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1.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(2): 175-195, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319941

RESUMEN

Is there an environmental criminal law? Environmental law is emerging as a new, third-generation, collective, peripheral, predominantly public, fundamental, preventive rather than repressive, global, universal and inalienable right, a right of interrelation, the object of which is essentially natural, changing and interdisciplinary. In turn, environmental criminal law could be defined as “the set of legal norms with criminal content aimed at protecting the environment in which man lives and is in contact”.


Asunto(s)
Derecho Penal , Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 147-158, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144426

RESUMEN

Resumen El presente artículo es resultado de una investigación realizada en la cárcel El Pedregal durante el año 2018. En el texto sostenemos que las situaciones de violencia, pobreza y exclusión social que condicionan el ingreso a prisión de las mujeres condenadas por delitos relacionados con el narcotráfico, no sólo afectan el proceso de reinserción social de las internas, sino que suponen retos significativos para garantizar los fines de la pena cuando se trata de las penas o medidas domiciliarias. Estas dificultades hacen que, en su forma actual, el domicilio, como mecanismo alternativo a la pena intramural, no tenga capacidad para cumplir las funciones que le son asignadas, como son el de facilitar la resocialización, la disminución de la reincidencia y la reducción de los efectos negativos del encarcelamiento. Por ello, sostenemos que es necesario no sólo fortalecer el sistema institucional dirigido a supervisar a las mujeres en dicha condición, sino brindar una atención integral que permita superar las condiciones de marginalidad en que se encuentran las mujeres encerradas en el hogar.


Abstract This article is the result of research performed in the El Pedregal prison during 2018. In this text, we sustain that violence, poverty and social exclusion, which condition the imprisonment of women detained due to crimes related to drug trafficking not only affect the inmates' social reinsertion process, but pose significant challenges to ensuring the purposes of the penalty when they are domestic penalties or measures. These difficulties keep the home, in its current state, as an alternative mechanism to intramural penalties, from having the capacity to perform the functions assigned to it, such as facilitating resocialization, reducing recidivism and decreasing the negative effects of imprisonment. For this reason, we maintain that it is not only necessary to strengthen the institutional system aimed at supervising women in said condition, but to provide comprehensive attention that allows women incarcerated at home to overcome conditions of marginality.


Resumo Este artigo é o resultado de uma pesquisa realizada no presídio El Pedregal em 2018. No texto argumentamos que as situações de violência, pobreza e exclusão social que condicionam a admissão das mulheres condenadas por crimes relacionados ao tráfico de drogas, não só afetam o processo de reinserção social das presidiárias, mas também supõem desafios importantes para garantir os fins da pena quando tratam-se das penas ou medidas domiciliárias. Essas dificuldades fazem com que, na sua forma atual, o domicílio, como mecanismo alternativo da pena intramuro, não tenha capacidade para cumprir as funções que lhe são atribuídas, como facilitar a ressocialização, diminuir a reincidência e reduzir os efeitos negativos do encarceramento. Por isso, defendemos que é necessário não só fortalecer o sistema institucional orientado para a supervisão das mulheres nessa condição, mas também oferecer uma atenção integral que permita superar as condições de marginalização em que se encontram as mulheres encerradas em casa.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Derecho Penal , Prisiones , Mujeres , Tráfico de Drogas
3.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 135-146, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144425

RESUMEN

Resumen El presente trabajo de investigación explora la situación de 57 personas que para el año 2017 se encontraban privadas de la libertad en el patio 2A de la Cárcel Modelo de la ciudad de Bogotá, quienes argumentaban ser integrantes de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC-EP), desempeñándose como comandantes, milicianos, colaboradores, informantes, entre otros. En virtud del acuerdo final para la terminación del conflicto y la construcción de una paz estable y duradera suscrito entre el Gobierno de Colombia y aquel grupo armado al margen de la ley, aspiraban resultar favorecidos con los beneficios allí consagrados y obtener su libertad o el traslado a las zonas veredales lo más pronto posible. Sin embargo, muchos de los encuestados (66,66%) continúan privados de la libertad y algunos no se encuentran registrados como farianos, pudiendo actualizarse el fenómeno de los colados; es decir, personas que sin haber pertenecido a las FARC aluden esta filiación para obtener los beneficios del acuerdo de paz.


Abstract This research explores the situation of 57 people who, in 2017, were imprisoned in patio 2A of La Modelo Prison of the city of Bogotá, who plead to be members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP), working as commanders, militiamen, collaborators, informants and in other positions. In light of the final agreement to end the conflict and build a stable and lasting peace signed between the Government of Colombia and the illegal armed group, many aspired to profit from the benefits stated therein and obtain their freedom or be transferred to rural areas as soon as possible. However, many of those surveyed (66,66%) are still imprisoned and some are not registered as FARC members, making it possible to update the phenomenon of opportunists. That is to say, people who, without having been members of the FARC, indicate their affiliation to obtain the peace agreement's benefits.


Resumo Esta pesquisa explora a situação de 57 pessoas que, até 2017, estavam privadas da sua liberdade no pátio 2A da prisão Modelo, em Bogotá, que afirmavam ser membros das Forças Armadas Revolucionárias da Colômbia (FARC-EP), servindo como comandantes, milicianos, colaboradores, informantes, entre outros. Em virtude do acordo final para o término do conflito e a construção de uma paz estável e duradoura assinado entre o Governo da Colômbia e aquele grupo armado fora da lei, os prisioneiros aspiravam receber os benefícios nele consagrados e obter sua liberdade ou transferência para as áreas do campo o mais rápido possível. No entanto, muitos dos pesquisados (66,66%) continuam privados da sua liberdade e alguns não estão registrados como farianos, atualizando assim o fenómeno dos colados, ou seja, pessoas que, sem ter pertencido às FARC, aludem a essa filiação para obter os benefícios do acordo de paz.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Derecho Penal , Prisiones , Violencia , Conflictos Armados
4.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 119-134, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144424

RESUMEN

Resumen El establecimiento penitenciario Ancón II fue designado como "modelo" para reorientar el tratamiento penitenciario basado en técnicas modernas; por ello, recibió internos por tráfico ilícito de drogas de difícil readaptación que llegaron desde el establecimiento penitenciario del Callao. En el diagnóstico criminológico se observó renuencia a participar en las acciones psicológicas, desinterés por actividades laborales o educativas, e inadecuado arreglo personal. La investigación aplicada tuvo como objetivo proporcionar el tratamiento penitenciario. Usó como metodología la técnica de reforzamiento positivo y modelamiento. La población estuvo conformada por 67 internos, quienes decidieron participar voluntariamente en el proyecto. Los resultados muestran que el 91% de los internos alcanzó un cambio conductual significativo durante y después de participar en el proyecto Programa Integral de Tratamiento para Extranjeros en Reclusión (P.I.T.E.R.). Se concluyó que la aplicación de las técnicas conductuales facilita la participación en el tratamiento penitenciario por parte de internos extranjeros de difícil readaptación por tráfico ilícito de drogas.


Abstract The Ancón II detention facility was designated as the "model" for redirecting penitentiary treatment based on modern techniques: for this reason, it received inmates imprisoned due to illegal drug trafficking with Rehabilitation Difficulties from the Callao detention facility. Reluctance to participate in psychological actions, a lack of interest in work or educational activities and inadequate personal grooming were observed in the criminological diagnosis. The objective of the applied research was to provide penitentiary treatment. It used the positive reinforcement and modeling techniques as its methodology. The population was 67 inmates, who voluntarily decided to participate in the project. The results showed that 91% of inmates achieved a significant behavioral change while and after participating in the Comprehensive Treatment for Imprisoned Foreigners Program (P.I.T.E.R.) project. It was concluded that applying behavioral techniques facilitates the participation of foreign inmates imprisoned due to illegal drug trafficking with rehabilitation difficulties in penitentiary treatment.


Resumo A penitenciária Ancón II foi designada como "modelo" para reorientar o tratamento penitenciário com base em técnicas modernas; por isso, recebeu presos por tráfico ilícito de drogas de difícil readaptação que chegaram da penitenciária de Callao. No diagnóstico criminológico observou-se relutância em participar nas ações psicológicas, desinteresse pelas atividades de trabalho ou educacionais e cuidados pessoais inadequados. A pesquisa aplicada teve como objetivo proporcionar o tratamento penitenciário. Usou como metodologia a técnica de reforço positivo e a técnica de modelagem. A população esteve composta por 67 presidiários que decidiram participar voluntariamente do projeto. Os resultados mostram que 91% dos reclusos conseguiram uma mudança comportamental significativa durante e após a participação no projeto Programa Integral de Tratamento para Estrangeiros em Reclusão (P.I.T.E.R.). Concluiuse que a aplicação de técnicas comportamentais facilita a participação em tratamento penitenciário de presidiários estrangeiros de difícil readaptação pelo tráfico ilícito de drogas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Derecho Penal , Prisiones , Rehabilitación , Tráfico de Drogas
5.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 65-77, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144421

RESUMEN

Resumen Esta investigación se ocupa del análisis del inciso 3 del artículo I de la Ley 1959 de 2019 que modifica el artículo 229 de la Ley 599 de 2000 frente al principio constitucional de derecho penal de acto en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano, siendo este un principio que se proyecta a partir de la Teoría del Garantismo como una garantía de la dignidad humana y el derecho fundamental de la libertad de las personas. Para lograr el objetivo se realizó una investigación eminentemente jurídica, enmarcada en un tipo de estudio correlacional, a través de los métodos del análisis y la síntesis. Se analiza en primer lugar el contenido normativo del principio de derecho penal de acto para determinar el lugar que ocupa dentro del engranaje de las garantías penales en Colombia, después, se identifican los elementos del tipo penal de la violencia intrafamiliar en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano, luego, se estudian las razones legislativas esgrimidas para establecer la reincidencia en el delito de violencia intrafamiliar. Se concluye que el legislador extralimitó sus funciones y configuró una norma inválida en términos garantistas, lo que implica un desbordamiento de los límites del ius puniendi del Estado.


Abstract This study analyzes subsection 3 of article 1 of Law 1959/2019, which amended article 229 of Law 599/2000, regarding the constitutional criminal principle of action in the Colombian legal system. Said principle is based on the Theory of Guarantees, as a guarantee for human dignity and people's fundamental right to freedom. To this end, a solely juridical study was carried out, in the framework of a study of correlations, using the methods of analysis and synthesis. Firstly, the legal content of the criminal law principle of action is reviewed, in order to determine its place in the framework of criminal guarantees in Colombia. Then, the criminal elements of intra-family violence in the Colombian legal system are identified, to subsequently study the arguments made by the legislators to establish recidivism in the crime of intra-family violence. We conclude by arguing that the legislators overreached their functions and designed a law that is invalid in terms of providing guarantees, which implies going beyond the Government's ius puniendi limits.


Resumo Esta investigação trata da análise do parágrafo 3° do artigo 1 ° da Lei 1959 de 2019 que altera o artigo 229 da Lei 599 de 2000, em relação ao princípio constitucional do direito penal do fato no ordenamento jurídico colombiano, sendo este um princípio projetado a partir da Teoria do Garantismo como garantia da dignidade humana e do direito fundamental da liberdade das pessoas. Para atingir o objetivo, foi realizada uma investigação eminentemente jurídica, enquadrada num tipo de estudo correlacional, através dos métodos de análise e síntese. Em primeiro lugar, analisa-se o conteúdo normativo do princípio do direito penal do fato para determinar o lugar que ocupa dentro do mecanismo de garantias penais na Colômbia. A seguir, são identificados os elementos do tipo penal da violência doméstica no ordenamento jurídico colombiano. Depois, são estudadas as razões legislativas apresentadas para estabelecer a reincidência no crime de violência doméstica. Conclui-se que o legislador extrapolou suas funções e configurou uma norma inválida nos termos de garantistas, o que implica em extravasamento dos limites do ius puniendi do Estado.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Violencia Doméstica , Constitución y Estatutos , Derecho Penal , Reincidencia
6.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 183-195, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This article serves as our memorial for the outstanding contribution of Rolf Loeber to developmental criminology. His salient paper on the future of the study of the age-crime curve (2012) is the focal point. AIMS: Follow some research trails that Rolf Loeber proposed in his 2012 paper. METHODS: Recent data on official offending from the Montréal Two Samples Four Generations Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies (MTSFGCLS) are analysed. The data were gathered for two generations of juvenile court males; five birth cohorts born around 1960 and followed from age 8 to 61, and five birth cohorts born around 1980, males and females traced from age 12 to 45. The age-crime curves are presented for the total prevalence. Epidemiological data are displayed for career descriptors: number of years active in offending, frequency, variety, onset, offset and duration. RESULTS: The age-crime curves of the two generations display the habitual shape reported in the literature. The epidemiological data shows that the population sample has a much lower curve in comparison to the court sample; this sort of difference is also observed between females and males. CONCLUSION: The difference between the two generations in the age-crime curves are interpreted in light of three evolutions in Québec from 1960 to 2000: (a) a radical change in the delinquency law, social and criminal justice policies, and treatment for juvenile delinquents; (b) a reduction of the juvenile and adult crime rates; (c) a significant increase in the wellbeing of the population on education, health and welfare services.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/tendencias , Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Derecho Penal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia
7.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 790-806, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880398

RESUMEN

Australia's criminal law was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic from the outset and then progressively as statutory measures and judicial rulings on matters such as bail entitlements, judge-alone trials, sentences and applications for demonstrations and public assemblies were made by courts. This column identifies some of the major decisions made during the period of the lockdown measures between March and July 2020, and reviews significant New South Wales judgments in relation to the lawfulness of mass gatherings during the period of lockdown as expert assessments of risks of community transmission of the virus waxed and waned. It explores the importation into Australia's criminal law of public health principles for the protection of the community, and its compatibility with traditional principles of criminal justice.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Derecho Penal , Derechos Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Australia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur
8.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 458-460, 2020 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880551

RESUMEN

In March 2020, two cases of attempted murder were opened against people who had tested positive for COVID-19 and had not remained in quarantine. Criminal law has previously been used to criminalise intentional transmission of HIV in both South Africa (SA) and other countries. However, it has been found that criminalisation laws undermine public health and measures to control outbreaks by stigmatising those infected and deterring testing. This article explores whether SA's existing HIV criminalisation laws can be applied to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the potential effect such measures could have on efforts to control the COVID-19 epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conducta Criminal , Derecho Penal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
11.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 268-280, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754973

RESUMEN

The United Kingdom (UK) government has commissioned numerous interventions across all stages of the criminal justice pathway for managing offenders likely to have a personality disorder, with the intention to reduce reoffending, improve psychological wellbeing, and develop workforce capabilities. Psychologically Informed Practice (PIP) models underpin these. To evaluate a modified PIP model within the post-imprisonment community stage of the Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) pathway, specifically workforce development, within all London (UK) probation supervised hostels (approved premises), we used both non-equivalent control group and pre-post repeated measure designs to compare changes in staff and offender outcomes before and after introduction of a PIP model across all 12 London approved premises. Findings revealed statistically significant improvements in a number of workforce outcomes (measured using the Personality Disorder - Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory) which were moderated by age and gender. Data did not support associated improvements in resident offender outcomes (progressive moves, rearrests/reoffences, or breaches leading to recalls). The modified PIP is an effective intervention model for improving some workforce outcomes among probation supervised hostel staff, particularly for women, but our findings suggest that intervention development may be required for significant improvements to be observed in resident offending outcomes. In addition, further research is necessary to determine the longer term effects of PIP on absenteeism, employee turnover, quality of resident-staff interactions, and overall culture change among staff working within the post-imprisonment community stage of the OPD pathway.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Adulto , Derecho Penal , Femenino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Reino Unido
14.
Rev. crim ; 62(2): 219-232, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144410

RESUMEN

Resumen Colombia se encuentra en proceso de implementación del servicio educativo del Sistema de Responsabilidad para Adolescentes y en este contexto, el presente artículo describe las características académicas de adolescentes con conducta delictiva, determina las relaciones que se presentan entre los factores académicos y analiza cuáles tienen efecto en el fracaso escolar. Para ello se desarrolló un estudio predictivo transversal en el que participaron 248 adolescentes de Bogotá y Cundinamarca, 85.5% chicos y 14.5% chicas, entre los 14 y 20 años (M=16.72, D.E.= 1.128). Los resultados evidencian altos niveles de fracaso académico y relaciones moderadas entre los factores académicos con el fracaso escolar. Las variables académicas que mejor ayudan a predecir el fracaso escolar fueron el bajo desempeño y los déficits en las oportunidades de participación escolar, las recompensas por participación escolar y las habilidades sociales. Las implicaciones de estos hallazgos son un tema de discusión.


Abstract Colombia is implementing the Adolescent Responsibility System educational service. In this context, this article describes the academic characteristics of adolescents with criminal conducts, determines the relationships between academic factors and analyzes which ones affect academic failure. A predictive, cross-sectional study was developed to do so, in which 248 adolescents from Bogotá and Cundinamarca participated. 85.5% were male and 14.5% were female, between 14 and 20 years of age (A=16.72, S.D.= 1,128). The results show high levels of academic failure and moderate relationships between academic factors and academic failure. The academic variables that best helped predict academic failure were low performance, deficiencies in school participation opportunities, rewards for school participation and social skills. These findings' implications was a topic of discussion.


Resumo A Colômbia está em processo de implementação do serviço educativo do Sistema de Responsabilidade para Adolescentes e, neste contexto, este artigo descreve as características académicas de adolescentes com comportamento delinquente, determina as relações entre os fatores académicos e analisa quais tém efeito no fracasso escolar. Para isso, foi realizado um estudo de previsão transversal no qual participaram 248 adolescentes de Bogotá e Cundinamarca, 85,5% meninos e 14,5% meninas, entre 14 e 20 anos (M = 16,72, DP = 1.128). Os resultados mostram altos níveis de fracasso escolar e relações moderadas entre fatores académicos e fracasso escolar. As variáveis académicas que melhor ajudam a prever o fracasso escolar foram o baixo desempenho e os déficits nas oportunidades de participação na escola, recompensas pela participação na escola e habilidades sociais. As implicações destas constatações são matéria de discussão.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Derecho Penal , Fracaso Escolar , Adolescente , Conducta Criminal
15.
Rev. crim ; 62(2): 247-274, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144412

RESUMEN

Resumen En este artículo se realiza, por una parte, un análisis criminológico de los registros administrativos sobre delitos sexuales en contra de menores de edad en Colombia y, por otra, un ejercicio hermenêutico que tiene por objeto de estudio las formas de criminalización de estos comportamientos, con la finalidad de mostrar cómo la respuesta punitiva del Estado colombiano se corresponde con un derecho penal del enemigo. Así, luego de exponer los retos que persisten en materia de prevención de violencias sexuales y protección a las víctimas menores de edad, se pone en evidencia que el derecho penal en Colombia, en esta materia, se ha construido en torno al concepto de enemigo.


Abstract This article, on one hand, is a criminal analysis of the administrative records on sex crimes against minors in Colombia. On the other hand, it is also a hermeneutical exercise that seeks to study the ways these behaviors are criminalized, in order to show how the Colombian State's punitive response corresponds to criminal law of the enemy. In this way, after presenting the challenges that persist in terms of preventing sexual violence and protecting minors, the fact is demonstrated that criminal law in Colombia on this matter has been developed around the concept of the enemy.


Resumo Este artigo realiza, por um lado, uma análise criminológica dos autos administrativos dos crimes sexuais contra menores na Colômbia e, por outro, um exercício hermenêutico que visa estudar as formas de criminalização dessas condutas. O objetivo ê mostrar como a resposta punitiva do Estado colombiano corresponde a uma lei penal do inimigo. Assim, após expor os desafios que persistem na prevenção da violência sexual e na proteção de crianças vítimas, pode-se evidenciar que o direito penal na Colômbia, nesta matéria, foi construído em torno do conceito de inimigo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Delitos Sexuales , Derecho Penal , Criminología , Menores
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105670, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652332

RESUMEN

In 2011, a more severe drunk driving law was implemented in China, which criminalized driving under the influence of alcohol for the first time and increased penalties for drunk driving. The present study aimed to assess effectiveness of the drunk driving law in China in reducing traffic crashes, injuries, and mortality. Data used in this study was obtained from the Traffic Management Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China. An interrupted time series analysis was conducted to analyze annual data from 2004 to 2017, including the number of road traffic crashes, deaths, and injuries caused by drunk driving in China. The average annual incidences of crashes, mortality, and injuries have decreased after the promulgation of drunk driving law in 2011. In the post-intervention period, the increased slope for crashes, mortality and injury rates were, respectively, -0.140 to -0.006, -0.052 to -0.005 and -0.150 to -0.008, indicating a weaker downward trend of dependent variables. The more stringent drunk driving law is not as effective as expected. Drunk driving is still a severe traffic safety problem to be addressed in China. Both legislation and other prevention programs should be adopted to reduce road traffic injuries caused by drunk driving in China.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Accidentales , Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidentes de Tránsito/tendencias , Conducir bajo la Influencia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/legislación & jurisprudencia , China/epidemiología , Derecho Penal , Humanos , Incidencia , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido
17.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(8): 682-691, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-harm is a leading cause of morbidity in prisoners. Although a wide range of risk factors for self-harm in prisoners has been identified, the strength and consistency of effect sizes is uncertain. We aimed to synthesise evidence and assess the risk factors associated with self-harm inside prison. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) for observational studies on risk factors for self-harm in prisoners published from database inception to Oct 31, 2019, supplemented through correspondence with authors of studies. We included primary studies involving adults sampled from general prison populations who self-harmed in prison and a comparison group without self-harm in prison. We excluded studies with qualitative or ecological designs, those that reported on lifetime measures of self-harm or on selected samples of prisoners, and those with a comparison group that was not appropriate or not based on general prison populations. Data were extracted from the articles and requested from study authors. Our primary outcome was the risk of self-harm for risk factors in prisoners. We pooled effect sizes as odds ratios (OR) using random effects models for each risk factor examined in at least three distinct samples. We assessed study quality on the basis of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and examined between-study heterogeneity. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018087915. FINDINGS: We identified 35 independent studies from 20 countries comprising a total of 663 735 prisoners, of whom 24 978 (3·8%) had self-harmed in prison. Across the 40 risk factors examined, the strongest associations with self-harm in prison were found for suicide-related antecedents, including current or recent suicidal ideation (OR 13·8, 95% CI 8·6-22·1; I2=49%), lifetime history of suicidal ideation (8·9, 6·1-13·0; I2=56%), and previous self-harm (6·6, 5·3-8·3; I2=55%). Any current psychiatric diagnosis was also strongly associated with self-harm (8·1, 7·0-9·4; I2=0%), particularly major depression (9·3, 2·9-29·5; I2=91%) and borderline personality disorder (9·2, 3·7-22·5; I2=81%). Prison-specific environmental risk factors for self-harm included solitary confinement (5·6, 2·7-11·6; I2=98%), disciplinary infractions (3·5, 1·2-9·7; I2=99%), and experiencing sexual or physical victimisation while in prison (3·2, 2·1-4·8; I2=44%). Sociodemographic (OR range 1·5-2·5) and criminological (1·8-2·3) factors were only modestly associated with self-harm in prison. We did not find clear evidence of publication bias. INTERPRETATION: The wide range of risk factors across clinical and custody-related domains underscores the need for a comprehensive, prison-wide approach towards preventing self-harm in prison. This approach should incorporate both population and targeted strategies, with multiagency collaboration between the services for mental health, social care, and criminal justice having a key role. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Prisioneros/psicología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Intento de Suicidio/prevención & control , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Derecho Penal/organización & administración , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Salud Mental/normas , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Autodestructiva/mortalidad , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 172-182, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510787

RESUMEN

Criminal career duration has not been well investigated. There are very few longitudinal data sets that last long enough and enough subjects to investigate criminal career duration, and especially the characteristics and risk profiles of especially life course persistent offenders. The aim of the study was to describe the predictability of criminal career duration based on both official records and self-reports of offending, and to put the results in the context of the Moffitt theory of "adolescent limited" and "life course persistent" offenders. The Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 1517) is a seminal longitudinal study based on a community sample of high-risk boys from the city of Pittsburgh. Data was used from the oldest sample of boys in the PYS (N = 506). The participants were first assessed on average at age 12, and data was used up until age 36 for self-reported offending, and age 40 for police charges. The analyses were conducted on moderate and serious violence and moderate and serious theft. Career duration was based on self-reports and official charges in combination. The results show the extent to which commonly accepted and well validated risk factors predict criminal career duration with a special focus on individuals showing high rate/persistent offending in adolescence. Results show more pathways of delinquent development than have previously been described by Moffitt, (Psychological Review, 1993, 100(4), 674-701). Results also show that there is limited predictability of delinquency and offending over time. In addition, results show that only a small number of risk factors distinguish high and low rate adolescent offenders who become continuous offenders. Examples are peer factors. Implications for policy making and intervention science are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Derecho Penal , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 57-64, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515258

RESUMEN

This is a personal view from London as the Covid-19 pandemic continues to spread here and the situation changes from day to day. As such it can only be a snapshot caught in time; it is not a diary of events. The Coronavirus Act 2020 gives Government enormous powers and was passed by Parliament in one day of debate immediately before it closed early for the Easter break. In March, the government imposed a "lockdown: the closure of all" but "essential" businesses and people other than essential workers must work from home but are allowed out for exercise and food shopping but must maintain 2 m apart, the "social distancing rule". The aim is to suppress the spread of the virus, reduce the death toll and "protect the National Health Service (NHS)" which needed time to empty wards and expand its intensive care unit (ICU) capability to deal with an expected influx of thousands of very sick patients. I discuss whether this strategy is working, how and why it has rapidly been altered to respond to criticism. Why was the Government so slow to seek the help of private laboratories to assist with testing? Why was the personal protective equipment (PPE) guidance altered only after criticism? I look at the impact of the lockdown on the UK economy, the changes to practice of medicine and speeding of scientific research. Cooperating with the lockdown has its price; is it harming the health and mental health of children, people living in households with potentially abusive partners or parents and those who are disabled or financially desperate? Is the cure worse than the disease? The Economy is being devastated by the lockdown and each day of lockdown it is worse. Is litigation being seeded even now by the pandemic? Notwithstanding unprecedented Government financial help many businesses are on the edge of collapse, people will lose their jobs and pensioners income. The winners include pharmacies, supermarkets, online food retailers, Amazon, online apps, providers of video games, services, streaming and scientific research laboratories, manufacturers of testing kits, ventilators, hand sanitisers, coffins, undertakers, etc. The British public is cooperating with lockdown but are we less productive at home? Parents with babies and children often child minders, school, grandparents or paid help which is not now available. Will current reliance on video-conferencing and video calls permanently change the way we work and will we need smaller city offices? Will we travel less? Will medical and legal practice and civil and criminal trials be generally carried out remotely? Will social distancing with self-isolation and job losses and business failures fuel depression? Is Covid-19 comparable to past epidemics like the Plague and Spanish flu?


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Derecho Penal , Depresión/epidemiología , Economía , Predicción , Libertad , Regulación Gubernamental , Vivienda/economía , Humanos , Internet , Londres/epidemiología , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/provisión & distribución , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/provisión & distribución , Pandemias , Pánico , Autonomía Personal , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Administración en Salud Pública , Cuarentena , Instituciones Académicas , Políticas de Control Social , Aislamiento Social , Telemedicina , Viaje , Triaje
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