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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247639, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647034

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus-19 is a global health challenge and need an immediate action. Thus, understanding client's knowledge about SARS-COV2 causes, roots of transmissions, and prevention strategies are urgently warranted. Although there were global studies reported knowledge and preventive practices of COVID-19, but the information is not representative and inclusive for Ethiopia. Thus, the current study is done to identify the knowledge and the prevention strategies for COVID-19 among clients in South Wollo, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 21 to 30, 2020 among clients seeking service in Dessie town health facilities. A total of 81 clients were included from the selected health facilities with simple random sampling technique. We developed measuring tools by adopting from World Health Organization and center for disease prevention recommendation manual for assessing service providers' knowledge and preventive practices. For data entry Epi-data 3.1 version was employed and further data management and analysis was performed using STATA Version 14. Student T-test and one way ANOVA were computed to see the mean difference in knowledge and practice between and among the group. Chi-square test was also done to portray the presence of association between different co-variants with client's knowledge and preventive practices. RESULTS: Findings of the study showed that more than half (56.8%) of the participants had good knowledge about its symptoms, way of spread and prevention of the virus. Furthermore, 65.4% of clients demonstrated five or more preventive practice measures of COVID-19. The mean preventive practice score with standard deviation was (4.75±1.28 from 6 components). In the current study, knowledge had no significant difference among sex, education status, and monthly income. However, COVID-19 transmission knowledge was significantly higher among urban residents. Thus, clients who were knowledgeable about way of transmission and symptoms of COVID-19 had significantly higher COVID-19 preventive practice. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that clients' knowledge and preventive practice of COVID-19 were not optimal. Clients with good knowledge and urban residents had practiced better prevention measures of the pandemic, signifying that packages and programs directed in enhancing knowledge about the virus is useful in combating the pandemic and continuing safe practices.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Administración de Instituciones de Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Etiopía , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247794, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647044

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, the outbreak of COVID-19 spread throughout the world and its impacts affect different populations differently, where countries with high levels of social and economic inequality such as Brazil gain prominence, for understanding of the vulnerability factors associated with the disease. Given this scenario, in the absence of a vaccine or safe and effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19, nonpharmacological measures are essential for prevention and control of the disease. However, many of these measures are not feasible for millions of individuals who live in territories with increased social vulnerability. The study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Brazil's municipalities (counties) and investigate its association with sociodemographic determinants to better understand the social context and the epidemic's spread in the country. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological study using data from various sources. The study period was February 25 to September 26, 2020. Data analysis used global regression models: ordinary least squares (OLS), spatial autoregressive model (SAR), and conditional autoregressive model (CAR) and the local regression model called multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR). FINDINGS: The higher the GINI index, the higher the incidence of the disease at the municipal level. Likewise, the higher the nurse ratio per 1,000 inhabitants in the municipalities, the higher the COVID-19 incidence. Meanwhile, the proportional mortality ratio was inversely associated with incidence of the disease. DISCUSSION: Social inequality increased the risk of COVID-19 in the municipalities. Better social development of the municipalities was associated with lower risk of the disease. Greater access to health services improved the diagnosis and notification of the disease and was associated with more cases in the municipalities. Despite universal susceptibility to COVID-19, populations with increased social vulnerability were more exposed to risk of the illness.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil/epidemiología , /mortalidad , Ciudades/epidemiología , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial , Regresión Espacial
3.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 26: 328-335, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691029

RESUMEN

While the coronavirus pandemic has affected all demographic brackets and geographies, certain areas have been more adversely affected than others. This paper focuses on Veterans as a potentially vulnerable group that might be systematically more exposed to infection than others because of their co-morbidities, i.e., greater incidence of physical and mental health challenges. Using data on 122 Veteran Healthcare Systems (HCS), this paper tests three machine learning models for predictive analysis. The combined LASSO and ridge regression with five-fold cross validation performs the best. We find that socio-demographic features are highly predictive of both cases and deaths-even more important than any hospital-specific characteristics. These results suggest that socio-demographic and social capital characteristics are important determinants of public health outcomes, especially for vulnerable groups, like Veterans, and they should be investigated further.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Biología Computacional , Demografía , Humanos
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236355, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729382

RESUMEN

Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees have a wide distribution in the Cerrado, and it is protected by federal laws. The need to monitor and understand pest damage to crops and forests is a major motivation for the study of population distribution. The mites (Acari) population distributions on C. brasiliense are unknown. We studied seasonal mite population distribution and their ecological indices on C. brasiliense trees in Cerrado areas during three years. Greatest number of Agistemus sp. (Stigmaeidae), Histiostoma sp. (Histiostomidae), Proctolaelaps sp. (Ascidae), and diversity and species richness on leaves of C. brasiliense occurred in the autumn; Tetranychus sp.1 (Tetranychidae) on leaves in the autumn and winter; Histiostoma sp., and Proctolaelaps sp. in fruits in the summer. No significant effect of season was observed in the abundance of Eutetranychus sp., Tetranychus sp.2 (Tetranychidae) and Acaridae. The populations of Acaridae, Eutetranychus sp., Proctolaelaps sp. and Tetranychus sp.1 negatively correlated with temperature. Proctolaelaps sp. and Tetranychus sp.1 correlated negatively with rainfall and Eutetranychus sp. and Proctolaelaps sp. positively with sunlight. The period with low rainfall and relative humidity increases the phytophagous mites and their predators, especially Agistemus sp.. The Tetranychus sp. and Histiostoma sp. species may become pests in C. brasiliense in the Cerrado domain.


Asunto(s)
Malpighiales , Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Animales , Demografía , Estaciones del Año , Árboles
5.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 546-559, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654293

RESUMEN

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and accessory proteases (TMPRSS2 and CTSL) are needed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cellular entry, and their expression may shed light on viral tropism and impact across the body. We assessed the cell-type-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL across 107 single-cell RNA-sequencing studies from different tissues. ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL are coexpressed in specific subsets of respiratory epithelial cells in the nasal passages, airways and alveoli, and in cells from other organs associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission or pathology. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 lung single-cell RNA-sequencing studies with 1,320,896 cells from 377 nasal, airway and lung parenchyma samples from 228 individuals. This revealed cell-type-specific associations of age, sex and smoking with expression levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and CTSL. Expression of entry factors increased with age and in males, including in airway secretory cells and alveolar type 2 cells. Expression programs shared by ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in nasal, lung and gut tissues included genes that may mediate viral entry, key immune functions and epithelial-macrophage cross-talk, such as genes involved in the interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and complement pathways. Cell-type-specific expression patterns may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and our work highlights putative molecular pathways for therapeutic intervention.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de la Célula Individual/estadística & datos numéricos , Internalización del Virus , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Células Epiteliales Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales Alveolares/virología , /metabolismo , /virología , Catepsina L/genética , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Demografía , Femenino , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pulmón/metabolismo , Pulmón/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Especificidad de Órganos/genética , Sistema Respiratorio/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/métodos , Serina Endopeptidasas/genética , Serina Endopeptidasas/metabolismo , Análisis de la Célula Individual/métodos
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671707

RESUMEN

When a public health emergency occurs, a potential sanitation threat will directly change local residents' behavior patterns, especially in high-density urban areas. Their behavior pattern is typically transformed from demand-oriented to security-oriented. This is directly manifested as a differentiation in the population distribution. This study based on a typical area of high-density urban area in central Tianjin, China. We used Baidu heat map (BHM) data to calculate full-day and daytime/nighttime state population aggregation and employed a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and Moran's I to analyze pre-epidemic/epidemic population aggregation patterns and pre-epidemic/epidemic population flow features. We found that during the COVID-19 epidemic, the population distribution of the study area tended to be homogenous clearly and the density decreased obviously. Compared with the pre-epidemic period: residents' demand for indoor activities increased (average correlation coefficient of the floor area ratio increased by 40.060%); traffic demand decreased (average correlation coefficient of the distance to a main road decreased by 272%); the intensity of the day-and-night population flow declined significantly (its extreme difference decreased by 53.608%); and the large-living-circle pattern of population distribution transformed to multiple small-living circles. This study identified different space utilization mechanisms during the pre-epidemic and epidemic periods. It conducted the minimum living security state of an epidemic-affected city to maintain the operation of a healthy city in the future.


Asunto(s)
Regresión Espacial , Población Urbana , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Demografía , Humanos
7.
West Afr J Med ; 38(3): 206-212, 2021 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There have been calls for privatisation of public health facilities to improve quality of care received. The study compared antenatal and delivery services received in public and private health facilities in Nigeria. METHODS: The study was based on 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data collected from women aged 15-49 years, concerning their pregnancy and delivery. Data on those that attended antenatal clinic (ANC) in public or private facilities and had live births in the preceding five years was analysed. Simple logistic regression was used to test for association between type of facility for ANC and delivery and the care received. RESULTS: A total of 15,811 women attended ANC in public (12,921, 81.7%) and private (2,890, 18.3%) facilities, and 12,399 delivered in public (8,583, 69.2%) and private (3,817, 30.8%) facilities. Type of facility attended was associated with number of ANC visits (OR=3.89; p<0.001), blood sample taken (OR=1.16; p=0.029), iron supplementation (OR=0.49; p<0.001), deworming (OR=0.74; p<0.001), receiving all the components of ANC service (OR=0.79; p<0.001), and skilled birth attendance (OR=3.81; p<0.001). However, it was not associated with blood pressure measurement (OR=1.07; p=0.459), urine sample taken (OR=1.05; p=0.486), postnatal check (OR=0.94; p=0.171) and timing of postnatal check (OR=0.73; p=0.185). CONCLUSION: While private facilities had more ANC visits and skilled birth attendance, overall provision of ANC services was better in the public facilities. Therefore, antenatal and delivery services were not necessarily better in private facilities. Beyond availability, further studies are needed to compare the quality of antenatal and delivery services in public and private facilities.


Asunto(s)
Atención Prenatal , Instalaciones Privadas , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
8.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021201, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147201

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The city of Santarém, the regional healthcare center in the western Pará State, lacks studies on the epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in particular, on the causes of death. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the sociodemographic and clinical profile related to the evolution of HIV infection to death. METHODS: The sample consisted of 94 medical records of patients from a reference center in the city of Santarém-PA, who died between 2010-2018. Data were collected on the sociodemographic profile, immunological and clinical characteristics of the patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, adopting p<0.05. RESULTS: Most deaths were male (67%), aged between 15-29 years (39%) and diagnosed between 30-44 years (41%), single (54%), mixed race (91.5%), from Santarém (77%) and with sexual intercourse being the main type of exposure (95.7%). Most patients were not being treated at the moment of death (56.4%), the main cause of death was respiratory failure (5%), in which, these individuals had, at the moment of death, TCD4+ lymphocytes <200 cell/mm3 (26%) and detectable viral load (29%). CONCLUSION: The lifetime from diagnosis to death was 48.45±50,30 months, and immunosuppression in the diagnosis was positively associated with the shortest survival time. However, sex was not associated with the immunological profile, age at the time of diagnosis, and death. There was only a tendency for women towards immunosuppression and detectable viral load.


INTRODUÇÃO: A cidade de Santarém, o polo assistencial da região oeste do Pará, carece de estudos sobre a epidemia do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), especialmente, sobre as causas de óbitos. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico relacionado à evolução da infecção pelo HIV até a morte. MÉTODO: A amostra foi de 94 prontuários de pacientes de um centro de referência do município de Santarém-PA, que evoluíram a óbito entre os anos de 2010-2018. Foram levantados os dados sobre o perfil sociodemográfico, características imunológicas e clínicas dos pacientes. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial, adotando-se p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos óbitos foi de indivíduos do sexo masculino (67%), com faixa etária do diagnóstico entre 15-29 anos (39%) e de falecimento entre 30-44 anos (41%), solteiros (54%), pardos (91,5%), procedentes de Santarém (77%) e com a relação sexual sendo o principal tipo de exposição (95,7%). A maioria dos pacientes não estava em tratamento no momento do óbito (56,4%), a principal causa de morte foi por insuficiência respiratória (5%), no qual, esses indivíduos apresentavam, no momento da morte, linfócitos TCD4+ <200 cél/mm3 (26%) e carga viral detectável (29%). CONCLUSÃO: O tempo de vida do diagnóstico ao óbito foi de 48,45±50,30 meses e a presença de imunossupressão no diagnóstico associou-se positivamente com o menor tempo de sobrevida. Contudo, o sexo não apresentou associação com o perfil imunológico, a idade no momento do diagnóstico e do óbito, apenas notou-se uma tendência das mulheres para a imunossupressão e carga viral detectável.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Perfil de Salud , Demografía , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/mortalidad , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos , Centros de Salud , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Carga Viral
9.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(Suppl): S77-S84, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622822

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to determine if limited access to health care during the COVID-19 pandemic impacted utilization of recommended nonpharmacological treatments, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids by patients with chronic low back pain and affected clinical outcomes relating to pain intensity and disability. METHODS: Participants within the Pain Registry for Epidemiological, Clinical, and Interventional Studies and Innovation were eligible if they provided encounter data in the 3 months immediately before and after the national emergency proclamation date (NEPD). RESULTS: The mean age of the 528 study participants was 53.9 years and 74.1% were women. Utilization of exercise therapy, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation decreased during the pandemic. Increasing age was associated with decreased utilization of all nonpharmacological treatments except exercise therapy, and with increased opioid use during the pandemic. African American participants reported decreased utilization of yoga and spinal manipulation during the pandemic. Overall, mean change scores for pain intensity and disability before and after the NEPD were not significant. However, African American participants consistently reported worse pain intensity and disability outcomes during the pandemic. Marginally worse outcomes were observed less consistently for pain intensity with increasing age and for disability among women. DISCUSSION: Social distancing during the pandemic impacted the uptake of recommended nonpharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain that require visiting community-based facilities or interacting closely with providers. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic threatens to exacerbate the impact of chronic low back pain, particularly among African American patients and the older population, by impeding access to guideline-informed noninvasive treatments.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico/terapia , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Demografía , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz/organización & administración , Adhesión a Directriz/tendencias , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos
10.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(2): 6, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537862

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemosensory dysfunction in the patients with COVID-19 has been reported frequently in the studies from different regions of the world. However, the prevalence of smell and/or taste disorders presents significant ethnic and geographic variability. In addition, the pathogenesis of chemosensory dysfunction remains unclarified. RECENT FINDINGS: This is a narrative review on the recent state of the prevalence, mechanism, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategy of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients during the global pandemic. The chemosensory dysfunction was analysis based on recent studies, which either used questionnaires, Likert scales (0-10), or smell tests to estimate the smell and taste dysfunction. The ethnic and geographic difference of the prevalence of smell and/or taste disorders and the potential underlying mechanisms have been discussed. Several suggestions on the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients with smell and taste disorders were summarized for the physicians. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current studies regarding the chemosensory dysfunction during the COVID-19 worldwide outbreak.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/complicaciones , Trastornos del Gusto/complicaciones , /complicaciones , Demografía , Grupos Étnicos , Salud Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24729, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607817

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is on the rise in Latin America. The aims of this study were to examine epidemiologic trends of IBD in Colombia by demographics, region, urbanicity, and to describe the IBD phenotype in a large well-characterized Colombian cohort.We used a national database of 33 million adults encompassing 97.6% of the Colombian population in order to obtain epidemiologic trends of IBD using International Classification of Diseases 10codes for adults with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). We calculated the incidence and prevalence of UC and CD from 2010-2017 and examined epidemiologic trends by urbanicity, demographics, and region. We then examined the IBD phenotype (using Montreal Classification), prevalence of IBD-related surgeries, and types of IBD-medications prescribed to adult patients attending a regional IBD clinic in Medellin, Colombia between 2001 and 2017.The incidence of UC increased from 5.59/100,000 in 2010 to 6.3/100,000 in 2017 (relative risk [RR] 1.12, confidence interval (CI) (1.09-1.18), P < .0001). While CD incidence did not increase, the prevalence increased within this period. The Andes region had the highest incidence of IBD (5.56/100,000 in 2017). IBD was seen less in rural regions in Colombia (RR=.95, CI (0.92-0.97), p < .01). An increased risk of IBD was present in women, even after adjusting for age and diagnosis year (RR 1.06 (1.02-1.08), P = .0003). The highest IBD risk occurred in patients 40 to 59 years of age. In the clinic cohort, there were 649 IBD patients: 73.7% UC and 24.5% CD. Mean age of diagnosis in CD was 41.0 years and 39.9 years in UC. UC patients developed mostly pancolitis (43%). CD patients developed mostly ileocolonic disease and greater than a third of patients had an inflammatory, non-fistulizing phenotype (37.7%). A total of 16.7% of CD patients had perianal disease. CD patients received more biologics than UC patients (odds ratio: 3.20, 95% CI 2.19-4.69 P < .001).Using both a national representative sample and a regional clinic cohort, we find that UC is more common in Colombia and is on the rise in urban regions; especially occurring in an older age cohort when compared to Western countries. Future studies are warranted to understand evolving environmental factors explaining this rise.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/epidemiología , Demografía/tendencias , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/epidemiología , Urbanización/tendencias , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Colitis Ulcerosa/complicaciones , Colitis Ulcerosa/diagnóstico , Colitis Ulcerosa/terapia , Colombia/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Crohn/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Crohn/terapia , Manejo de Datos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
13.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(4): e9806, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624734

RESUMEN

An increasing number of elderly people in renal support is expected in the coming years. The objective of this study was to report the clinical and socio-demographic data of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) adult patients undergoing regular dialysis treatment comparing elderly (≥65 years old) and non-elderly subjects using data from the Brazilian Dialysis Registry database. The regional distribution of the sample was Southeast (48.8%), South (33.7), Northeast (13.1%), Midwest (5.1%), and North (0.1%). A total of 18,030 patients were included in the analysis with elderly patients accounting for 29.5% of the sample. The elderly patients were predominantly male, white, retired, and literate. Elderly ESRD patients had a slightly higher frequency of undernourishment and a lower frequency of obesity than the non-elderly adults. A higher frequency of elderly patients were from the South and Southeast regions. The dialysis treatment of patients from both groups was predominantly funded by the public system, but the percent of non-public funding was higher for the elderly group. The most used initial access in the elderly was the central venous catheter and hemodialysis was the main modality at the beginning of treatment (93.2%), as well as during maintenance therapy (91.8%). Advanced age was associated with greater use of central venous catheter in the first dialysis session. The survival of the elderly on dialysis was lower than that of the non-elderly early in the course of dialysis and this difference increased over time. This is yet the largest national epidemiological study of elderly people on chronic dialysis.


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico , Diálisis Renal , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Demografía , Humanos , Riñón , Fallo Renal Crónico/epidemiología , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591658

RESUMEN

One of world trends in health care social policy is self-care behavior of population as willingness of every member of society to be personally liable for maintaining one's own health and prolongation of life activity. The value of health is considered as both human, personally significant and social capital, that is a must to achieve high indices of social development and to ensure national state security. The measures of state policy of the Russian Federation are targeted to develop culture of self-care behavior of citizen of the Russian Federation that is reflected in such national projects «Health care¼ and «Demography¼ that are implemented until 2024. To assess self-care behavior, it is necessary: to determine the need for longevity and degree of its implementation in various socio-demographic groups; to assess specifics of self-care behavior in context of motives of achieving longevity; to determine feedback in various socio-demographic groups to demographic policy measures to preserve population health and to reduce mortality; to analyze popular practices of self-care behavior. The article presents results of sociological survey on subject of «demographic self-feeling of Russia¼ carried out by the Institute of Social Political Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2020-2021, in terms of application of various practices of self-care behavior in Russia.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Política de Salud , Demografía , Humanos , Longevidad , Federación de Rusia
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e045794, 2021 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518530

RESUMEN

SETTING: The State of Qatar has had one of the highest COVID-19 infection rates globally and has used state-managed quarantine and isolation centres to limit the spread of infection. Quarantine and isolation have been shown to negatively affect the mental health of individuals. Qatar has a unique population, with around 90% of the population being economic migrants and a majority being blue-collar workers and labourers. OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to evaluate the psychological impact of institutional isolation and quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Qatar. The study also explored the sociodemographic correlates of this psychological impact. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: A cross-sectional study involving 748 consenting individuals in institutional quarantine and isolation in Qatar during the months of June and July 2020 was carried out. Relevant sociodemographic data along with depressive and anxiety symptomatology scores were collected from consenting adults at these facilities. RESULTS: 37.4% (n=270) of respondents reported depressive symptoms and 25.9% (n=189) reported anxiety symptoms. The scores were higher for individuals in isolation facilities and higher for migrants from poor socioeconomic group (p<0.001 for both). Within this group, although worries about infection were widely reported, lack of contact with the family was cited as one of the most important sources of distress. Respondents reported that contact with the family and reliable information were important factors that helped during the duration of isolation and quarantine. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported significantly elevated scores for depression and anxiety during institutional quarantine, which is in keeping with emerging evidence. However, in contrast to other studies reporting mostly from native populations, this study of a population with an overwhelming majority of immigrants highlights the special mental health needs of this specific group and can inform future healthcare policies.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión , Distrés Psicológico , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Qatar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Migrantes/psicología
16.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 54, 2021 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547315

RESUMEN

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is pseudonymously linked to more than 100 million cases in the world as of January 2021. High-quality data are needed but lacking in the understanding of and fighting against COVID-19. We provide a complete and updating hand-coded line-list dataset containing detailed information of the cases in China and outside the epicenter in Hubei province. The data are extracted from public disclosures by local health authorities, starting from January 19. This dataset contains a very rich set of features for the characterization of COVID-19's epidemiological properties, including individual cases' demographic information, travel history, potential virus exposure scenario, contacts with known infections, and timelines of symptom onset, quarantine, infection confirmation, and hospitalization. These cases can be considered the baseline COVID-19 transmissibility under extreme mitigation measures, and therefore, a reference for comparative scientific investigation and public policymaking.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /diagnóstico , China/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Demografía , Hospitalización , Humanos , Cuarentena , Viaje
17.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580758

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate social, demographic and clinical characteristics of women with schizophrenia and HIV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical histories of patients who were in inpatient treatment during 2017 were retrospectively studied. A total of 174 medical histories were analyzed, but the final analysis included 40 HIV-infected patients (main groups) and 48 patients without HIV infection (comparison group). These groups included patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or acute polymorphic psychotic disorder. All patients with HIV infection were examined by a specialist and an immunological analysis was performed. Correlation analysis was performed between quantitative clinical indicators (duration of illness, number of hospitalizations, the number and duration of remissions, etc.) and immunological parameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Patients with schizophrenia and HIV infection are more often hospitalized and stay in the hospital longer than patients with schizophrenia without HIV infection, which may in part be determined by the social problems of this cohort of patients. There is a relationship between individual indicators of the immune status of the patients, the duration and some features of the course of mental illness. Regular treatment of HIV infection correlates with a lower frequency of hospitalizations in a psychiatric hospital due to an exacerbation of the mental state.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Trastornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Demografía , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología , Esquizofrenia/terapia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24270, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592869

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The study aimed to explore the association between family functioning and quality of life (QOL) in family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.Totally 121 family caregivers were surveyed in the cross-sectional study by the self-administration questionnaires about sociodemographic characteristics, family functioning and QOL. Family functioning was evaluated in terms of the family assessment device and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale II China Version. QOL was evaluated in terms of TSDHE short-form 12-item health survey, version 2. Multiple regression models were built to explore the association between QOL and family functioning.A regression analysis showed that poorer physical health of family caregivers was significantly associated with the lower educational level of caregivers, the closer kinship with patients and the multiple episodes schizophrenia. The other regression analysis showed that better family adaptability and affective responsiveness were significantly associated with the better mental health of family caregivers.Family functioning is associated with mental health rather than the physical health of family caregivers. Psychoeducational intervention could focus on family caregivers with a lower educational level and closer kinship, and those who look after patients with multiple episodes schizophrenia. Further family intervention could focus on family adaptability and affective expression in family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Costo de Enfermedad , Salud de la Familia , Salud Mental , Calidad de Vida , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Necesidades , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24419, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592890

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Childhood malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Yemen. However, there is a limited information regarding association of malnutrition with different socio-economic factors. This study examines the correlates of socioeconomic and maternal behavioral factors on malnutrition in Yemeni children under 5 years of age.Our study focuses on the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, and uses the data provided by the cross-sectional study namely Yemen National Demographic and Health Survey. Three anthropometric indicators: stunting, wasting, and underweight were selected for the evaluation of malnutrition. Independent variables include personal and maternal characteristics, socioeconomic and behavioral factors, and illness conditions. The study used the Chi-Squared test to test the significant association between independent variables and logistic regression to estimate the odds of being malnourished.A total of 13,624 Yemeni children under 5 years of age were included in the study. The results show the high malnutrition level - the prevalence of stunting was 47%, wasting was 16%, and underweight was 39%. There is a statistically significant association between socioeconomic status, behavioral factors, and child malnutrition. The odds of malnutrition decreased with the increase in the level of mother's education, economic status, and frequency of prenatal visits. The odds of malnutrition were least for children whose mothers had highest level of education (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.55-0.76), who belonged to highest wealth index (OR = 0.41; 95%CI = 0.36-0.47). Moreover, the likelihood of malnutrition was less among the children whose mother had highest number of prenatal visits during the pregnancy (OR = 0.67; 95%CI = 0.59-0.76).The high prevalence of stunting, wasting, and undernutrition were found in Yemeni children. Different factors such as regional variations, socio-economic disparities, and maternal education and health care utilization behavior are found to be associated with high malnutrition. These findings provide important policy implications to improving childhood malnutrition in Yemen.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Delgadez/epidemiología , Síndrome Debilitante/epidemiología , Antropometría , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Yemen/epidemiología
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1188-1192, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529569

RESUMEN

In a study of US Marine recruits, seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgG was 9.0%. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black participants and participants from states affected earlier in the pandemic had higher seropositivity rates. These results suggest the need for targeted public health strategies among young adults at increased risk for infection.


Asunto(s)
Salud Militar , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Selección de Personal , Factores de Edad , /epidemiología , /prevención & control , /estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Militar/etnología , Salud Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Militares , Selección de Personal/métodos , Selección de Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena , /aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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