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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17716, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651904

RESUMEN

South Africa has adopted pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventive strategy for populations at-risk for HIV, though uptake is low among adolescents and young adults. We examined the awareness and use of PrEP among adolescents and young adults in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.This cross-sectional study was conducted between June and November 2018 among 772 adolescents and young adults (aged 16-24 years) selected using stratified random sampling in a South African university. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit demographic information, behavioral, family-related characteristics, awareness and use of PrEP. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the predictors of PrEP awareness.The overall level of PrEP awareness was 18.8%; however, only 1.7% of participants had used PrEP, 7.5% of had seen it, 4.8% knew how much it cost, and 14.8% knew where and how to get it. In the adjusted regression analysis, only adequate family support (AOR: 2.11; CI: 1.47-3.04) and discussions of HIV and sexually transmitted infections with sexual partners (AOR: 1.78; CI: 1.19-2.67) were associated with a higher likelihood of being aware of PrEP.The level of awareness and use of PrEP is still very low among adolescents and young adults who may need it to prevent HIV infection. Poor awareness of PrEP among adolescents and young adults in high HIV risk settings may limit its use. Thus, concerted efforts are needed to promote awareness and access to PrEP among young South African adults.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 78, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553381

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize data about the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) among refugees around the world. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from the search in seven bibliographic databases. Studies on the prevalence of SV among refugees and asylum seekers of any country, sex or age, whether in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, were eligible. RESULTS: Of the 2,906 titles found, 60 articles were selected. The reported prevalence of SV was largely variable (0% to 99.8%). Reports of SV were collected in all continents, with 42% of the articles mentioning it in refugees from Africa (prevalence from 1.3% to 100%). The rape was the most reported SV in 65% of the studies (prevalence from 0% to 90.9%). The main victims were women in 89% of the studies, all the way, especially when still in the countries of origin. The SV was perpetrated particularly by intimate partners, but also by agents of supposed protection. Few studies have reported SV in men and children; the prevalence reached up to 39.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Approximately one-third of the studies (32%) were carried out in refugee camps and more than half (52%) in health services using mental health assessment tools. No study has addressed the most recent migratory crisis. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: SV is a prevalent problem affecting refugees of both sexes, of all ages, throughout the migratory journey, particularly those from Africa. Protection measures are urgently needed, and further studies, with more appropriate tools, may better measure the current magnitude of the problem.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1131, 2019 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420028

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to be associated with poor maternal healthcare utilisation and poor pregnancy outcomes. IPV can be seen both as the cause and result of low socioeconomic status and lack of maternal autonomy that can limit women's access to resources and motivation necessary for seeking healthcare during pregnancy. This paper aims to study the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the utilisation of facility delivery services in Nigeria. METHODS: We applied propensity score matching (PSM) approach to examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the utilisation of facility delivery services. PSM is a popular strategy for reducing sampling bias through balancing sample characteristics, a technique that mimics randomization on cross-sectional data. Data were collected from Nigeria DHS surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. IPV was the main explanatory variable of interest for delivery at health facility which was defined as delivering at any health institution including health clinics. RESULTS: PSM generated 20,446 cases distributed into two equal groups i.e. those who delivered at health facility versus those who did not. The prevalence of facility delivery in 2013 was 56.8% (95%CI 55.0-58.6) indicating a moderate increase from its 2008 level of 43.2% (41.4-45.0%). Lifetime prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse was respectively 21.5%(95%CI 20.6, 22.4), 14.9% (14.2, 15.7) and 5.0% (4.6-5.4). In the multivariable analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, ever experiencing emotional abuse was associated increased odds of not delivering at a health facility. (AOR = 1.228, 95%CI, 1.095-1.679). CONCLUSION: Women experiencing emotional violence are less likely to use institutional delivery services, and hence are susceptible to increased risk of reproductive complications. IPV is a complex issue that needs to be tackled by introducing evidence based strategies contextually relevant to local sociocultural environment. Further studies are required to understand the roots of IPV and the pathways through which it hindrances healthcare utilisation among women.


Asunto(s)
Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Puntaje de Propensión , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
5.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 15(3): 382-391, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359307

RESUMEN

In order to better understand risk factors associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), this study examined complainant-specific and contextual factors, as well as the toxicological profile of DFSA in Victoria, Australia. Clinical files and toxicological analysis results collected by the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) for all cases of alleged DFSA in Victoria that occurred between 1st January 2011 - 31st December 2013 were reviewed. Two hundred and four cases of alleged DFSA were identified; complainants were predominately female (93%), and their median age was 26 years (range = 18-54). Self-reported premorbid depression (21.1%) and drug and alcohol abuse (9.8%) were four and two times higher than 12-month prevalence rates in Australia, respectively. All assailants were male, half were known to the complainant and half of alleged assaults occurred in private residences. Most (93.6%) complainants reported voluntary consumption of psychoactive substances prior to the alleged DFSA. Alcohol was the most commonly self-reported substance consumed (n = 164; 64%) and concomitant use of alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs was also commonly self-reported (24%). There were 14 cases that produced a positive toxicology result where the complainant did not report voluntary consumption, which suggests these drugs may have been used covertly to facilitate sexual assault. The results of this study indicate that Females in their mid-20's who exhibit higher rates of mental health concerns represent a sub-group of the Australian population with increased vulnerability to DFSA, which typically occurs in a familiar setting in the context of voluntary alcohol and other substance use.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mal Uso de Medicamentos de Venta con Receta/estadística & datos numéricos , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Adulto Joven
6.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(3): 111-123, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325294

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nurses are more likely to be exposed to violence at their workplace in comparison with other employees. OBJECTIVE: To determine various aspects of violence against nurses in Shiraz public hospitals. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2017 to 2018, using a multistage random sampling method. Violence including verbal threats, verbal abuse, physical and sexual abuse as well as ethnical types, violence from patients, patients' companions and coworkers, and causes of violence were investigated using a checklist. RESULTS: 405 nurses with a mean age of 30.2 (SD 7.1) years and female to male ratio of 4.2 were interviewed. 363 (89.6%) nurses had experienced at least one kind of violence; 68.4% suffered from more than one type of violence. Verbal abuse (83.9%), verbal threats (27.6%), physical violence (21.4%), sexual abuse (10.8%), and ethnical harassment (6.1%) were the most common types of violence experienced by the nurses. Patients' companions, patients, and physicians were reported as the sources of violence in 70.6%, 43.1%, and 4.1% of cases, respectively. Nurses with non-official employment status and non-Farsi ethnicity, having a disease, with non-evening shift work, and those with short or long employment period were more affected. Unrealistic expectations by patients' companions and long working hours were the most common attributing factors. CONCLUSION: Violence against nurses, as a strenuous and health-threatening crisis, has become epidemic in public hospitals in our region. Effective interventions are warranted to sort out these problems.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Universidades , Armas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
7.
Womens Health Issues ; 29 Suppl 1: S67-S73, 2019 06 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253245

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Military sexual trauma (MST) is a pervasive problem among veterans, and is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes. It is, therefore, imperative to identify individuals who have experienced MST so that they can be offered appropriate treatment. To determine how to best identify MST survivors, the current study examined how different assessment modalities might affect MST endorsement, and whether endorsement varied as a product of demographic group membership. METHODS: Data from 697 male and female veterans participating in the Veterans' After-Discharge Longitudinal Registry (Project VALOR) were used to examine how three different MST assessment modalities-the Veterans Health Administration screen, a study interview, and a study questionnaire measure-might affect MST endorsement across five different demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, race, and age). Each participant was evaluated for MST exposure using each of the three assessment modalities. RESULTS: Both assessment modality and demographic membership influenced MST endorsement. MST endorsement on the study measures was consistently twice as large as on the Veterans Health Administration screen, across demographic groups. For men, MST endorsement varied by a factor of 11 across measures, with endorsement being lowest on the Veterans Health Administration screen and highest on the study questionnaire. Although differences were also detected for sexual minority and Black participants, these findings may have been better explained by gender differences. CONCLUSIONS: Both assessment modality and demographic membership substantially influenced MST endorsement. Providing a clear rationale for screening and increasing privacy around screening results, particularly for male veterans, may help to facilitate MST disclosure.


Asunto(s)
Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Personal Militar , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Revelación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos/psicología , Salud de los Veteranos
8.
Prog. obstet. ginecol. (Ed. impr.) ; 62(3): 254-259, mayo-jun. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-3623

RESUMEN

Objective: To study the characteristics of patients attended for sexual assault in the Emergency Department of Miguel Servet Maternity Hospital. Material and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of sexual assaults managed between October 2016 and April 2018 at Miguel Servet Maternity Hospital. Results: We attended 52 cases of sexual assault in 50 women. Patients were generally young women with an average age of 28 years (24% were minors), had been assaulted by penetration (57.7%) by a single assailant (80.8%), and had received no observable physical lesions on the genitals (86.5%) or other parts of the body (65.4%). Fifty percent of the assaults took place during the weekend, and 63.5% of the patients came to the emergency department within 24 hours of the incident. In 75% of cases, the women reported the assault to the police. In 48% of cases, the patient did not undergo serology testing after visiting the emergency department; of those who did, 81% did not undergo repeat testing 3 months later. Conclusions: We observed a lack of agreement between the overall rate of sexual assault and the number of patients who came to the Emergency Department for this reason. Patients were mostly young, with no secondary physical lesions, and had been assaulted by penetration by a single assailant. Patients' adherence to medical indications was poor. Appropriate coordination between health workers, the police, and forensic experts is essential for appropriate management of sexual assaults are


Objetivo: estudiar las características de las pacientes atendidas en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Maternal Miguel Servet por agresión sexual. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo de las agresiones sexuales entre octubre de 2016 hasta abril de 2018 en el Hospital Maternal Miguel Servet. Resultados: se atendieron 52 urgencias de 50 pacientes diferentes. El perfil de la paciente fue: mujer joven, con una edad media de 28 años (el 24% fueron menores de edad), mediante penetración (57,7%), por un agresor único (80,8%) y sin lesiones físicas objetivables en genitales (86,5%) ni otras partes del cuerpo (65,4%). El 50% de agresiones se produjeron durante el fin de semana y el 63,5% acudió al Servicio de Urgencias en las primeras 24 horas tras la agresión. El 75% denunció los hechos a la policía. El 48% de las pacientes no se realizó serologías tras la visita al Servicio de Urgencias, y de las que lo hicieron, el 81% no repitió la determinación a los 3 meses. Conclusiones: existe una discordancia entre la tasa de agresión sexual global y el número de mujeres que acudió a Urgencias por este motivo. Las pacientes fueron en su mayoría jóvenes, sin lesiones físicas secundarias y agredidas mediante penetración por un agresor único. Fue observada una baja adherencia a las indicaciones médicas por parte de las pacientes. Una adecuada coordinación entre profesionales sanitarios, policía y especialistas en Medicina Legal y Forense es fundamental para un correcto manejo de la situación


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Tratamiento de Urgencia/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Distribución por Edad
9.
Res Nurs Health ; 42(4): 284-295, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087366

RESUMEN

Experts and professional organizations in the U.S. have issued recommendations that health care providers (HCPs) should screen women for intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV). Despite the high rates of IPV and SV experienced by female college students, investigators have found that providers are not screening for IPV and SV in college health centers. In this study, a cross-sectional survey design was utilized to: (a) examine college HCPs' reports of IPV/SV screening behaviors and (b) identify the individual-level and organization-level structure and process characteristics that promote or inhibit IPV/SV screening. A total of 773 college HCPs (physicians, nurse practitioners, and registered nurses) were invited to participate in the study using two separate sampling frames. The final sample included 210 college HCPs. Providers reported low rates of IPV/SV screening (median = 20%). Screening rates varied by provider type with nurse practitioners reporting the highest screening rates. Urban location was associated with a three and one-half times greater likelihood of IPV/SV screening. Use of an electronic health record that included a prompt to screen was associated with a three-fold increase in the likelihood that HCPs would screen for IPV/SV. Further study is needed to better understand how organizational factors influence providers' screening behaviors in college health centers and how these influences are mediated. Future studies should include larger and more diverse samples of colleges and examine geographical variations in screening practices.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Tamizaje Masivo/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 502, 2019 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053066

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: How the mainstream news media report violence against women is significant if levels of violence are to be reduced and ultimately eliminated. Media reporting is an important indicator through which to measure progress towards shifting social and cultural norms that reinforce or challenge the place of violence against women in our society. The current study, therefore, aimed to establish a baseline picture of the extent and nature of reporting of violence against women by the mainstream Australian news media. METHODS: Descriptive and content analysis of media reports on violence against women that were collected over four months in three states of Australia. Reports were from newspapers, broadcast (television and radio) and online news sites. RESULTS: Coverage of violence against women in the mainstream news media was extensive. Explicitly situating violent experiences for women within a broader social context was infrequent. Few news reports included information for women on where to seek help. Additionally, news reports rarely elevated the voices of survivors, advocates and other experts, with a disproportionate emphasis on law enforcement, political and criminal justice perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: Despite readiness among journalists and readers to engage in news about violence against women, reporting that promotes public understanding of the issue is not always the norm.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Maltratadas/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Agresión , Australia , Femenino , Humanos , Problemas Sociales , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 494, 2019 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046717

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Europe, it is estimated that one third of women had experienced at least one physical or sexual violence after their 15. Taking into account the severe health consequences, the Emergency Department (ED), may offer an opportunity to recognize when an aggression is part of the spectrum of violence. This study applies Social Network analysis (SNA) to ED data in the Lazio region with the objective to identify patterns of diagnoses, within all the ED accesses of women experiencing an aggression, that are signals for gender-based violence against women. We aim to develop a risk assessment tool for ED professionals in order to strength their ability to manage victims of violence. METHODS: A cohort of 124,691 women aged 15-70 with an ED visit for aggression between 2003 and 2015 was selected and, for each woman, the ED history of diagnoses and traumas was reconstructed. SNA was applied on all these diagnoses and traumas, including also 9 specific violence diagnoses. SNA community detection algorithms and network centrality measures were used to detect diagnostic patterns more strongly associated to violence. A logistic model was developed to validate the capability of these patterns to predict the odds for a woman of having an history of violence. Model results were summed up into a risk chart. RESULTS: Among women experiencing an aggression, SNA identified four communities representing specific violence-related patterns of diagnoses. Diagnoses having a central role in the violence network were alcohol or substance abuse, pregnancy-related conditions and psychoses. These high-risk violence related patterns accounted for at most 20% of our cohort. The logistic model had good predictive accuracy and predictive power confirming that diagnosis patterns identified through the SNA are meaningful in the violence recognition. CONCLUSIONS: Routine ED data, analyzed using SNA, can be a first-line warning to recognize when an aggression related access is part of the spectrum of gender-based violence against women. Increasing the available number of predictors, such procedures may be proven to support ED staff in identifying early signs of violence to adequately support the victims and mitigate the harms.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Maltratadas/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Red Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
12.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(7): 586-595, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066996

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in youth are common, have heterogeneous manifestations, and have been shown to be associated with serious psychopathology. While early-life trauma exposure is associated with increased risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), its association with different OCS and its clinical relevance for serious psychopathology is unclear. Here we aimed to evaluate associations among traumatic stressful events (TSE), OCS, and serious psychiatric conditions in community youth. METHODS: We studied nonmental-help seeking youths from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 7054, aged 11-21, 54% females, 52% prepubertal), assessed for lifetime TSE exposure and OCS. Regression models investigated cross-sectional associations of TSEs with OCS, and associations with depression, suicide ideation and psychosis. Models examined sex and puberty effects, controlling for age and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Trauma exposure was associated with higher OCS rates, especially in females (Trauma × Sex interaction Wald = 7.93, p = 0.005) and prepuberty (Trauma × Puberty interaction Wald = 7.68, p = 0.006). TSEs were associated with all OCS manifestations, most prominently with bad intrusive thoughts (odds ratio [OR] = 1.63). Assaultive TSEs, especially sexual assault, showed stronger associations with OCS compared with nonassaultive TSEs. While TSEs and OCS were independently associated with depression, suicide ideation, and psychosis, a significant interaction was observed only in association with increased rates of psychosis (Trauma × OCS interaction Wald = 5.08, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Early-life trauma is associated with OCS in a dose-response manner, more so in females and prepuberty. The trauma-OCS association varied by load, type of trauma, and by OCS subtypes. Trauma-OCS appears a detrimental combination in association with psychosis.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/epidemiología , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Psicopatología , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Ideación Suicida , Adulto Joven
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 299: 44-48, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954627

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We examined 1200 sexual assault cold cases from Denver, Colorado to ascertain the rate of successful prosecution in which there was a DNA suspect match and the cost per conviction. RESULTS: Nearly 40% of the cases in which there was a DNA match failed to result in an arrest or prosecution primarily because victims were uncooperative or their testimony was judged to be unreliable. Other factors affecting conviction included crime context, victim availability, and the ability of the defendant to mount a consensual sex defense. Once an arrest had been made, however, the conviction rate exceeded 90%. We estimate that Denver's sexual assault DNA testing program cost roughly $16,000 per conviction. CONCLUSION: Our results lend strong support to the value of testing sexual assault kits (SAKs) even in cold cases. This suggests that programs such as Federal Solving Cold Cases with DNA Program are well worth the investment.


Asunto(s)
Dermatoglifia del ADN/economía , Dermatoglifia del ADN/legislación & jurisprudencia , Delitos Sexuales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto , Colorado/epidemiología , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Bases de Datos de Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Personal Disord ; 10(2): 132-142, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829527

RESUMEN

Borderline personality pathology is a serious mental illness characterized by pervasive interpersonal deficits that onset during adolescence. Risk factors for borderline personality pathology include maladaptive interpersonal dynamics within attachment relationships. Given the shift toward emphasizing romantic relationships during adolescence as an important attachment relationship with implications for healthy development, the current study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between victimization in dating relationships and borderline pathology in the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood. A large sample of high school daters (N = 818; 58% female; Mage = 16.10 years, SDage = .78) were recruited to complete annual assessments of borderline personality features and dating violence victimization across 5 years. Results of a cross-lagged panel model revealed that primarily among girls, borderline features predicted increased levels of relational, psychological, and physical violence, whereas psychological and sexual violence predicted greater borderline features. The current findings provide the first evidence of a longitudinal association between victimization and borderline pathology in adolescence and suggest, particularly among girls, that interventions for borderline features have important implications for reducing dating violence victimization among adolescents and young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/epidemiología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Adulto Joven
15.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(1): 92-96, 2019 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922036

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The study on domestic violence in rural areas of Western Pomerania (Poland), carried out in October 2017, aimed at determining the scale of domestic violence against the elderly, taking into account its 5 forms: psychological, physical, economic and sexual violence, as well as negligence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research concept was implemented with the use of a representative sampling method by means of a questionnaire-based audit interview, and using research tools to measure the social scale of the phenomenon of domestic violence, the victims of which were the elderly from one of the rural communes of Western Pomerania. RESULTS: The basic results of the survey were as follows: 1) 40.1% of seniors reported experiencing violence from their family members; 2) 36.5% experienced psychological violence and 21.9% - negligence; 3) 8.8% were victims of economic violence and 5.1% - of physical violence; 4) sexual abuse was the least frequently reported - 0.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Domestic violence in rural areas could affect as many as 40% of seniors. Generally, they admitted to experiencing one of the 5 forms of violence distinguished in the study, of which acts of psychological violence were predominant. Negligence and economic violence were relatively less frequent. Physical violence was even less prevalent. On the other hand, 8.1% of seniors experienced 3-4 forms of violence, which could be considered as a situation of increased risk of pathologisation of their family life.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato al Anciano/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polonia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Behav Sci Law ; 37(2): 158-175, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900348

RESUMEN

Empirical studies of sexual offender recidivism have proliferated in recent decades. Virtually all of the studies define recidivism as a new legal charge or conviction for a sexual crime, and these studies tend to find recidivism rates of the order of 5-15% after 5 years and 10-25% after 10+ years. It is uncontroversial that such a definition of recidivism underestimates the true rate of sexual recidivism because most sexual crime is not reported to legal authorities, a principle known as the "dark figure of crime." To estimate the magnitude of the dark figure of sexual recidivism, this paper uses a probabilistic simulation approach in conjunction with the following: (i) victim self-report survey data about the rate of reporting sexual crime to legal authorities; (ii) offender self-report data about the number of victims per offender; and (iii) different assumptions about the chances of being convicted of a new sexual offense given that it is reported. Under any configuration of assumptions, the dark figure is substantial, and as a consequence the disparity between recidivism defined as a new legal charge or conviction for a sex crime and recidivism defined as actually committing a new sexual crime is large. These findings call into question the utility of recidivism studies that rely exclusively on official crime statistics to define sexual recidivism, and highlight the need for additional, long-term studies that use a variety of different measures to assess whether or not sexual recidivism has occurred.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817860

RESUMEN

Objective: To examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among service members charged with sexual offenses. Methods: The sample comprised service members charged with any type of sexual offense and referred for forensic evaluation (N = 67). Forensic mental health evaluations (competency to stand trial, criminal responsibility, risk assessment) of service members charged with sexual offenses were examined and the assigned clinical diagnoses (according to DSM-IV or -5) were enumerated to provide natural frequencies and percentages. Data were collected from February 2018 to May 2018. Results: Findings suggest that alcohol use disorder is the most prevalent disorder both at the time of offense (28%) and time of the forensic evaluation (38%). The 2 most prominent diagnostic categories were substance use disorders and trauma-and-stress-related disorders. Conclusions: Identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders among service members charged with sexual offenses may facilitate rehabilitation, reduce recidivism, and offer public health benefits. This topic should be further studied in a larger sample to effectively address this public health problem.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Trauma y Estrés/epidemiología , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884787

RESUMEN

Violence against women with disabilities is pervasive, yet a paucity of research examines intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by women with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study is to document the prevalence and consequences of IPV exposure among Ugandan women with disabilities. Cross sectional data from the 2011 and 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (UDHS) were used to study married and/or partnered women aged 15⁻49 who answered specific questions about lifetime intimate partner violence (N = 8592). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between disability, IPV, and indicators of maternal and child health. Compared to women without disabilities, women with disabilities were more likely to experience lifetime physical violence (odds ratio (OR) 1.4, p < 0.01), sexual violence (OR = 1.7, p < 0.01), and emotional abuse (1.4, p < 0.01) after controlling for sociodemographic and household characteristics. Study findings suggest that women with disabilities in Uganda may experience increased risk for IPV compared to women without disabilities, with concomitant risks to their health and the survival of their infants. Further research examining the prevalence and correlates of IPV in low- and middle-income countries is needed to address the needs and rights of women with disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Parejas Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Maltrato a los Niños , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 45(1): 4-11, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-182340

RESUMEN

Objetivo: El maltrato infantil es visto como un tipo de violencia familiar porque es, habitualmente, ejercido por familiares y personas cercanas a los niños. Sobre un mismo niño puede coexistir más de un tipo de violencia y vivir en hogares expuestos a violencia de género. El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer el tipo de maltrato que sufren los menores vistos como víctimas, por orden judicial, y la co-ocurrencia de formas directas e indirectas de violencia, como la exposición a la violencia entre los padres y personas adultas de la familia. Se analizan la relación de la violencia con variables legales, sociodemográficas y de salud del menor, variables de la familia, de salud de los padres y posible victimización de la madre. Método: Es un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, con datos extraídos de las historias clínico-forenses de menores reconocidos en la UVFI de Bilbao, durante el periodo 2009-2015. La población de estudio es de 675 menores víctimas de maltrato, entre 0-17 años y que fueron explorados de forma individualizada por médicos o psicólogos forenses, por orden judicial. Se ha estudiado, de forma no excluyente, la violencia física, psíquica, violencia sexual, ser testigos de violencia entre adultos de la familia y la polivictimización. Resultados: De los menores analizados la violencia más prevalente es el maltrato emocional y ser testigo de violencia entre los adultos de la familia, seguido de la violencia física, la polivictimización y en último lugar de frecuencia sufrir violencia sexual. Hay una elevada co-ocurrencia entre tipos de maltrato, y la violencia hacia los menores y la violencia de género son fenómenos cercanos. Son los niños entre 5 y 11 años los que sufren una mayor victimización. La mayor parte de las denuncias parten de las familias, especialmente de la madre (58%), y el principal denunciado es el padre (47%) seguido de la madre (16%). Es interesante señalar que un 40% de las madres agresoras sufren, a su vez, violencia de género. Llama la atención la baja frecuencia de casos de maltrato infantil que son detectados por personas ajenas a la familia


Objective: Child abuse is seen as a type of family violence because it is usually exercised by relatives and people close to the children. At the saqme time a child may experience more than one type of violence and may live in homes exposed to gender-based violence. The aim of this study is to determine the type of abuse suffered by the children seen as victims, by court order, and the co-occurrence of direct and indirect forms of violence, such as exposure to violence between parents and adult members of the family. The relationship of violence with sociodemographic and health variables of the minor, variables of the family, of the parents' health, and possible victimization of the mother is analysed. Method: A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted using data extracted from the forensic clinical records of minors examined in in a Forensic Evaluation Unit of Bilbao during the period of 2009-2015. The studied population included 675 minors from 0-17 years-old, victims of abuse, who were analyzed individually at the hands of forensic doctors or psychologists by court order. The study included, among others, physical and psychological violence, sexual violence, being witnesses of violence between adults in the family and multiple victimisation. Results: In the minors analysed, the most prevalent violence was emotional abuse and witnessing violence between adults in the family, followed by physical violence, multiple victimisation and, in the last place of frequency, sexual violence. There is a high co-occurrence between types of abuse. There is a high co-ocurrence among types of violence in minors, and violence towards minors and gender violence are close phenomena. It is children between 5 and 11 years old that most frequently suffer all subtypes of abuse. Most of the complaints come from the family, especially the mother (58%) and the one mainly reported is the father (47%), followed by the mother (N=110). It is interesting to note that 40% of the aggressor mothers are also victims of gender violence. The low frequency of cases of child abuse that are detected by people outside the family is striking


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a la Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicología Forense/métodos , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 45(1): 18-22, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-182342

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia para la recuperación de espermatozoides utilizando una técnica estándar y una técnica basada en ultrasonido. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental para comparar 2 técnicas de recuperación de espermatozoides: 1) la técnica estándar, basada en la elución de la evidencia en agua destilada con un solución tampón, y 2) una técnica modificada, que incluyó la concentración por centrifugado y el uso de ultrasonido. La eficacia se basó en el recuento manual de espermatozoides utilizando diluciones de 1:1 a 1:500. Resultados: La técnica modificada mejoró sustancialmente la recuperación de los espermatozoides. En la dilución 1:10, la técnica estándar recuperó el 3,1%, la modificada recuperó un 17,5%; representando un aumento de 6 veces más en la recuperación. La técnica modificada fue la única capaz de recuperar espermatozoides en diluciones superiores a 1:250. Conclusión: La implementación de la técnica ultrasónica mejora la recuperación de espermatozoides


Objective: To evaluate the efficiency for the recovery of spermatozoa using the standard technique and a technique based on ultrasound. Materials and methods: An experimental study was carried out to compare two techniques for spermatozoa recovery; I the standard technique, based on elution of the evidence in distilled water with a buffer and, II a modified technique that included concentration by centrifugation and ultrasound. The efficiency was based on manual counting of spermatozoa using dilutions 1:1 to 1:500. Results: The modified technique substantially improved the recovery of spermatozoa. While the standard technique recovered 3.1%, the modified one resulted in a recovery of 17.5% using the 1:10 dilution, which represents a six-fold increase. The modified technique was the only one able to recover spermatozoa in dilutions higher than 1:250. Conclusion: The implementation of the ultrasonic technique improves the recovery of spermatozoa


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Patologia Forense/métodos , Espermatozoides , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Violación/diagnóstico , Ultrasonografía/métodos
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