with these measures, particularly with the staying at home, increasing rates of domestic violence are beginning to surface. Hence, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intimate partner violence against reproductive age women in northern Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The data were collected during the period of April to May, 2020 using interviews and a self-administered standard questionnaire. The data were entered into the Epi-data manager version 4.2 and exported to SPSS 22 for analysis. The descriptive analysis such as frequency distribution, percentage, and measures of central tendency were used. This was followed by binary and multiple logistic regression analysis to infer the association between the outcome and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 682 participants were included in the study. The prevalence of intimate partner violence against women was found to stood at 24.6% with psychological violence being the most prevalent (13.3%), followed by physical (8.3%) and sexual violence (5.3%). Women were more likely to suffer from violence if they were housewives (AOR, 95% CI (18.062 (10.088, 32.342))), age less than 30 (AOR, 95% CI (23.045 (5.627, 94.377))), women with arrange marriage (AOR, 95% CI (2.535 (1.572, 4.087))) and women with husband's age being "between" 31-40 (AOR, CI 95% (2.212 (1.024, 4.777))). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the presence of a relatively high prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Thus, public reporting of any cases or concerns of abuse is critical and vital to mitigate the problem.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Prevalencia , Reproducción , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
16.
N Z Med J ; 133(1523): 55-64, 2020 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032303

RESUMEN

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the number and correlates of sexual assault among students at a campus-based university in Aotearoa New Zealand and to determine how often students disclose such experiences to health professionals, other services and family/friends. METHODS: An online survey based on the Administrator-Researcher Campus Climate Consortium tool was emailed to all students at the main campus of a large university in Aotearoa/New Zealand. It was completed by 1,540 students (8.1% of those emailed) of any gender in July-August 2019. RESULTS: During their time at university to-date, 28% of the sample had experienced at least one form of sexual assault with 14.9% reporting experiences that meet a definition of rape. Sixty-six percent of victims in the sample and 53% of the reported perpetrators had been using alcohol at the time of the assault. Only 8% of those reporting sexual assault in the sample disclosed the assault to a health professional. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the low number of university students disclosing sexual assaults to health professionals or support services, the results of this survey suggest more work is needed to facilitate greater disclosures to health professionals enabling victims to access the services they need regardless of alcohol use.


Asunto(s)
Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239046, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941496

RESUMEN

The increasing recidivism rate of sex offenders indicates potential problems in existing recidivism programs. The present study was conducted to determine whether the polygraph examination is a useful technique to obtain a sex offender's concealed past sexual history. We collected fifty-two sex offenders' data and analyzed it. Among the 52 participants, the court ordered 26 sex offenders to take the psychiatric evaluation and the polygraph test. The other half were prisoners at the hospital who were currently undergoing treatment. The participants in the polygraph group disclosed more deviant sexual behaviors and paraphilia interests/behaviors than the comparison group. Thus, the polygraph examination is a powerful tool that can encourage sex offenders to disclose hidden information to help create suitable psychological therapy programs for preventing recidivism in the future.


Asunto(s)
Detección de Mentiras/psicología , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Criminales/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Parafílicos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Parafílicos/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Revelación de la Verdad/ética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239187, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941533

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Sexual violence can have a destructive impact on the lives of people. It is more common in unstable conditions such as during displacement or migration of people. On the Greek island of Lesvos, Médecins Sans Frontières provided medical care to survivors of sexual violence among the population of asylum seekers. This study describes the patterns of sexual violence reported by migrants and asylum seekers and the clinical care provided to them. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, using routine program data. The study population consisted of migrants and asylum seekers treated for conditions related to sexual violence at the Médecins Sans Frontières clinic on Lesvos Island (September 2017-January 2018). RESULTS: There were 215 survivors of sexual violence who presented for care, of whom 60 (28%) were male. The majority of incidents reported (94%) were cases of rape; 174 (81%) of survivors were from Africa and 185 (86%) of the incidents occurred over a month before presentation. Half the incidents (118) occurred in transit, mainly in Turkey, and 76 (35%) in the country of origin; 10 cases (5%) occurred on Lesvos. The perpetrator was known to the survivor in 23% of the cases. The need for mental health care exceeded the capacity of available mental care services. CONCLUSION: Even though the majority of cases delayed seeking medical care after the incident, it is crucial that access to mental health services is guaranteed for those in need. Such access and security measures for people in transit need to be put in place along migration routes, including in countries nominally considered safe, and secure routes need to be developed.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Campos de Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Refugiados/psicología , Sociedades Médicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología
20.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(4): e301, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139452

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar las principales afecciones en salud sexual y reproductiva en mujeres víctimas del conflicto y posconflicto armado. Metodología Se hizo una revisión sistemática exploratoria de la literatura nacional e internacional, en idiomas inglés, español y portugués, entre los años 2000 al 2019, en PubMED, EMBASE, Google Scholar, LILACS, IBECS, SciELO; y consulta a informantes clave. Resultados Se encontró en el ámbito internacional que la principal afectación identificada se refirió a violencia sexual. Se encontraron factores de riesgo que la perpetúan, como el entorno familiar, acceso a educación, pobre infraestructura de servicios de salud entre otros. Otras afectaciones importantes derivaron en un aumento en la tasa de embarazos y matrimonios. En Colombia el panorama fue similar: las zonas con mayor afección por conflicto tienen más tasa de fecundidad, pobre acceso a atención obstétrica y pobre conocimiento de las ITS. Conclusión Se debe asegurar el acceso a servicios de salud sexual en el conflicto para prevención de enfermedades y asegurar el derecho a la salud sexual y reproductiva.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objetive Show the main conditions in sexual and reproductive health in women victims of the conflicts and armed post-conflicts. Methodology An scoping systematic review was conducted, about literature in English, Spanish, and Portuguese languages, between 2000 to the present, in PubMED, EMBASE, Google Scholar, LILACS, IBECS, SciELO and was consulted key informants. Results It was found in the international ambit, the main affectation identified referred to sexual violence, risk factors were found that perpetuate it, such as the family environment, access to education, poor infrastructure of health services among others. Other important effects derive from an increase in the rate of pregnancies and marriages. In Colombia the situation is similar: the areas with the greatest impact due to conflict have a higher fertility rate, poor access to obstetric care, and poor knowledge of STIs. Conclusion Access to sexual health services in the conflict, for disease prevention, and the right to sexual and reproductive health must be ensured.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Delitos Sexuales , Salud de la Mujer , Conflictos Armados , Salud Reproductiva/tendencias , Salud Sexual/tendencias
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