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1.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 37(3): e13239, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621995

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Reducing Disability in Alzheimer's Disease in Kansas City (RDAD-KC) intervention has been shown to improve the health of individuals with dementia and caregiver dyads. This manuscript reports the results of implementing the RDAD among individuals with intellectual disabilities and caregiver dyads. METHODS: Nine community agencies deployed the 12-week intervention. We assessed changes in individuals with intellectual disabilities' behavioural symptom related severity and physical activity, and caregivers' behavioural symptom-related distress, unmet needs, and caregiver strain. RESULTS: Forty-four dyads enrolled, and 23 (~60 years, 48% female) completed ≥75% of the intervention. We observed decreases in behavioural symptom related severity (p = .07) and increases in physical activity (p = .20) among individuals with intellectual disabilities. We also observed decreases in behavioural symptom related distress (p = .14), unmet needs (p = .50), and caregiver strain (p = .50) among caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The RDAD-KC intervention showed promising, although statistically non-significant, benefits among individuals with intellectual disabilities and their caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Demencia , Discapacidad Intelectual , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Cuidadores , Ejercicio Físico
2.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 52(2): 161-171, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622011

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia, resulting in impairments in memory, cognition, decision-making, and social skills. Thus, accurate preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is paramount. The identification of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) represents a novel adjunctive diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE: This study conducted a meta-analysis of the diagnostic results of this technology to explore its feasibility and accuracy. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched without restrictions, with the search period extending up to July 31, 2022. The search strategy employed a combination of subject headings and keywords. All retrieved documents underwent screening by two researchers, who selected them for meta-analysis. The included literature was analyzed using Review Manager 5.4 software, with corresponding bias maps, forest plots, and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves generated and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 344 articles were retrieved initially, with 11 articles meeting the criteria for inclusion in the analysis. The analysis encompassed data from approximately 1766 patients. In the forest plot, both sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) approached 1. Examining the true positive rate, false positive rate, true negative rate, and false negative rate, all studies on the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve clustered in the upper left quadrant, suggesting a very high accuracy of biomarkers detected by MRS for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSION: The detection of biomarkers by MRS demonstrates feasibility and high accuracy in diagnosing AD. This technology holds promise for widespread adoption in the clinical diagnosis of AD in the future.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Demencia , Humanos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Estudios de Factibilidad , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Biomarcadores , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
3.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 52(2): 114-121, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622013

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain poses a significant problem for older adults and may potentially impact cognitive function. This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional relationship between pain severity and cognitive function in elderly individuals residing in the community. Additionally, this study sought to examine the mediating effect of depression on the relationship between pain and dementia. METHODS: The study sample was derived from the 2018 China Health and Aging Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), comprising cross-sectional data from 4559 community residents aged 65 years or older. The primary outcome assessed was the occurrence of dementia, while the main independent variable was pain severity (none, little, somewhat, quite a bit, very). Depression score served as the mediating factor. Chi-square and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between depression and the occurrence of pain and dementia. An intermediate model was constructed by stepwise regression. RESULTS: The study indicates a significant association between cognitive impairment and both chronic pain and depressive symptoms in older adults living in China. Individuals who frequently report experiencing pain exhibit a higher likelihood of developing dementia when compared to those who do not report any pain (odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, p < 0.001). Moreover, depressive symptoms significantly mediate the relationship between pain and dementia, with the mediating effect accounting for 65.25%. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic pain not only directly impacts patients' cognitive function but also indirectly exacerbates cognitive impairment through depressive symptoms as a mediating variable. For elderly individuals experiencing depressive symptoms, it is important to provide appropriate psychological treatment in conjunction with pain management strategies.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Anciano , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/epidemiología , Dolor Crónico/complicaciones , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Demencia/complicaciones , Demencia/epidemiología
4.
JMIR Aging ; 7: e52443, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623717

RESUMEN

Background: Interventions and care that can evoke positive emotions and reduce apathy or agitation are important for people with dementia. In recent years, socially assistive robots used for better dementia care have been found to be feasible. However, the immediate responses of people with dementia when they are given multiple sensory modalities from socially assistive robots have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. Objective: This study aimed to quantitatively examine the immediate emotional responses of people with dementia to stimuli presented by socially assistive robots using facial expression analysis in order to determine whether they elicited positive emotions. Methods: This pilot study adopted a single-arm interventional design. Socially assistive robots were presented to nursing home residents in a three-step procedure: (1) the robot was placed in front of participants (visual stimulus), (2) the robot was manipulated to produce sound (visual and auditory stimuli), and (3) participants held the robot in their hands (visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli). Expression intensity values for "happy," "sad," "angry," "surprised," "scared," and "disgusted" were calculated continuously using facial expression analysis with FaceReader. Additionally, self-reported feelings were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale. In addition to the comparison between the subjective and objective emotional assessments, expression intensity values were compared across the aforementioned 3 stimuli patterns within each session. Finally, the expression intensity value for "happy" was compared between the different types of robots. Results: A total of 29 participants (mean age 88.7, SD 6.2 years; n=27 female; Japanese version of Mini-Mental State Examination mean score 18.2, SD 5.1) were recruited. The expression intensity value for "happy" was the largest in both the subjective and objective assessments and increased significantly when all sensory modalities (visual, auditory, and tactile) were presented (median expression intensity 0.21, IQR 0.09-0.35) compared to the other 2 patterns (visual alone: median expression intensity 0.10, IQR 0.03-0.22; P<.001; visual and auditory: median expression intensity 0.10, IQR 0.04-0.23; P<.001). The comparison of different types of robots revealed a significant increase when all stimuli were presented by doll-type and animal-type robots, but not humanoid-type robots. Conclusions: By quantifying the emotional responses of people with dementia, this study highlighted that socially assistive robots may be more effective in eliciting positive emotions when multiple sensory stimuli, including tactile stimuli, are involved. More studies, including randomized controlled trials, are required to further explore the effectiveness of using socially assistive robots in dementia care.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Robótica , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Proyectos Piloto , Emociones/fisiología , Felicidad
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e080551, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589260

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a complex medical condition that poses significant challenges to healthcare systems and support services. People living with dementia (PLWD) and their carers experience complex needs often exacerbated by social isolation and challenges in accessing support. Social prescribing (SP) seeks to enable PLWD and their carers to access community and voluntary sector resources to support them address such needs. Existing research, however, does not describe what SP interventions are currently in place in dementia care. Little is known about the needs these interventions are designed to address, the reasons that lead PLWD and their carers to participate in them, their effectiveness and the extent to which they could increase positive health outcomes if adopted and how. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A complex intervention systematic review of SP for PLWD and/or their carers will be conducted using an iterative logic model approach. Six electronic (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus and Cochrane/CENTRAL) and two grey literature databases (EThOS and CORE) were searched for publications between 1 January 2003 and June 2023, supplemented by handsearching of reference lists of included studies. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment, using Gough's Weight of Evidence Framework, will be independently performed by two reviewers. A narrative approach will be employed to synthesise and report quantitative and qualitative data. Reporting will be informed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Complex Interventions extension statement and checklist. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required due to this systematic review operating only with secondary sources. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and meetings with key stakeholders including healthcare professionals, patient and carer groups, community organisations (eg, the Social Prescribing Network and the Evidence Collaborative at the National Academy for Social Prescribing), policymakers and funding bodies. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023428625.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Demencia , Humanos , Atención a la Salud , Personal de Salud , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
6.
J Int Med Res ; 52(4): 3000605241234555, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587813

RESUMEN

Among the various manifestations of COVID-19, the neurological implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are of significant concern. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD), a neurodegenerative disorder, exhibits a clinical spectrum ranging from mild progressive dementia in its chronic form to states of acute coma and varied mortality rates. Acute MBD primarily occurs in chronic alcoholics and malnourished individuals and is characterized by sudden loss of consciousness, seizures, confusion, and psychosis. We herein report a case of MBD presenting as acute loss of consciousness after the development of COVID-19. The patient presented with a history of fever and upper respiratory infection and was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. He developed a neurological syndrome characterized by altered consciousness and convulsions, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal signals in the corpus callosum and frontoparietal lobes. Considering his alcohol intake history and the absence of other differential diagnoses, we diagnosed him with acute MBD triggered by COVID-19. After high-dose vitamin B1 and corticosteroid therapy, his clinical symptoms improved. In this case, we observed a temporal sequence between the development of COVID-19 and acute exacerbation of MBD. This case adds to the mounting evidence suggesting the potential effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the neurological system.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Demencia , Enfermedad de Marchiafava-Bignami , Humanos , Masculino , Estado de Conciencia , Enfermedad de Marchiafava-Bignami/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Marchiafava-Bignami/diagnóstico por imagen , COVID-19/complicaciones , SARS-CoV-2 , Coma
7.
Nurs Health Sci ; 26(2): e13119, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626947

RESUMEN

Nurses in neurological wards face numerous challenges when caring for patients with dementia, particularly those who also present other acute illnesses. However, studies focusing on this area are limited. This study aimed to explore the difficulties and strategies in caring for patients with dementia among nurses working in a neurological ward. A qualitative descriptive design was adopted. Twelve nurses from a neurology ward participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The data collected through these interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Two main themes emerged from the analysis: (i) various shortcomings and concerns, which include subthemes: insufficient support, worry about patient safety, inadequate care ability of the caregiver, and insufficient self-competence, and (ii) unique clinical strategies, which include subthemes: cooperate with the caregiver, improve self-competence in dementia care, and employ meticulous resorts. The findings highlighted the nurses' dedication to minimizing patient risks and utilizing available resources as well as stakeholders to provide optimal care. To enhance patient care quality, it is essential to support nurses by addressing care-related barriers, offering continuous education, and establishing care pathways.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Hospitales , Educación Continua , Demencia/complicaciones , Demencia/terapia
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 344, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing problem with increasing burden in global aging. Older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) have higher risk of dementia. Neurofilament light chain (NfL) has been proven as a potential biomarker in neurodegenerative disease, including dementia. We aimed to investigate the association between cognitive deficits and NfL levels in older adults with MDD. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 39 MDD patients and 15 individuals with mild neurocognitive disorder or major neurocognitive disorder, Alzheimer's type, as controls, from a tertiary psychiatric hospital. Both groups were over age 65 and with matched Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Demographic data, clinical variables, and plasma NfL levels were obtained. We used cluster analysis according to their cognitive profile and estimated the correlation between plasma NfL levels and each cognitive domain. RESULTS: In the MDD group, participants had higher rate of family psychiatry history and current alcohol use habit compared with controls. Control group of neurocognitive disorders showed significantly lower score in total MMSE and higher plasma NfL levels. Part of the MDD patients presented cognitive deficits clustered with that of neurocognitive disorders (cluster A). In cluster A, the total MMSE score (r=-0.58277, p=0.0287) and the comprehension domain (r=-0.71717, p=0.0039) were negatively correlated to NfL levels after adjusting for age, while the associations had not been observed in the other cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We noted the negative correlation between NfL levels and cognition in MDD patients clustered with neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's type. NfL could be a promising candidate as a biomarker to predict subtype of patients in MDD to develop cognitive decline. Further longitudinal studies and within MDD cluster analysis are required to validate our findings for clinical implications.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/complicaciones , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Filamentos Intermedios , Péptidos beta-Amiloides , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Demencia/diagnóstico , Cognición , Biomarcadores
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 75, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627768

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Considering that dementia is an international public health priority, several countries have developed national dementia strategies outlining initiatives to address challenges posed by the disease. These strategies aim to improve the care, support, and resources available to meet the needs of persons living with dementia and their care partners and communities. Despite the known impact of social determinants of health on dementia risk, care, and outcomes, it is unclear whether dementia strategies adequately address related inequities. This study aimed to describe whether and how national dementia strategies considered inequities associated with social determinants of health. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan of the national dementia strategies of countries that are part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Included strategies had to be accessible in English or French. Sub-national or provincial plans were excluded. We synthesised information on strategies' considerations of inequity through a thematic analysis. RESULTS: Of the 15 dementia strategies that met inclusion criteria, 13 mentioned at least one inequity (M = 2.4, median = 2, range:0-7) related to Race/Ethnicity; Religion; Age; Disability; Sexual Orientation/Gender Identity; Social Class; or Rurality. Age and disability were mentioned most frequently, and religion most infrequently. Eleven strategies included general inequity-focused objectives, while only 5 had specific inequity-focused objectives in the form of tangible percentage changes, deadlines, or allocated budgets for achieving equity-related goals outlined in their strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding if and how countries consider inequities in their dementia strategies enables the development of future strategies that adequately target inequities of concern. While most of the strategies mentioned inequities, few included tangible objectives to reduce them. Countries must not only consider inequities at a surface-level; rather, they must put forth actionable objectives that intend to lessen the impact of inequities in the care of all persons living with dementia.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Personas con Discapacidad , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Identidad de Género , Clase Social , Etnicidad , Demencia/terapia
10.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 30(3): 511-520, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606518

RESUMEN

Nursing homes struggle to meet the needs of their residents as they become older and frailer, live with more complex co-morbidity, and are impacted by memory impairment and dementia. Moreover, the nursing home system is overwhelmed with significantly constraining organisational and regulatory demands that stand in the way of achieving resident-focused outcomes. These issues are compounded by the perceptions of poor working environments, poor remuneration, and poor satisfaction amongst staff. The system is beyond the state of 'reform' and requires a fundamental redesign based on first organisational systems understandings: a clearly defined purpose and goal, shared values, and system-wide agreed "simple (or operating) rules". A 'fit-for-purpose' future requires a complex adaptive nursing home system characterised by seamless 'bottom-up and top-down' information flows to ensure that the necessary 'work that needs to be done' is done, and a governance structure that focuses on quality improvement and holds the system accountable for the quality of care that is provided.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Humanos , Anciano , Australia , Casas de Salud , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Motivación
11.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 39: 15333175241248056, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621659

RESUMEN

The study aims to identify psychological symptoms (depression and anxiety) and their relationship to the quality of life among dementia patients' caregivers, and whether there are differences in the level of each of them due to the gender variable. The study follows the correlational approach, with a sample of 174 dementia patients' caregivers. To pursue the analysis, the study uses 3 measurement tools: anxiety, depression, and quality of life. The results show that the level of depression, anxiety, and quality of life among dementia patients' caregivers is moderate. It also finds that there is a positive relationship between anxiety and depression, and there is a negative relationship between quality of life and anxiety and depression. There are no differences in the level of depression and anxiety due to gender, as the study finds female caregivers to have a higher level of quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Femenino , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Demencia/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología
12.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 16(1): 76, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589888

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dementia has a significant impact on the social, physical, and psychological wellbeing of people living with dementia, their families and society. Animal-assisted interventions can have positive effects on the health and wellbeing of people living with dementia. Equine-assisted services are animal-assisted non-pharmacological interventions which have improved the health and wellbeing of diverse populations. The impact of participating in equine-assisted services on the health and wellbeing of people with dementia is unclear. A systematic review was conducted to synthesise evidence investigating the effects of participating in equine-assisted services on the health and wellbeing of people living with dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. METHODS: The databases CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science were searched for any research published prior to 14 June 2023. Peer-reviewed publications in the English language utilizing methods deriving quantitative and/or qualitative data were eligible. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Findings from studies were synthesised using a deductive approach. RESULTS: Of the 223 articles screened, six met the inclusion criteria: four quantitative and two qualitative studies. The six studies represent four separate equine interventions. Studies were of moderate to strong quality. Participants were people living with dementia (n = 44, mean age range 70-83 years), dementia care partners (n = 5, mean age 58), and equine-assisted services providers (n = 5). Interventions varied in duration, activities conducted, outcomes measured, and measurement tools used. Studies found a favourable impact of participating in equine-assisted services on the neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life of people living with dementia. Participating in equine-assisted services improved well-being, functional abilities, social participation, and communication, while also having a positive effect on social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes, and physical health. CONCLUSIONS: The limited but high-quality literature investigating the impact of equine-assisted services among people living with dementia suggests that equine-assisted services can have a positive impact on the health and wellbeing of people living with dementia. Additional robust studies contributing to the evidence base are warranted; such studies can support the development of programs and further elucidate the impact of participation.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Animales , Caballos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividades Cotidianas , Demencia/terapia
13.
JMIR Aging ; 7: e45978, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587884

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Technology has been identified as a potential solution to alleviate resource gaps and augment care delivery in dementia care settings such as hospitals, long-term care, and retirement homes. There has been an increasing interest in using real-time location systems (RTLS) across health care settings for older adults with dementia, specifically related to the ability to track a person's movement and location. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the factors that influence the adoption or nonadoption of an RTLS during its implementation in a specialized inpatient dementia unit in a tertiary care rehabilitation hospital. METHODS: The study included data from a brief quantitative survey and interviews from a convenience sample of frontline participants. Our deductive analysis of the interview used the 3 categories of the Fit Between Individuals, Task, and Technology framework as follows: individual and task, individual and technology, and task and technology. The purpose of using this framework was to assess the quality of the fit between technology attributes and an individual's self-reported intentions to adopt RTLS technology. RESULTS: A total of 20 health care providers (HCPs) completed the survey, of which 16 (80%) participated in interviews. Coding and subsequent analysis identified 2 conceptual subthemes in the individual-task fit category, including the identification of the task and the perception that participants were missing at-risk patient events. The task-technology fit category consisted of 3 subthemes, including reorganization of the task, personal control in relation to the task, and efficiency or resource allocation. A total of 4 subthemes were identified in the individual-technology fit category, including privacy and personal agency, trust in the technology, user interfaces, and perceptions of increased safety. CONCLUSIONS: By the end of the study, most of the unit's HCPs were using the tablet app based on their perception of its usefulness, its alignment with their comfort level with technology, and its ability to help them perform job responsibilities. HCPs perceived that they were able to reduce patient search time dramatically, yet any improvements in care were noted to be implied, as this was not measured. There was limited anecdotal evidence of reduced patient risk or adverse events, but greater reported peace of mind for HCPs overseeing patients' activity levels.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Proyectos de Investigación , Humanos , Anciano , Sistemas de Computación , Instituciones de Salud , Personal de Salud , Demencia/terapia
16.
Brain Behav ; 14(2): e3413, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578197

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Early detection of cognitive impairment is essential for timely intervention. Currently, most widely used cognitive screening tests are influenced by language and cultural differences; therefore, there is a need for the development of a language-neutral, visual-based cognitive assessment tool. The Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT), a 30-point test that assesses memory, executive function, visuospatial function, attention, and language, has demonstrated its utility in a multilingual population. In this study, we evaluated the reliability, validity, and diagnostic performance of the VCAT for screening early cognitive impairment in Chongqing, China METHODS: A total of 134 individuals (49 healthy controls (HCs), 52 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 33 with mild dementia) completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), VCAT, and domain-specific neuropsychological assessments. The diagnostic performances of MMSE, MoCA, and VCAT were evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. Construct validity of the VCAT was assessed with well-established domain-specific cognitive assessments. Reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The VCAT and its subdomains demonstrated both good construct validity and internal consistency (α = 0.577). The performance of VCAT was comparable to that of MoCA and MMSE in differentiating mild dementia from nondemented groups (AUC: 0.940 vs. 0.902 and 0.977, respectively; p = .098 and .053) and in distinguishing cognitive impairment (CI) from HC (AUC: 0.929 vs. 0.899 and 0.891, respectively; p = .239 and .161), adjusted for education level. The optimal score range for VCAT in determining dementia, MCI, and HC was 0-14, 15-19, and 20-30, respectively. CONCLUSION: The VCAT proves to be a reliable screening test for early cognitive impairment within our cohort. Being both language and cultural neutral, the VCAT has the potential to be utilized among a wider population within China.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Demencia/diagnóstico , Demencia/epidemiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Cognición
17.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14026, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618991

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Awareness and understanding of dementia remain limited in ethnically diverse populations in multicultural societies due to culturally inappropriate and inaccessible information. OBJECTIVE: To establish the impact, helpers and hinderers of an online multilingual dementia awareness initiative co-created with and for English, Arabic and Vietnamese speaking people. DESIGN: A case study using mixed methods to assess the impact and implementation of an information session on dementia knowledge. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted with English, Arabic and Vietnamese speaking individuals in Canterbury-Bankstown, Australia. INTERVENTION STUDIED: A dementia alliance co-created an online multilingual dementia information session, which was delivered synchronously in English, Arabic and Vietnamese by trained facilitators. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-session group discussions, quizzes and a postsession survey assessed the impact on dementia knowledge. A postimplementation focus group explored the factors that helped and hindered the initiative. RESULTS: The online dementia information session successfully supported participants understanding of dementia causes, impacts and care strategies. The initiative was hindered by competing priorities and limited accessibility to target audiences, while it was helped by the support of an established organisation and feedback mechanisms. DISCUSSION: Ongoing dementia education and awareness-raising campaigns that are culturally sensitive are needed in communities to promote dementia literacy and help-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: An online multilingual dementia information session can be an effective way to improve dementia literacy and advocate for change in multicultural communities. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: English, Arabic and Vietnamese speaking members of the Canterbury Bankstown Dementia Alliance participated in the co-creation and evaluation of this initiative.


Asunto(s)
Diversidad Cultural , Demencia , Humanos , Vietnam , Australia , Educación Continua
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 336, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609878

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Over 50% of hospitalised older people with dementia have multimorbidity, and are at an increased risk of hospital readmissions within 30 days of their discharge. Between 20-40% of these readmissions may be preventable. Current research focuses on the physical causes of hospital readmissions. However, older people with dementia have additional psychosocial factors that are likely to increase their risk of readmissions. This narrative review aimed to identify psychosocial determinants of hospital readmissions, within the context of known physical factors. METHODS: Electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo were searched from inception until July 2022 and followed up in February 2024. Quantitative and qualitative studies in English including adults aged 65 years and over with dementia, their care workers and informal carers were considered if they investigated hospital readmissions. An inductive approach was adopted to map the determinants of readmissions. Identified themes were described as narrative categories. RESULTS: Seventeen studies including 7,194,878 participants met our inclusion criteria from a total of 6369 articles. Sixteen quantitative studies included observational cohort and randomised controlled trial designs, and one study was qualitative. Ten studies were based in the USA, and one study each from Taiwan, Australia, Canada, Sweden, Japan, Denmark, and The Netherlands. Large hospital and insurance records provided data on over 2 million patients in one American study. Physical determinants included reduced mobility and accumulation of long-term conditions. Psychosocial determinants included inadequate hospital discharge planning, limited interdisciplinary collaboration, socioeconomic inequalities among ethnic minorities, and behavioural and psychological symptoms. Other important psychosocial factors such as loneliness, poverty and mental well-being, were not included in the studies. CONCLUSION: Poorly defined roles and responsibilities of health and social care professionals and poor communication during care transitions, increase the risk of readmission in older people with dementia. These identified psychosocial determinants are likely to significantly contribute to readmissions. However, future research should focus on the understanding of the interaction between a host of psychosocial and physical determinants, and multidisciplinary interventions across care settings to reduce hospital readmissions.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Readmisión del Paciente , Humanos , Anciano , Australia , Canadá , Bases de Datos Factuales , Demencia/diagnóstico , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/terapia
19.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 16(1): 81, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610055

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Measurement of beta-amyloid (Aß) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels offers the potential for early detection of neurocognitive impairment. Still, the probability of developing a clinical syndrome in the presence of these protein changes (A+ and T+) remains unclear. By performing a systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia in the non-demented population with A+ and A- alone and in combination with T+ and T- as confirmed by PET or cerebrospinal fluid examination. METHODS: A systematic search of prospective and retrospective studies investigating the association of Aß and p-tau with cognitive decline was performed in three databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL) on January 9, 2024. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane QUIPS tool. Odds ratios (OR) and Hazard Ratios (HR) were pooled using a random-effects model. The effect of neurodegeneration was not studied due to its non-specific nature. RESULTS: A total of 18,162 records were found, and at the end of the selection process, data from 36 cohorts were pooled (n= 7,793). Compared to the unexposed group, the odds ratio (OR) for conversion to dementia in A+ MCI patients was 5.18 [95% CI 3.93; 6.81]. In A+ CU subjects, the OR for conversion to MCI or dementia was 5.79 [95% CI 2.88; 11.64]. Cerebrospinal fluid Aß42 or Aß42/40 analysis and amyloid PET imaging showed consistent results. The OR for conversion in A+T+ MCI subjects (11.60 [95% CI 7.96; 16.91]) was significantly higher than in A+T- subjects (2.73 [95% CI 1.65; 4.52]). The OR for A-T+ MCI subjects was non-significant (1.47 [95% CI 0.55; 3.92]). CU subjects with A+T+ status had a significantly higher OR for conversion (13.46 [95% CI 3.69; 49.11]) than A+T- subjects (2.04 [95% CI 0.70; 5.97]). Meta-regression showed that the ORs for Aß exposure decreased with age in MCI. (beta = -0.04 [95% CI -0.03 to -0.083]). CONCLUSIONS: Identifying Aß-positive individuals, irrespective of the measurement technique employed (CSF or PET), enables the detection of the most at-risk population before disease onset, or at least at a mild stage. The inclusion of tau status in addition to Aß, especially in A+T+ cases, further refines the risk assessment. Notably, the higher odds ratio associated with Aß decreases with age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021288100).


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Proteínas Amiloidogénicas , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Demencia/diagnóstico por imagen
20.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 104: adv26663, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576104

RESUMEN

Drug-associated bullous pemphigoid has been shown to follow long-term gliptin (dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors) intake. This study aimed at identifying risk factors for gliptin-associated bullous pemphigoid among patients with type 2 diabetes. A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary centre among diabetic patients exposed to gliptins between the years 2008-2021. Data including demographics, comorbidities, medications, and laboratory results were collected using the MDClone platform. Seventy-six patients with type 2 diabetes treated with dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors who subsequently developed bullous pemphigoid were compared with a cohort of 8,060 diabetic patients exposed to dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors who did not develop bullous pemphigoid. Based on a multivariable analysis adjusted for age and other covariates, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were significantly more prevalent in patients with bullous pemphigoid (p = 0.0013). Concomitant use of either thiazide or loop diuretics and gliptin therapy was associated with drug-associated bullous pemphigoid (p < 0.0001 for both). While compared with sitagliptin, exposure to linagliptin and vildagliptin were associated with bullous pemphigoid with an odds ratio of 5.68 and 6.61 (p < 0.0001 for both), respectively. These results suggest gliptins should be prescribed with caution to patients with type 2 diabetes with coexisting Alzheimer's and other dementias, or patients receiving long-term use of thiazides and loop diuretics. The use of sitagliptin over linagliptin and vildagliptin should be preferred in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV , Penfigoide Ampolloso , Humanos , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/efectos adversos , Vildagliptina/efectos adversos , Penfigoide Ampolloso/inducido químicamente , Penfigoide Ampolloso/diagnóstico , Penfigoide Ampolloso/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Linagliptina/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Inhibidores del Simportador de Cloruro Sódico y Cloruro Potásico/uso terapéutico , Factores de Riesgo , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/efectos adversos , Demencia/inducido químicamente , Demencia/tratamiento farmacológico
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