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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 196-196, ene.-abr. 2021. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-194177

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic, declared on March 11, 2020, constitute an extraordinary health, social and economic global challenge. The impact on people's mental health is expected to be high. This paper sought to systematically review community-based studies on depression conducted during the COVID-19 and estimate the pooled prevalence of depression. METHOD: We searched for cross-sectional, community-based studies listed on PubMed or Web of Science from January 1, 2020 to May 8, 2020 that reported prevalence of depression. A random effect model was used to estimate the pooled proportion of depression. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were included in the meta-analysis, with prevalence rates of depression ranging from 7.45% to 48.30%. The pooled prevalence of depression was 25% (95% CI: 18%−33%), with significant heterogeneity between studies (I2=99.60%, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a global estimated prevalence of depression of 3.44% in 2017, our pooled prevalence of 25% appears to be 7 times higher, thus suggesting an important impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on people's mental health. Addressing mental health during and after this global health crisis should be placed into the international and national public health agenda to improve citizens' wellbeing


INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia de COVID-19, declarada el 11 de marzo de 2020, representa un reto global extraordinario a nivel sanitario, social y económico. Se espera un impacto alto en la salud mental de las personas. Este artículo tiene como objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios transversales basados en muestras comunitarias que proporcionaban la prevalencia de depresión durante la crisis del COVID-19. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda de estudios comunitarios publicados en Pubmed y Web of Science desde el 1 de enero del 2020 al 8 de mayo del 2020 y que informaron sobre la prevalencia de depresión. Se usó un modelo de efectos aleatorios para estimar la proporción agrupada de depresión. RESULTADOS: Un total de 12 estudios fueron incluidos en el meta-análisis, con prevalencias de depresión que oscilaban entre 7,45% y 48,30%. La prevalencia agrupada de depresión fue de 25% (95% CI: 18%-33%), con heterogeneidad significativa entre estudios (I2 = 99,60%, p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: En comparación con una estimación global de depresión en 2017 del 3,44%, nuestra prevalencia agrupada del 25% es 7 veces mayor, sugiriendo un impacto importante del brote de COVID-19 en la salud mental de las personas. El abordaje de la salud mental durante y después de esta crisis global sanitaria debe ser parte de las agendas de salud pública nacionales e internacionales para mejorar el bienestar de los ciudadanos


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429989

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic impaired people's moods and general levels of physical activity, but the way in which each country is coping with the situation may result in different outcomes. The aim of the present study was to compare the mental health and physical activity levels between residents of Brazil and Switzerland during the social distancing period associated with COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire aiming to assess personal, quarantine, physical activity, and mood state disorders data was answered by 114 participants (57 from each country) of both sexes. Results: Swiss participants presented a higher frequency of people (47.4%) not abiding by social distancing measures compared to Brazilian participants (1.8%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.56). There were no significant differences between the participants from the two countries regarding physical activity levels (p = 0.09). The Swiss presented a higher frequency (78.9%) of people without symptoms of depression compared to Brazilians (31.6%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.48). The Swiss also presented a higher frequency (77.2%) of people without symptoms of anxiety compared to Brazilians (35.1%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.43). There was a significant association between the restriction level and depression symptoms (p = 0.01, effect size = 0.25) but not with anxiety symptoms (p = 0.21, effect size = 0.16). Conclusions: According to the preliminary results, Brazilians presented a much higher frequency of depression and anxiety symptoms, which can be explained by characteristics other than the restriction level.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Ejercicio Físico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/psicología , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suiza/epidemiología
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 34, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly in China and other overseas areas, which has aroused widespread concern. The sharp increase in the number of patients has led to great psychological pressure on health care workers. The purpose of this study was to understand their mental health status and needs, so as to provide a scientific basis for alleviating the psychological pressure of health care workers. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, 540 health care workers were randomly selected from two designated tuberculosis medical institutions in Anhui Province. The basic situation, perceived social support, depression level, loneliness and COVID-19 related knowledge were collected and analyzed by questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 511 valid questionnaires were finally retrieved. There were 139 people in epidemic prevention and control positions (27.20%). Depression level: People in isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were at the level of mild to moderate depression. Female was higher than male; nurse was higher than doctor; middle and junior job titles were higher than senior titles; junior college degree or below were higher than bachelor's degree, master's degree and above; isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly higher than those of non-prevention and control positions (p < 0.05). Loneliness scores: Doctors were higher than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were higher than those of other medical departments (p < 0.05). Social support: Doctors were lower than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly lower than those of other departments (p < 0.05). The score of social support was negatively correlated with depression and loneliness (p < 0.001), while depression was positively correlated with loneliness (p < 0.001). Health care workers most want to receive one-to-one psychological counseling (29.75%), and provide crisis management (24.07%). The awareness rate of health care workers on COVID-19's knowledge was relatively high. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological problems of health care workers, especially women, nurses with low educational background, low professional title, and staff in the epidemic prevention and control positions are relatively serious.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Ansiedad , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , China , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Apoyo Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 33, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435930

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social dislocations resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have been prolonged, which has led to general population social suppression. The present study aimed to reveal risk factors associated with mental health problems and suggest concrete coping strategies in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted in July when Japan was experiencing a second wave of COVID-19. Demographics, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), state anger, anger control, and the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced were measured. Multivariate logistic regression analysis on PHQ-9 scores by set variables was conducted. RESULTS: The participants were 2708 individuals, and 18.35% of them were depressed. Logistic regression analysis showed that in the order of odds ratios (ORs), underlying disease (OR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-2.92), not working (OR = 1.85, CI = 1.22-2.80), negative economic impact (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.01-1.77), state anger (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.14-1.21), anger control (OR = 1.08, CI = 1.04-1.13), age (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.96-0.98), high income (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.25-0.80), and being married (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.38-0.74) were predictors of depressive symptoms. Regarding coping strategies, planning (OR = 0.84, CI = 0.74-0.94), use of instrumental support (OR = 0.85, CI = 0.76-0.95), denial (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.77-0.99), behavioural disengagement (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.13-1.44), and self-blame (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.31-1.65) were associated with probable depression. CONCLUSIONS: During prolonged psychological distress caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japan was two to nine times as high as before the COVID-19 pandemic, even though Japan was not a lockdown country. Although some coping strategies were useful for maintaining mental health, such as developing ways, alone or with others, to address or avoid social dislocations, the influence of demographics was more powerful than these coping strategies, and medical treatments are needed for high-risk individuals.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Adaptación Psicológica , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244347, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395428

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia of unknown cause was detected on 30 December 2019 in China. It was categorized as an outbreak and named as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. The pandemic affects all people, but patient groups such as hemodialysis (HD) patients have been particularly affected. We do not know if refugees suffered more during the outbreak. In this study, we compared depressive symptom frequency between Syrian refugee HD patients and Turkish ones. METHODS: The study had a single-center, cross-sectional design. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively from patients' files containing details about past medical history, demographic variables and laboratory values. Validated Turkish and Arabic forms of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess depressive symptoms. BDI scores were compared according to nationality, demographic features and clinical data. A BDI score more than 14 was accepted as suspicion of depression. RESULTS: 119 patients were enrolled in the study. After the exclusion of 22 patients, 75 Turkish and 22 Syrian patients were included for further analysis. The median BDI (interquartile range) score for Turkish and Syrian patients were 12 (7-23) and 19.5 (12.7-25.2), respectively (p = 0.03). Suspicion of depression was present at 42.7% of Turkish, and 72.7% of Syrian HD patients (p = 0.013). Regarding all patients, phosphorus level, Kt/V, and nationality were significantly different between patients with and without suspicion of depression (p = 0.023, 0.039, 0.013, respectively). CONCLUSION: Syrian patients had higher BDI scores and more depressive symptoms than Turkish patients. Additional national measures for better integration and more mental support to Syrian HD patients are needed.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Pandemias , Refugiados/psicología , Diálisis Renal , Adulto , Anciano , /etnología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Siria/etnología , Turquia/epidemiología
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043185, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408210

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has posed several medical, psychosocial and economic impacts among the majority of the society. The ambiguity of its transmission, the intense desire of self-protection, family, and friends, the unknown impact of catching the disease itself, unstoppable spread, the panic and outright misinformation lead to acute stress reaction syndrome. However, reliable data related to this contagion lack the prevalence of acute stress reaction syndrome and associated factors among Jimma University Medical Centre hospital visitors in Southwestern Ethiopia. AIMS: The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute stress reaction syndrome during the COVID-19 outbreak among Jimma University Medical Centre Hospital visitors, Ethiopia. METHODS: An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 visitors of the Jimma University Medical Centre in Ethiopia. The study was conducted within 2 weeks of the first COVID-19 cases detected on 13 March 2020 in Ethiopia. Data on demographic and socioeconomic status were collected during the interview using structured questionnaires. The psychological impact was assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and symptoms of insomnia were measured using the Insomnia Severity Index. Social support was evaluated using Oslo three-item Social Support Scale. Logistic regression was employed to determine the associations between dependent and independent variables. Besides, psychosocial stress score was generated using principal component analysis. A paired permutation test was also performed to determine the variability of psychosocial stress between groups. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 30.47 years, and 76.5% of the participants were male. Acute stress reaction syndrome was detected in 44.1% of hospital visitors. Of the participants, 38.5%, 17.4%, 8.5% and 35.6% had a minimal, mild, moderate and severe psychological impact, respectively. Factors positively associated with acute stress reaction syndrome were individuals who perceived that COVID-19 leads to stigma (adjusted OR (AOR): 3.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 9.45), mild insomnia (AOR: 14.74, 95% CI 6.14 to 35.40), moderate to severe insomnia (AOR: 35.1, 95% CI 10.76 to 114.66), low social support (AOR: 4.08, 95% CI 1.31 to 12.67) and governmental employees (AOR: 8.09, 95% CI 1.38 to 47.18). CONCLUSION: The study revealed the existence of a high prevalence of acute stress reaction syndrome during the COVID-19 outbreak among different groups of the community. Therefore, our results will contribute to the global awareness of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Hospitales Universitarios , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 20, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419391

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quarantine as a preventive action to reduce people's exposure to a contagious disease has substantial psychological impact. We aimed to collect information on psychologically distressing experiences of Italians living in quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From 6 to 20 April 2020 participants filled out an online questionnaire. Demographic and physical symptoms data from the prior 14 days of quarantine were collected. Psychological impact of quarantine was assessed by the COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI). RESULTS: In all, 20,158 participants completed the online survey. Of these, 11,910 (59.1%) were from Lombardy, the region with 37.7% of positive cases identified during the survey period. 30.1% of responders were male. About half (55.9%) of responders were 18-50 years old, 54.3% had a tertiary level of education, 69.5% were workers, 84.1% were living in houses with ≥3 rooms, and 13.7% were living alone. 9.7% had had contact with COVID-19 positive people. Of all responders, 9978 (48.6%) reported a psychological impact, 8897 (43.4%) of whom reported mild or moderate and 1081 (5.2%) severe psychological impact. The multivariate analysis, after adjustments, showed that an increasing CPDI score was associated with gender (female), first-second educational level, being unemployed, living in a ≤2 room house, having had new health problems during the previous 14 days, and not having been out of the house in the previous week. Concerning the type of psychological distress, 2003 responders (9.9%) reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms, 1131 (5.5%) moderate to severe anxiety symptoms, and 802 (3.9%) moderate to severe physical symptoms. A positive correlation was found between responder rate (per 10.000 residents) and positive COVID-19 cases (per 10.000 residents) by region (rs = + 0.83, p = < 0.0001), and between responder rate and region latitude (rs = + 0.91, p = < 0.0001), with a greater response rate in the north. Considering Lombardy Region responders, a negative correlation between CPDI score and distance from place of residence to the red zone (Nembro-Alzano) was found. Higher prevalence of psychological distress was found up to 25 km away from the red zone and, in particular, severe distress up to 15 km. CONCLUSIONS: Policy makers and mental health professionals should be aware of quarantine's adverse mental health consequences. Factors influencing the success of quarantine and infection control practices for both disease containment and community recovery should be identified and additional support to vulnerable persons at increased risk of adverse psychological and social consequences of quarantine should be guaranteed.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad , Depresión , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Distrés Psicológico , Cuarentena , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 19, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419411

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has disrupted millions of lives and commerce. We investigated psychological reactions and insomnia during the COVID-19 outbreak in adults with mental health disorders (MDs). METHODS: A self-reported psychological and sleep online survey was conducted in China between February 5th to 19th, 2020. A total of 244 adults with MDs and 1116 controls matched for age, gender and sites were included. Worsened symptoms of anxiety, depressive and insomnia were defined when severity levels shifted to a more severe category compared to pre-COVID-19. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, we found significantly increased prevalence of anxiety (MDs: 54.9% vs. 49.6%, controls: 25.5% vs. 14.3%), depression (MDs: 63.9% vs. 61.5%, controls: 29.9% vs. 21.2%) and insomnia (MDs: 66.0% vs. 57.8%, controls: 31.5% vs. 24.8%) compared to pre-COVID-19 period (all P-value < 0.001). Furthermore, adults with MDs had higher odds for developing COVID-19-related stress (OR = 3.41, 95% CI 2.49 ~ 4.67), worsened anxiety (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.38 ~ 2.76), depression (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.43 ~ 2.93) and insomnia (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.53 ~ 3.21) during the COVID-19 outbreak compared to controls. Moreover, higher COVID-19-related stress and lower levels of pre-COVID-19 anxiety, depressive and insomnia symptoms were predictors for worsened anxiety, depression and insomnia in adults with MDs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that adverse psychological reactions and insomnia are more pronounced in adults with mental health disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak, thus more attention need to be provided.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Salud Mental , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/complicaciones , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245057, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411843

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and loneliness in the general population. More specifically, the study focused on prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms, the extent to which individuals with existing symptoms recovered or not, the prevalence of subtypes of loneliness, and the extent to which loneliness before and during this pandemic was associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. METHODS: Data was extracted from the longitudinal LISS panel, based on a probability sample of the Dutch population, with assessments on loneliness in October 2019 (T1) and June 2020 (T4), and anxiety and depression symptoms in November 2019 (T2), March 2020 (T3) and June 2020 (T4; Ntotal = 4,084). Loneliness was examined with the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and anxiety and depression symptoms with the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). RESULTS: Repeated measures multivariate logistic regression analyses (RMMLRA) showed a statistical significant lower prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms after the outbreak (T4 = 15.3%) than before (T2 = 16.8%) and during the COVID-19 outbreak (T3 = 17.2%). According to the Reliable Change Index, the distribution of recovery categories (remission, improvement, unchanged and worsening symptoms) after the outbreak did not differ significantly from the distribution of these categories before the outbreak. RMMLRA revealed that the prevalence of emotional loneliness increased significantly after the outbreak (T1 = 18.4%, T4 = 24.8%). Among individuals who were not lonely before and after the outbreak the prevalence of symptoms decreased significantly (T2 = 7.0%, T4 = 4.4%) and, likewise, among those who were not lonely anymore after the outbreak (T2 = 21.5%, T4 = 14.5%). However, the prevalence of symptoms increased significantly among those who became lonely during the pandemic (T2 = 17.9%, T4 = 26.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that this pandemic did not negatively affect the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms nor the normal recovery of symptoms among the general population during the first four months, but that emotional loneliness increased.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 6, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social support is a well-known protective factor against depressive symptoms and substance use problems, but very few studies have examined its protective effects among residents of permanent supportive housing (PSH), a housing program for people with a history of chronic homelessness. We utilized unconditional latent growth curve models (LGCMs) and parallel process growth models to describe univariate trajectories of social support, depressive symptoms, and substance use problems and to examine their longitudinal associations in a large sample of adults residing in PSH. METHODS: Participants were 653 adult PSH residents in North Texas (56% female; 57% Black; mean age: 51 years) who participated in a monthly health coaching program from 2014 to 2017. Their health behaviors were assessed at baseline and tracked every six months at three follow-up visits. RESULTS: Unconditional LGCMs indicated that over time, social support increased, whereas depressive symptoms and substance use problems decreased. However, their rates of change slowed over time. Further, in parallel process growth models, we found that at baseline, individuals with greater social support tended to have less severe depressive symptoms and substance use problems (coefficients: - 0.67, p < 0.01; - 0.52, p < 0.01, respectively). Individuals with a faster increase in social support tended to have steeper rates of reduction in both depressive symptoms (coefficient: - 0.99, p < 0.01) and substance use problems (coefficient: - 0.98, p < 0.01), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that plausibly, increases in social support, though slowing over time, still positively impact depressive symptoms and substance use problems among PSH residents. Future PSH programs could emphasize social support as an early component as it may contribute to clients' overall health.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Vivienda Popular , Apoyo Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Personas sin Hogar , Vivienda , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 189-195, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397873

RESUMEN

The mental health aspect of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients in Bangladesh has remained less focused and has not been addressed properly. The objective of the study was to assess the levels of anxiety and depression in COVID-19 patients. We adopted a mixed online and telephone-based survey using Google Forms. Recruitment was performed through a snowball sampling approach. The Google Form was initially circulated in Facebook to identify interested participants. Then, three trained physicians interviewed the online responders over telephone for a period spanning from April 2020 to June 2020. Two well-known questionnaires, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), were used for the assessment of anxiety and depression, respectively. Here, the severity of anxiety was classified with the standard thresholds: minimal or none (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14) and severe (>15) for the GAD-7. Depression severity score: 0-4 was considered as none or no depression, 5-9: mild, 10-14: moderate, 15-19: moderately severe, 20-27 was for severe depression. A total of 237 patients were finally analyzed. The mean age ±SD of the patients was 41.59±13.73 years. Most of them were male (73%) and lived in urban areas (90.29%). Half of the patients were unemployed, and 17.7% admitted loss of job due to lockdown. The overall prevalence of anxiety and depression was 55.7% and 87.3%, respectively. The mean GAD-7 score was 5.79±4.95, and the mean PHQ-9 score was 5.64±5.15. Among the depressive patients, 3% had minimal depression, 38.4% had mild depression, 32.1% had moderate depression, 11.8% had moderate depression, and 2.1% had a severe depression. Similarly, 37.1%, 10.5% and 8% had mild, moderate and severe levels of anxiety, respectively. Nearly half of the study population (47.7%) was suffering from both depression and anxiety. Living in urban area was an independent predictor for depression (OR 3.882; CI: 1.249-12.069). Considering the high comorbid burden, the mental health issues of these patients need to be addressed and reinforced to the existing health system on a priority basis.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0240146, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428630

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic does not fit into prevailing Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) models, or diagnostic criteria, yet emerging research shows traumatic stress symptoms as a result of this ongoing global stressor. Current pathogenic event models focus on past, and largely direct, trauma exposure to certain kinds of life-threatening events. Yet, traumatic stress reactions to future, indirect trauma exposure, and non-Criterion A events exist, suggesting COVID-19 is also a traumatic stressor which could lead to PTSD symptomology. To examine this idea, we asked a sample of online participants (N = 1,040), in five western countries, to indicate the COVID-19 events they had been directly exposed to, events they anticipated would happen in the future, and other forms of indirect exposure such as through media coverage. We then asked participants to complete the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5, adapted to measure pre/peri/post-traumatic reactions in relation to COVID-19. We also measured general emotional reactions (e.g., angry, anxious, helpless), well-being, psychosocial functioning, and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. We found participants had PTSD-like symptoms for events that had not happened and when participants had been directly (e.g., contact with virus) or indirectly exposed to COVID-19 (e.g., via media). Moreover, 13.2% of our sample were likely PTSD-positive, despite types of COVID-19 "exposure" (e.g., lockdown) not fitting DSM-5 criteria. The emotional impact of "worst" experienced/anticipated events best predicted PTSD-like symptoms. Taken together, our findings support emerging research that COVID-19 can be understood as a traumatic stressor event capable of eliciting PTSD-like responses and exacerbating other related mental health problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, psychosocial functioning, etc.). Our findings add to existing literature supporting a pathogenic event memory model of traumatic stress.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Depresión/etiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Depresión/diagnóstico , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
14.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 294-300, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a highly stressful event that may lead to significant psychological symptoms, particularly in cancer patients who are at a greater risk of contracting viruses. This study examined the frequency of stressors experienced in relation to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic and its relationship with psychological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, insomnia, fear of cancer recurrence) in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Thirty-six women diagnosed with a non-metastatic breast cancer completed the Insomnia Severity Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the severity subscale of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, and the COVID-19 Stressors Questionnaire developed by our research team. Participants either completed the questionnaires during (30.6%) or after (69.4%) their chemotherapy treatment. RESULTS: Results revealed that most of the participants (63.9%) have experienced at least one stressor related to the COVID-19 pandemic (one: 27.8%, two: 22.2%, three: 11.1%). The most frequently reported stressor was increased responsibilities at home (33.3%). Higher levels of concerns related to the experienced stressors were significantly correlated with higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia, and fear of cancer recurrence, rs(32) = 0.36 to 0.59, all ps < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients experience a significant number of stressors related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which are associated with increased psychological symptoms. These results contribute to a better understanding of the psychological consequences of a global pandemic in the context of cancer and they highlight the need to better support patients during such a challenging time.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/complicaciones , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Neoplasias de la Mama/inmunología , Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , /psicología , Supervivientes de Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/psicología , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435391

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most burdensome psychiatric illnesses, being associated with a negative long-term outcome and the highest suicide rate. Although affective temperaments can impact on BD long-term outcome, their role remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study are to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with BD more frequently associated with the different affective temperaments and to assess the relation between affective temperaments and severity of clinical picture in a sample of patients with BD. Materials and Methods: A total of 199 patients have been recruited in the outpatients units of two university sites. Patients' psychiatric symptoms, affective temperaments, and quality of life were investigated through validated assessment instruments. Results: Predominant cyclothymic and irritable temperaments are associated to higher number of relapses, poorer quality of life, higher rates of aggressive behaviors, and suicide attempts. Conversely, the predominant hyperthymic disposition was a protective factor for several outcome measures, including relapse rate, severity of anxiety, depressive and manic symptoms, suicidality, and earlier age at onset. One limitation of the present study is that the recruitment took place in two university sites; therefore, our findings cannot be fully generalized to the whole community of BD patients. Other limitations are the lack of a control group and the cross-sectional design of the study. Conclusions: The early identification of affective temperaments can help clinicians to identify those BD patients who are more likely to show a poor long-term outcome. An early screening of affective temperaments can be useful to develop targeted integrated pharmacological and psychosocial interventions.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Trastorno Ciclotímico/psicología , Genio Irritable , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Temperamento , Adulto , Afecto , Edad de Inicio , Agresión/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno Bipolar/fisiopatología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/psicología
16.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(1): 11-21, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384030

RESUMEN

Depression is common in older people, and while the approach to treatment is similar to a younger population, there are several additional treatment considerations to make based on comorbidities and cognitive impairment. Evidence-based psychotherapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, and problem-solving therapy are recommended for mild-moderate depression in older people; however, the efficacy of these are limited in very old patients (older than 75 years of age) and those with cognitive impairment. Additionally, neuromodulation treatments such as electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation could prove beneficial for specific older people with depression. Use of pharmacotherapy that has demonstrated to be safe in older adults, as well as agents with adequate clinical experience in this population, should be considered based on patient-specific characteristics. Because of generally more complex medication regimens, risks of pharmacotherapy should be minimized with careful dosing strategies and special attention to avoid significant drug-drug interactions. While some data are available, antidepressant combination or augmentation strategies are less well studied in older people who fail to achieve remission or those with treatment-resistant depression, compared with younger populations.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Depresión , Trastorno Depresivo , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Depresión/terapia , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Humanos , Psicoterapia
17.
Life Sci ; 265: 118809, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249097

RESUMEN

Circadian rhythms are responsible for regulating a number of physiological processes. The central oscillator is located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and the SCN synchronises the circadian clocks that are found in our peripheral organs through neural and humoral signalling. At the molecular level, biological clocks consist of transcription-translation feedback loops (TTFLs) and these pathways are influenced by transcription factors, post-translational modifications, signalling pathways and epigenetic modifiers. When disruptions occur in the circadian machinery, the activities of the proteins implicated in this network and the expression of core clock or clock-controlled genes (CCGs) can be altered. Circadian misalignment can also arise when there is desychronisation between our internal clocks and environmental stimuli. There is evidence in the literature demonstrating that disturbances in the circadian rhythm contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases and disorders. This includes the metabolic syndrome and recently, it has been suggested that the 'circadian syndrome' may be a more appropriate term to use to not only describe the cardio-metabolic risk factors but also the associated comorbidities. Here we overview the molecular architecture of circadian clocks in mammals and provide insight into the effects of shift work, exposure to artificial light, food intake and stress on the circadian rhythm. The relationship between circadian rhythms, metabolic disorders and depression is reviewed and this is a topic that requires further investigation. We also describe how particular proteins involved in the TTFLs can be potentially modulated by small molecules, including pharmacological interventions and dietary compounds.


Asunto(s)
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Depresión/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/fisiopatología , Animales , Relojes Circadianos/fisiología , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Enfermedades Metabólicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiología
18.
J Psychosom Res ; 140: 110292, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227555

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associations of physical activity and TV-viewing reported changes during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine with mental health among Brazilian adults with and without depression. METHODS: Data of 43,995 Brazilian adults from a cross-sectional, nationwide behavior research were used. Participants reported the frequency on loneliness, sadness (feel sad, crestfallen or depressed) and anxiety (feel worried, anxious or nervous) feelings during the pandemic period. Frequency and duration of physical activity as well as duration of TV-viewing before and during the pandemic period were also reported. We created four categories of reported changes in physical activity (1-consistently active, 2-become active, 3-become inactive or 4-consistently inactive) and TV-viewing (1-consistently high, 2-become low, 3-become high or 4-consistently high). Participants also reported previous diagnoses of depression [yes (PD) or no (nPD). Logistic regression models separating people with and without depression were created. RESULTS: Compared to consistently active participants, to become inactive during the pandemic was associated with a higher odds for loneliness [nPD:OR:1.32 (95%CI,1.02-1.70); PD:2.22 (1.21-4.06)], sadness [nPD:1.34 (1.01-1.77); PD:2.88 (1.54-5.36)], and anxiety [nPD:1.71 (1.30-2.25); PD:2.55 (1.20-5.42)]. Also, people with depression and consistently physically inactive presented higher odds for loneliness and sadness. Compared to consistently low TV-viewing, participants that become with high TV-viewing showed higher odds for loneliness [nPD:1.59 (1.37-1.86)], sadness [nPD:1.68 (1.44-1.96); PD:1.61 (1.21 to 2.15)] and anxiety [nPD:1.73 (1.48-2.02); PD:1.58 (1.12-2.23)]. CONCLUSIONS: Reported increases in physical inactivity and TV-viewing during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with poorer mental health indicators. People with depression and consistently physically inactivity were more likely to present loneliness and sadness.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tristeza , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(1): 264-270, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026707

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to advances in technology, home ventilation in children has increased in recent years. The provision of proper care for a home-ventilated (HV) child can have a strong impact on the lifestyle of caregivers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels of the mothers of HV children during the current COVID-19 pandemic and compare them to those of mothers of healthy peers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on HV children (n = 21) and a control group of healthy peers (n = 32) by means of a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the children of both groups. Psychometric scales, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T), were used to assess participants. RESULTS: During the pandemic signs of depression were present in 8 (38.1%) of the case group and 8 (25%) of the healthy control group. Comparison of the BDI scores from before and during the pandemic showed no difference between mothers of the HV children (p = .09). Scores for BDI and STAI-T were higher in the case group than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference in STAI-S scores. CONCLUSION: Depression and anxiety levels of mothers of HV children were found to be higher during the COVID-19 pandemic. Economic, medical, and social support resources are needed to reduce levels of depression and anxiety and help mothers of those children dependent on technology.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Madres/psicología , Respiración Artificial , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Atención Domiciliaria de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Psicometría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia/epidemiología
20.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(1): 3-13, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914668

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with several short- and long-term negative impacts on the well-being of older adults. Physical distancing recommendations to reduce transmission of the SARS-CoV2-19 virus increase the risk of social isolation and loneliness, which are associated with negative outcomes including anxiety, depression, cognitive decline, and mortality. Taken together, social isolation and additional psychological impacts of the pandemic (e.g., worry, grief) underscore the importance of intervention efforts to older adults. This narrative review draws upon a wide range of evidence to provide a comprehensive overview of appropriate remotely-delivered interventions for older adults that target loneliness and psychological symptoms. These include interventions delivered by a range of individuals (i.e., community members to mental health professionals), and interventions that vary by implementation (e.g., self-guided therapy, remotely-delivered interventions via telephone or video call). Recommendations to overcome barriers to implementation and delivery are provided, with consideration given to the different living situations.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Distrés Psicológico , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Telecomunicaciones , Anciano , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/terapia , Instituciones de Vida Asistida , Actitud hacia los Computadores , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/terapia , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Soledad/psicología , Casas de Salud , Privacidad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
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