Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 61.774
Filtrar
1.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 191: 81-105, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599517

RESUMEN

Dementia is the most common neurologic disease, affecting approximately 55 million people worldwide. Dementia is a terminal illness, although not always recognized as such. This chapter discusses the key issues in providing palliative care for people with living with dementia and their families. Common palliative care needs and symptoms are presented, including psychosocial, physical, emotional, and spiritual, and the need to actively anticipate and seek symptoms according to the dementia type and stage is emphasized. Families are hugely impacted by a dementia diagnosis, and throughout this chapter, they are considered in the unit of care, and also as a member of the care team. Multiple challenges particular to dementia palliative care are highlighted throughout, such as the lack of timely dementia diagnoses, difficulty with symptom prognostication, the person's inability to verbally express their symptoms and care preferences, and a low threshold for medication side effects. Finally, service models for dementia palliative care in community, residential, and acute hospital settings are discussed, along with the evidence for each. Overall, this chapter reinforces that the individual needs of the person living with dementia and their family must be considered to provide person-centered and comprehensive palliative care, enabling them to live well until death.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Cuidado Terminal , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicología , Familia/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Demencia/terapia , Cuidado Terminal/psicología
2.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 15(1): 7, 2023 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617573

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding whether sex assigned at birth modifies the association between several predictive factors for dementia and the risk of dementia itself. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study included 214,670 men and 214,670 women matched by age at baseline from the UK Biobank. Baseline data were collected between 2006 and 2010, and incident dementia was ascertained using hospital inpatient or death records until January 2021. Mediation analysis was tested for 133 individual factors. RESULTS: Over 5,117,381 person-years of follow-up, 5928 cases of incident all-cause dementia (452 cases of young-onset dementia, 5476 cases of late-onset dementia) were documented. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for all-cause, young-onset, and late-onset dementias associated with the male sex (female as reference) were 1.23 (1.17-1.29), 1.42 (1.18-1.71), and 1.21 (1.15-1.28), respectively. Out of 133 individual factors, the strongest mediators for the association between sex and incident dementia were multimorbidity risk score (percentage explained (95% CI): 62.1% (45.2-76.6%)), apolipoprotein A in the blood (25.5% (15.2-39.4%)), creatinine in urine (24.9% (16.1-36.5%)), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood (23.2% (16.2-32.1%)), and blood lymphocyte percentage (21.1% (14.5-29.5%)). Health-related conditions (percentage (95% CI) explained: 74.4% (51.3-88.9%)) and biomarkers (83.0% (37.5-97.5%)), but not lifestyle factors combined (30.1% (20.7-41.6%)), fully mediated sex differences in incident dementia. Health-related conditions combined were a stronger mediator for late-onset (75.4% (48.6-90.8%)) than for young-onset dementia (52.3% (25.8-77.6%)), whilst lifestyle factors combined were a stronger mediator for young-onset (42.3% (19.4-69.0%)) than for late-onset dementia (26.7% (17.1-39.2%)). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis matched by age has demonstrated that men had a higher risk of all-cause, young-onset, and late-onset dementias than women. This association was fully mediated by health-related conditions or blood/urinary biomarkers and largely mediated by lifestyle factors. Our findings are important for understanding potential mechanisms of sex in dementia risk.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Incidencia , Vida Independiente , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
3.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 15, 2023 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639620

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease and is clinically characterized by a series of motor symptoms (MS) and nonmotor symptoms (NMS). NMS often appear before MS, while cognitive impairment mostly occurs within a few years after the diagnosis of PD. Therefore, we aimed to predict the risk factors for cognitive impairment (CI) in PD patients based on transcranial sonography, clinical symptoms, and demographic characteristics. METHODS: Based on the occurrence time of CI, a total of 172 PD patients were divided into non-CI (N-CI, n = 48), CI at the first treatment (F-CI, n = 58), and CI at the last treatment (L-CI, n = 66) groups. Clinical data (including MS and NMS) and ultrasonic data of all patients at the first treatment and the last treatment were collected retrospectively. Independent samples t tests were used to compare continuous data, and chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. The risk factors for CI and Parkinson's disease dementia were identified by logistic regression analysis, and an ROC curve was established to explore the diagnostic efficacy. RESULTS: 1) The age of onset, first treatment and smoking history of CI patients were significantly different from those of N-CI patients. When age of first treatment ≥61 years was considered the boundary value to diagnose CI, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.40 and 66.70%, respectively. 2) The severity of depression was significantly different between F-CI and N-CI patients at the first treatment, while the cumulative and new or aggravated memory deficit was significantly different between the L-CI and N-CI patients at the last treatment. 3) There was a significant difference in TCS grading between the first and last treatment in L-CI patients. 4) Depression, sexual dysfunction, and olfactory dysfunction in NMS were independent risk factors for CI during the last treatment. 5) The sensitivity and specificity of predicting CI in PD patients were 81.80 and 64.60%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PD patients with CI were older, and most of them had a history of smoking. Furthermore, there was good diagnostic efficiency for predicting CI in PD via TCS combined with clinical characteristics (especially NMS).


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Longitudinales , Demencia/etiología , Enfermedad de Parkinson/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de Parkinson/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/complicaciones , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Demografía
4.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 67, 2023 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658524

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about dementia's impact on patterns of diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes in cancer patients. This study aimed to elucidate the differences in cancer staging, treatment, and mortality in older cancer patients with and without preexisting dementia. METHODS: Using cancer registry data and administrative data from 30 hospitals in Japan, this multicentre retrospective cohort study examined patients aged 65-99 years who were newly diagnosed with gastric, colorectal, or lung cancer in 2014-2015. Dementia status (none, mild, and moderate-to-severe) at the time of cancer diagnosis was extracted from clinical summaries in administrative data, and set as the exposure of interest. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models to analyse cancer staging and treatment, and multivariable Cox regression models to analyse three-year survival. RESULTS: Among gastric (n = 6016), colorectal (n = 7257), and lung (n = 4502) cancer patients, 5.1%, 5.8%, and 6.4% had dementia, respectively. Patients with dementia were more likely to receive unstaged and advanced-stage cancer diagnoses; less likely to undergo tumour resection for stage I, II, and III gastric cancer and for stage I and II lung cancer; less likely to receive pharmacotherapy for stage III and IV lung cancer; more likely to undergo tumour resection for all-stage colorectal cancer; and more likely to die within three years of cancer diagnosis. The effects of moderate-to-severe dementia were greater than those of mild dementia, with the exception of tumour resection for colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: Older cancer patients with preexisting dementia are less likely to receive standard cancer treatment and more likely to experience poorer outcomes. Clinicians should be aware of these risks, and would benefit from standardised guidelines to aid their decision-making in diagnosing and treating these patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Demencia , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/complicaciones , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Demencia/complicaciones , Demencia/diagnóstico , Demencia/epidemiología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicaciones , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología
5.
Transl Neurodegener ; 12(1): 3, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658627

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increased neurofilament levels in biofluids are commonly used as a proxy for neurodegeneration in several neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of neurofilaments in the cerebral cortex of Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) donors, and its association with pathology load and MRI measures of atrophy and diffusivity. METHODS: Using a within-subject post-mortem MRI-pathology approach, we included 9 PD, 12 PDD/DLB and 18 age-matched control donors. Cortical thickness and mean diffusivity (MD) metrics were extracted respectively from 3DT1 and DTI at 3T in-situ MRI. After autopsy, pathological hallmarks (pSer129-αSyn, p-tau and amyloid-ß load) together with neurofilament light-chain (NfL) and phosphorylated-neurofilament medium- and heavy-chain (p-NfM/H) immunoreactivity were quantified in seven cortical regions, and studied in detail with confocal-laser scanning microscopy. The correlations between MRI and pathological measures were studied using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Compared to controls, p-NfM/H immunoreactivity was increased in all cortical regions in PD and PDD/DLB, whereas NfL immunoreactivity was increased in the parahippocampal and entorhinal cortex in PDD/DLB. NfL-positive neurons showed degenerative morphological features and axonal fragmentation. The increased p-NfM/H correlated with p-tau load, and NfL correlated with pSer129-αSyn but more strongly with p-tau load in PDD/DLB. Lastly, neurofilament immunoreactivity correlated with cortical thinning in PD and with increased cortical MD in PDD/DLB. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, increased neurofilament immunoreactivity suggests underlying axonal injury and neurofilament accumulation in morphologically altered neurons with increased pathological burden. Importantly, we demonstrate that such neurofilament markers at least partly explain MRI measures that are associated with the neurodegenerative process.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Demencia , Enfermedad por Cuerpos de Lewy , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Humanos , Enfermedad de Parkinson/complicaciones , Demencia/complicaciones , Demencia/patología , Enfermedad por Cuerpos de Lewy/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad por Cuerpos de Lewy/complicaciones , Enfermedad por Cuerpos de Lewy/patología , Filamentos Intermedios/patología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/complicaciones , Corteza Cerebral
6.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 45, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670106

RESUMEN

The Harmonized Diagnostic Assessment of Dementia for the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI-DAD) is a nationally representative in-depth study of cognitive aging and dementia. We present a publicly available dataset of harmonized cognitive measures of 4,096 adults 60 years of age and older in India, collected across 18 states and union territories. Blood samples were obtained to carry out whole blood and serum-based assays. Results are included in a venous blood specimen datafile that can be linked to the Harmonized LASI-DAD dataset. A global screening array of 960 LASI-DAD respondents is also publicly available for download, in addition to neuroimaging data on 137 LASI-DAD participants. Altogether, these datasets provide comprehensive information on older adults in India that allow researchers to further understand risk factors associated with cognitive impairment and dementia.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Anciano , Humanos , Envejecimiento , Demencia/genética , Genómica , Estudios Longitudinales , India
7.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580221150565, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680366

RESUMEN

Dementia care organizations face a range of daunting environmental changes and challenges. Internationally, there is a long history of efforts to improve quality of care and life for individuals with dementia. In a time of particular attention to the images of older adults confined to a single or shared room in a care facility due to COVID-19, autonomy becomes the overarching problem, not only because in general institutions limit the freedom of frail elders, but because the existential conditions that create the need for long term care such as chronic disease, cognitive decline, and the need for general support with activities of daily living (ADLs) rail against the autonomy of independent self-sufficiency. Additionally, these environments are institutional in design and size, with little access to outdoor spaces and other amenities. This perspective manuscript addresses the ethics of past and future memory care models, looking specifically at the European Dementia Village (DV) model. This model allows for autonomy and continuation of patterns of daily living through housing integrated with exterior walks, gardens, restaurants, and amenities within familiar and normal surroundings. This pioneering health care experiment negotiates rivaling discourses of intimacy, professionalization, and medicalization. In order to get a deeper understanding of the culture and ethics of this integrated care model, the first two dementia village sites were visited which included meetings with care staff and administrators. Those conversations and observations led to a series of aligned themes relating to the ethics of the DV model which include: the strength of the social approach, clinical support, resident/staff collaborations, and advocating for ethical dementia care. Rethinking the ethics of dementia care entails individual perspectives and group discussions on what can keep individuals social connected within their care community, including focusing on strengths of the individual and normalized daily routines.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Humanos , Anciano , Demencia/terapia , Actividades Cotidianas , Cuidados a Largo Plazo
8.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 18(1): 59, 2023 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683026

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the incidence of postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality in patients ≥ 70 years old with hip fracture following hip arthroplasty (HA) and independent risk factors associated with postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted, patients ≥ 70 years old with HA for hip fracture under general anesthesia were included during COVID-19 and before COVID-19 pandemic. The outcome was defined as postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality. The baseline characteristics and risk factors were collected, multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1096 patients were included during COVID-19 pandemic and 1149 were included before COVID-19 pandemic in the study. Patients ≥ 70 years with hip fracture for HA had longer fracture to operation duration (7.10 ± 3.52 vs. 5.31 ± 1.29, P < 0.001), and the incidence of postoperative medical complications (21.90% vs. 12.53%, P < 0.001) and 3-month mortality (5.20% vs. 3.22%, P = 0.025) was higher during COVID-2019 pandemic. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dementia (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.37-5.44; P = 0.004), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.92-4.71; P < 0.001), longer fracture to operation duration (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.19-1.30; P < 0.001) were associated with increased risk for postoperative medical complications. COPD (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.05-4.17; P = 0.035), dementia (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.11-7.94; P = 0.031), postoperative medical complications (OR 4.99; 95% CI 2.68-9.28; P < 0.001), longer fracture to operation duration (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.19; P = 0.002) were associated with increased risk for 3-month mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that postoperative medical morbidity and 3-month mortality in patients with hip fracture underwent HA were 21.90% and 5.20%, respectively, during the COVID-19. COPD, dementia and longer fracture to operation duration were associated with negative outcome in patients with hip fracture underwent HA during the COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera , COVID-19 , Demencia , Fracturas de Cadera , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Humanos , Anciano , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera/efectos adversos , Fracturas de Cadera/epidemiología , Fracturas de Cadera/cirugía , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/complicaciones , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/cirugía , Incidencia , Demencia/cirugía , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/cirugía
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1233, 2023 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683066

RESUMEN

The main objective of this work was to perform a comprehensive analysis and provide a race-stratified epidemiological report accounting for differences in treatment patterns and treatment related adverse events in Non-Hispanic women with breast cancer (BC). The cohort included women ≥ 18 years diagnosed with in-situ, early-stage, and late-stage BC (2005-2022). Treatment patterns included: surgery, breast radiation, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, or biologic therapy. Treatment related adverse events were: chemotherapy complications, cardiovascular toxicities, immune-related adverse events, psychological affectations, or cognitive decline/dementia. The influence of race on the outcomes was measured via Cox proportional-hazards models. We included 17,454 patients (82% non-Hispanic Whites [NHW]). Most of the patients had a Charlson Comorbidity Score between 1 and 2 (68%), and TNM stage I (44.5%). Surgery was performed in 51.5% of the cases, while 30.6% received radiotherapy, 26.4% received chemotherapy, 3.1% received immunotherapy, and 41.2% received endocrine therapy. Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) had a lower probability of undergoing breast cancer surgery (aHR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97) and of being prescribed endocrine therapy (aHR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.89), but a higher probability of receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (aHR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.29-1.52). Moreover, NHBs had lower risk of being diagnosed with psychological issues (aHR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.63-0.80) but a higher risk for cognitive decline/dementia (aHR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.08-1.56). In conclusion, NHB women diagnosed with BC were less likely than NHW to undergo curative intent surgery or receive endocrine therapy, and had a higher risk of cognitive decline/dementia after cancer treatment. Public policy measures are urgently needed which equalize access to quality healthcare for all patients and that promote a learning healthcare system which can improve cancer outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Demencia , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Etnicidad , Disparidades en Atención de Salud
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 80, 2023 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596822

RESUMEN

Both sex/gender and socioeconomic differences have been reported in the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for dementia. However, it remains unclear whether the associations between modifiable risk factors for dementia and incident dementia differ by sex/gender or socioeconomic status. This study aimed to investigate sex/gender and socioeconomic differences in the associations of modifiable risk factors with incident dementia using a life-course perspective. We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2008/2009 to 2018/2019). A total of 8,941 individuals were included [mean (standard deviation) age, 66.1 ± 9.8 years; 4,935 (55.2%) were women]. No overall sex/gender difference in dementia risk was found. Dementia risk was higher among those who experienced childhood deprivation [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.51 (1.17; 1.96)], lower occupational attainment [HR low versus high = 1.60 (1.23; 2.09) and HR medium versus high = 1.53 (1.15; 2.06)], and low wealth [HR low versus high = 1.63 (1.26; 2.12)]. Though different associations were found among the subgroups, there might be a sex/gender difference in dementia risk only for low cognitive activity, suggesting a higher risk for women [HR = 2.61 (1.89; 3.60)] compared to men [HR = 1.73 (1.20; 2.49)]. No consistent socioeconomic differences in modifiable dementia risk were found. A population-based approach that tackles inequalities in dementia risk profiles directly may be more effective than individual approaches in dementia prevention.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Clase Social , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Estudios Longitudinales , Factores de Riesgo , Envejecimiento , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/etiología , Demencia/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos
14.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 15(1): 9, 2023 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624486

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The independent and additive associations of walking pace and grip strength on dementia risk and the potential modifying effects of age, APOE phenotypes, and other dementia risk factors on the walking pace and dementia relationships demand further clarification. We aimed to investigate the independent and additive relationships of walking pace and handgrip strength on the risk of new-onset dementia and examine the potentially modifying effects of age, APOE phenotypes, lifestyle factors, and family history of dementia in the relationships. METHODS: A total of 495,700 participants from the UK Biobank, who were free of dementia at baseline, were included in this study. Walking pace was self-defined as slow, average, or brisk. Handgrip strength was assessed by dynamometer and was divided into sex-specific quartiles. The APOE genotypes were determined by a combination variant of rs429358 and rs7412. Other dementia risk factors, including education, physical activity, hypertension, depression, diabetes, and family history of dementia, were also collected. The primary outcome was new-onset all-cause dementia. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up duration of 12.0 years, 3986 (0.8%) participants developed new-onset all-cause dementia. Compared with those with slow walking pace, participants with average (HR, 0.61; 95%CI: 0.55-0.68) or brisk (HR, 0.59; 95%CI: 0.52-0.67) walking pace had a significantly lower risk of new-onset all-cause dementia. Moreover, compared with those with both slow walking pace and lower handgrip strength (the first quartile), the lowest risk of new-onset all-cause dementia was observed in participants with both average or brisk walking pace and higher handgrip strength (the 2-4 quartiles) (HR, 0.45; 95%CI: 0.40-0.52). Notably, the negative relationship between walking pace and the risk of new-onset all-cause dementia was significantly reduced as APOE ε4 dosage increased (APOE ε4 dosages = 0 or 1: brisk vs. slow: HR, 0.55; 95%CI: 0.48-0.63; vs. APOE ε4 dosages = 2: brisk vs. slow: HR, 1.14; 95%CI: 0.77-1.68; P for interaction = 0.001) or age increased (< 58 [median]: brisk vs. slow: HR, 0.27; 95%CI: 0.18-0.41; vs. ≥ 58 years: brisk vs. slow: HR, 0.55; 95%CI: 0.48-0.63; P for interaction = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Walking pace was inversely associated with new-onset dementia in the general population, especially in younger participants and those with lower APOE ε4 dosage. Participants with both faster walking pace and higher handgrip strength had the lowest risk of dementia, suggesting that maintaining both high handgrip strength and fast walking pace may be a more comprehensive strategy for preventing dementia risk.


Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteína E4 , Demencia , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Velocidad al Caminar , Fuerza de la Mano , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Factores de Riesgo , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiología
15.
J Community Health Nurs ; 40(1): 52-63, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602773

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To explore the motivating factors for starting and continuing to play GO among older adults, as well as to examine the effect of GO activities in helping people to live well with, as well as to prevent, dementia. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive research. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted. FINDINGS: The participants reportedly started playing GO for dementia prevention, and to cope with their anxieties about aging. They described feeling relaxed while playing GO. They also felt that playing GO fostered human relationships. CONCLUSIONS: GO is effective in assisting older adults to cope with aging issues, cultivate peace of mind and encourage interaction with peers. CLINICAL EVIDENCE: GO is effective in assisting older adults to cope with aging issues, cultivate peace of mind and encourage interaction with peers.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Humanos , Anciano , Investigación Cualitativa
16.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 38: 15333175221149358, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606313

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Very few instruments to integrate knowledge, attitude and practice into dementia care as a holistic perspective were available to the Chinese. METHOD: This article documented the development of a 30-item self-administered Chinese instrument of knowledge, attitude and preventive practice on dementia care and reported the results of psychometric testing among 1500 Chinese in Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR), including 234 primary health professionals, 272 staff working at day-care centers and nursing homes, 586 high school students and 408 community-dwelling older people. The Chinese instrument was developed through literature review and committee review. The psychometric methods were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese instrument as measures of knowledge, attitude and preventive practice on dementia care for the Chinese. RESULTS: The preliminary results indicated that the Content Validity Index of the Chinese instrument was .973 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Chinese instrument was .842, among which Knowledge subscale, Attitude subscale and Preventive Practice subscale were .749, .633 and .845 respectively. The means and standard deviation were 65.13 ± 24.56 for Knowledge subscale, 74.76 ± 8.37 for Attitude subscale, 73.22 ± 14.05 for Preventative Practice subscale, and 70.99 ± 11.27 for the Chinese instrument. CONCLUSION: The 30-item self-administered Chinese instrument of knowledge, attitude and preventive practice on dementia care had satisfied the psychometric evaluation well enough to warrant further use, and could also have particular implications for other Chinese populations all over the world.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Anciano , Macao , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112163, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596112

RESUMEN

Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive abilities, mainly in memory and executive functioning. A similar but premature deterioration in cognitive capacities is the hallmark of mild cognitive impairment, Alzeimer's disease and dementia. The biochemical mechanisms that cause these neurodegenerative disorders are poorly understood. However, some evidence suggests that insufficient dietary intakes of some phospholipids could impact on brain function and increase the risk of future cognitive impairment and dementia. We evaluated the cognitive and biochemical effects of supplementation with a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) concentrate in aged rats. We observed that, compared to control animals, MFGM supplemented rats showed enhanced spatial working memory, but both groups exhibited similar reference spatial learning and emotional memory abilities. No significant differences between BDNF levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of treated rats as compared to controls were found. The nootropic effects observed were accompanied by significant changes in the lipid composition of synaptic membranes. MFGM supplementation increased the levels of EPA and DHA acids as well as the plasmalogens content in the synaptosomes isolated from the hippocampus (Synapt-HP) and the frontal cortex (Synapt-FC). In addition enhanced levels of phosphatidyl serine (PS), particularly PS(18:1/18:1), and phosphatidyl inositol (PI) molecular species were observed in Synapt-HP and Synapt-FC of treated animals.Lipidomic analysis also revealed greater concentration of phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) molecular species containing very long-chain fatty acids and PE plasmenyls in Synapt-HP as well as an increase of the SM content in Synapt-FC from the MFGM group. Although further studies are needed to confirm the underlying mechanism (individual or synergistic), these results suggest that MFGM supplementation could be employed as a dietary implement to restore the proper cerebral concentration of some bioactive lipids and prevent or slow the progression of age-related cognitive impairment.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Animales , Ratas , Sinaptosomas , Lipidómica , Suplementos Dietéticos , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 3, 2023 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cognitive impairment in older adults is gradually increasing, and this is leading to many adverse outcomes. Common causes of cognitive impairment in advancing age are mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, how the nutritional status and nutrient intake are related to MCI and dementia is controversial. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake with the risk of MCI and dementia. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved 821 participants aged ≥ 50 years from a previous population-based cohort study: the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) study in 2013-2014 (baseline) and 2018-2019 (follow-up). Dietary intake was recorded using a 12-month self-reported food frequency questionnaire. MCI and dementia were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment with ADL and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) at study entry and at the 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 821 participants, the mean age was 60.0 ± 4.3 years, and the incidence rate of MCI and dementia was 42.5 and 11.2 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The rate of MCI and dementia was higher in participants aged ≥ 60 years and with an education level of < 7 years. The rate of MCI was also higher in those with a BMI of ≥ 25 kg/m2 and type 2 diabetes. Compared to BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/m2, BMI of ≥ 25 kg/m2 (odds ratio 1.91 [95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.26], p < 0.001) was associated with an increased risk of MCI after adjusted for age, education level, and type 2 diabetes. Regarding dietary intake, fresh red meat consumption was inversely associated with the risk of MCI (p = 0.037) and dementia (p = 0.011) after adjusting for age, education level, type 2 diabetes, and BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity was associated with a greater risk of MCI. Moreover, low consumption of fresh red meat could be a risk factor for MCI and dementia. Further studies are required to confirm and explain these findings.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Anciano , Demencia/diagnóstico , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/etiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Ingestión de Alimentos
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011881, 2023 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594432

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances occur frequently in people with dementia with a reported prevalence of up to 40%. Common problems are increased number and duration of awakenings and increased percentage of light sleep. Sleep disturbances are associated with a number of problems for people with dementia, their relatives, and carers. In people with dementia, they may lead to worsening of cognitive symptoms, challenging behaviours such as restlessness or wandering, and further harms, such as accidental falls. Sleep disturbances are also associated with significant carer distress and have been reported as a factor contributing to institutionalisation of people with dementia. As pharmacological approaches have shown unsatisfactory results, there is a need to synthesise the research evidence on non-pharmacological strategies to improve sleep in people with dementia. As interventions are often complex, consisting of more than one active component, and implemented in complex contexts, it may not be easy to identify effective intervention components. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of non-pharmacological interventions on sleep disturbances in people with dementia compared to usual care, no treatment, any other non-pharmacological intervention, or any drug treatment intended to improve sleep, and to describe the components and processes of any complex intervention included. SEARCH METHODS: We used standard, extensive Cochrane search methods. The latest search was 13 January 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included individually or cluster-randomised controlled trials in people with dementia comparing non-pharmacological interventions to improve sleep compared to usual care or to other interventions of any type. Eligible studies had to have a sleep-related primary outcome. We included people with a diagnosis of dementia and sleep problems at baseline irrespective of age, type of dementia, severity of cognitive impairment, or setting. Studies reporting results on a mixed sample (e.g. in a nursing home) were only considered for inclusion if at least 80% of participants had dementia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were 1. objective sleep-related outcomes (e.g. total nocturnal sleep time, consolidated sleep time at night, sleep efficiency, total wake time at night (or time spent awake after sleep onset), number of nocturnal awakenings, sleep onset latency, daytime/night-time sleep ratio, night-time/total sleep ratio over 24 hours) and 2. ADVERSE EVENTS: Our secondary outcomes were 3. subjective sleep-related outcomes, 4. behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, 5. quality of life, 6. functional status, 7. institutionalisation, 8. compliance with the intervention, and 9. attrition rates. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence and chose key outcomes to be included in summary of findings tables. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 randomised controlled trials with 1335 participants allocated to treatment or control groups. Fourteen studies were conducted in nursing homes, three included community residents, one included 'inpatients', one included people from a mental health centre, and one included people from district community centres for older people. Fourteen studies were conducted in the US. We also identified nine ongoing studies. All studies applied one or more non-pharmacological intervention aiming to improve physiological sleep in people with dementia and sleep problems. The most frequently examined single intervention was some form of light therapy (six studies), five studies included physical or social activities, three carer interventions, one daytime sleep restriction, one slow-stroke back massage, and one transcranial electrostimulation. Seven studies examined multimodal complex interventions. Risk of bias of included studies was frequently unclear due to incomplete reporting. Therefore, we rated no study at low risk of bias. We are uncertain whether light therapy has any effect on sleep-related outcomes (very low-certainty evidence). Physical activities may slightly increase the total nocturnal sleep time and sleep efficiency, and may reduce the total time awake at night and slightly reduce the number of awakenings at night (low-certainty evidence). Social activities may slightly increase total nocturnal sleep time and sleep efficiency (low-certainty evidence). Carer interventions may modestly increase total nocturnal sleep time, may slightly increase sleep efficiency, and may modestly decrease the total awake time during the night (low-certainty evidence from one study). Multimodal interventions may modestly increase total nocturnal sleep time and may modestly reduce the total wake time at night, but may result in little to no difference in number of awakenings (low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effects of multimodal interventions on sleep efficiency (very low-certainty evidence). We found low-certainty evidence that daytime sleep restrictions, slow-stroke back massage, and transcranial electrostimulation may result in little to no difference in sleep-related outcomes. Only two studies reported information about adverse events, detecting only few such events in the intervention groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Despite the inclusion of 19 randomised controlled trials, there is a lack of conclusive evidence concerning non-pharmacological interventions for sleep problems in people with dementia. Although neither single nor multimodal interventions consistently improved sleep with sufficient certainty, we found some positive effects on physical and social activities as well as carer interventions. Future studies should use rigorous methods to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of multimodal interventions using current guidelines on the development and evaluation of complex interventions. At present, no single or multimodal intervention can be clearly identified as suitable for widespread implementation.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Anciano , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicología , Demencia/complicaciones , Calidad de Vida , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/terapia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...