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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598977

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hundreds of thousands of people have been killed during the Syrian civil war and millions more displaced along with an unconscionable amount of destroyed civilian infrastructure. METHODS: We aggregate attack data from Airwars, Physicians for Human Rights and the Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition/Insecurity Insight to provide a summary of attacks against civilian infrastructure during the years 2012-2018. Specifically, we explore relationships between date of attack, governorate, perpetrator and weapon for 2689 attacks against five civilian infrastructure classes: healthcare, private, public, school and unknown. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) via squared cosine distance, k-means clustering of the MCA row coordinates, binomial lasso classification and Cramer's V coefficients are used to produce and investigate these correlations. RESULTS: Frequencies and proportions of attacks against the civilian infrastructure classes by year, governorate, perpetrator and weapon are presented. MCA results identify variation along the first two dimensions for the variables year, governorate, perpetrator and healthcare infrastructure in four topics of interest: (1) Syrian government attacks against healthcare infrastructure, (2) US-led Coalition offensives in Raqqa in 2017, (3) Russian violence in Aleppo in 2016 and (4) airstrikes on non-healthcare infrastructure. These topics of interest are supported by results of the k-means clustering, binomial lasso classification and Cramer's V coefficients. DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that violence against healthcare infrastructure correlates strongly with specific perpetrators. We hope that the results of this study provide researchers with valuable data and insights that can be used in future analyses to better understand the Syrian conflict.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Violencia , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Siria
2.
Georgian Med News ; (318): 172-176, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628402

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to discuss and present authors' vision of problems of euthanasia legal regulation in legislation with due consideration of human rights and liberties. The study was performed considering a set of disciplines: medicine, jurisprudence, religion, philosophy. A number of international documents were generalized, practice of European Court of Human Rights, Criminal Codes of Ukraine, Georgia and a number of other countries, relating to the question under study, views of scholars on moral and legal aspects, juridical and philosophical comprehension of this agenda. The following scientific methods were applied: systemic legal method, comparative legal method, philosophical legal method, logical method, as well as analysis and synthesis method. The authors developed proposals in solution of problems connected with this subject matter. Legalization of euthanasia is found to be possible by allowing its application to be reflected in Article 52, Law of Ukraine "Fundamentals of Ukrainian Legislation on Public Health". We determined that execution of euthanasia belongs to rights of physician, not his/her duties. In this we noted that this novelty will rule out any possibility of subsequent introduction of a special norm to Ukrainian Criminal Code stipulating criminal responsibility of physician for execution of euthanasia and, as a subsequence, will preclude any pre-trial and trial judicature (Articles 214, 215, Code of Criminal Procedure of Ukraine).


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Médicos , Georgia (República) , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Principios Morales
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6658070, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485525

RESUMEN

In light of the devastation caused by COVID-19, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and vaccine research and development (R&D) have been occupying a prominent position in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). Most countries, international organizations, and charitable organizations have been engaged in the R&D of COVID-19 vaccines to ensure timely affordability and accessibility to all countries. Concomitantly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides some provisions and enforcements regarding copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications, and industrial designs. Given these safeguards, it is considered that intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become major barriers to the affordability and accessibility of vaccines/medicines/technology, particularly to the developing/least developed countries. Realizing the gravity of the pandemic impact, as well as its huge population and size, India has elevated this issue in its global health diplomacy by submitting a joint proposal with South Africa to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for a temporary waiver of IPRs to ensure timely affordability and accessibility of COVID-19 medical products to all countries. However, the issue of the temporary waive off had become a geopolitical issue. Countries that used to claim per se as strong advocates of human rights, egalitarianism, and healthy democracy have opposed this proposal. In this contrasting milieu, this paper is aimed at examining how the TRIPS has become a barrier for developing countries' development and distribution of vaccines/technology; secondly, how India strategizes its role in the WTO in pursuant of its global health diplomacy? We conclude that the IPRs regime should not become a barrier to the accessibility/affordability of essential drugs and vaccines. To ensure access, India needs to get more engaged in GHD with all the involved global stakeholders to get strong support for their joint proposal. The developed countries that rejected/resisted the proposal can rethink their full support.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , Diplomacia/métodos , Industria Farmacéutica/métodos , Salud Global , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Derechos Humanos/métodos , Humanos , India , Salud Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología
5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00235120, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468563

RESUMEN

This study aimed to understand the forms of professional work and proposed actions to achieve the human right to adequate food (HRAF) in the context of primary healthcare (PHC). Using a qualitative approach, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews (from May 2013 to July 2014) with healthcare workers that conducted educational groups on food and nutrition in PHC in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Content analysis was performed to identify the proposed actions on food, with HRAF as the theoretical basis. We identified three categories of professional work based on the proposed actions for food and nutrition. The first approaches food as a biomedical dimension. The second focuses on access and availability of foods in the territory. The third approaches users' local food reality, centered on the team's work. The proposed actions feature those conducted by individuals with obligations towards HRAF (healthcare workers in PHC) and those performed by rights-holder (users of PHC in the Brazilian Unified National Health System). Food in contexts of poverty is treated as a problem with no solution. This study allowed approximations between "what to do" and "how to act" based on ways of grasping food through the definitions, professional work, and proposed actions to achieve HRAF in PHC. It also allowed elucidating the need to understand food as a human right and strengthening the responsibility of healthcare workers in PHC as duty-bearers towards HRAF in the context of social policies.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Brasil , Programas de Gobierno , Personal de Salud , Humanos
7.
Wiad Lek ; 74(8): 1894-1899, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537739

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyse human right issues in health care during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic from the perspective of patients' and medical practitioner's rights. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Multidisciplinary research will be conducted as part of national as well as international health care policy documents, international human right instruments, including case law decisions, and also major scientific articles on human rights from the healthcare perspective will be analysed. The comparative, Research synthesis method and systemic analyses will be made during the research. RESULTS: Results: The study confirmed that human right issues in the context of health care in case of Patient triage become relevant and transformed. The situation of COVID-19 has created new precedents for human rights, with a particular impact on the rights of doctors and patients. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Human rights from the healthcare perspective become the topical issue during the COVID 19 pandemic. The legal practice in human rights had several transformations and it provides new challenges from patients as well as medical practitioners' rights. Important problem, from the ethical -legal perspective is the Patient's triage. The situation on patients triage or ranking shows importance and possibility of each member state to act fast, taking into consideration fast changing situation in medical health system. Sorting patients whose lives are at risk according to certain criteria for assessing their lives is not acceptable. In order to reduce events of violations of human rights during COVID 19 in healthcare, the emphasis should be placed for explanation of decisions made in state level.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Atención a la Salud , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Triaje
8.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 32(2): 59-67, 2021 06 18.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553856

RESUMEN

Epigenetics is the study of changes in the activity of genes induced by the environment and not involving modification of the DNA sequence. From the point of view of the human sciences, it invites, by its specific characteristics, to reflect on a variety of questions relating to public policies in a logic of “sustainable health” but also of “sustainable respect” of fundamental rights. But while public policies have a direct impact on fundamental freedoms, other factors also play a decisive role in this regard, accentuating the specificity of genetic data.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Política Pública , Libertad , Humanos
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3753-3764, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468669

RESUMEN

This work, extracted from the doctoral research of the author, aims to discuss, from the reports of socio-educational system professionals, the access to State politics and programs performed by youth in conflict with the law attending to socio-educational system. In this research, 14 professionals who work in periphery regions, at the South Zone of São Paulo were interviewed, using the methodological proposal of "narrative policies". From the reports, we can see ambiguities of proposals and state interventions, configuring the "double discipline" of State, evidencing the insufficiency and the disinvestment in social security and social assistance policies, meanwhile occurs the production of an apparatus of repressive measures. We discuss the theme related to the field of public health and the importance of the bonds between professionals and youth attending to socio-educational system.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Humanos , Política , Política Pública
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 667251, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409005

RESUMEN

Heightened conflicts and lack of safety due to reasons related to economic, social, ethnic, religious, sexual orientation, political, or nationality matters have increased migratory movements during the last, few decades. Unfortunately, when migrants arrive in new territories, they can face many barriers. For example, in Spain, some migrants have difficulties in accessing health services. The main objective of this study was to describe, from the perspective of social and healthcare professionals, health needs and barriers faced among migrants who recently arrived in Spain when accessing the health system. To accomplish this aim, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study using a newly created self-administered questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS 23.00® program. Survey collection was from April 2018 to October 2018, and the cohort comprised a total of 228 professionals. Most participants were females (76%), with an average age of 35 years [interquartile range (IQR) 29.8-43.0]. The most represented profession in the cohort was physician (48%), followed by social care professionals (32%), nursing (11%), and other (8%). Of these individuals, 61% stated having either little or limited knowledge of international migrant health rights, and 94% believed migrants must overcome barriers to receive health services. The four most reported barriers were as follows: language, cultural differences, administrative issues, and fear of being undocumented. Additionally, by order of importance, professionals viewed mental health disorders and infectious diseases as the most common contributors to disease burden in this group. The four most popular strategies implemented by professionals to improve healthcare access further for migrants included intercultural competency training for professionals; access to community health agents; access to translators; and development of health system navigation skills among those newly arrived. Study results suggest that governments should make greater efforts to provide social and healthcare professionals with more effective tools that overcome communication barriers and cultural competence training modules.


Asunto(s)
Migrantes , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , España
11.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 29(10): 1027-1032, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389221

RESUMEN

This article explores the nature and extent of barriers to access to justice that older persons experience, including those with mental health conditions. It finds that access to justice-the right to fair, prompt and responsive decisions by administrative decision-makers and equal access to courts and tribunals to obtain timely and effective remedies-is not only an important right in itself but also enables the enjoyment of many other human rights. Yet older persons, particularly those with mental health conditions, face a significant "justice gap." Ageist attitudes, laws and practices interact with other forms of bias such as mentalism, sexism, ableism, racism, homophobia, and heterosexism exacerbating older persons' disadvantage and marginalization, particularly those with mental health conditions, and older indigenous persons. These discriminatory practices, together with the phenomena of elder abuse, all severely limit older persons' access to timely and responsive justice. International and national standards, both general and specific to older persons, have been shown to be inadequate to respond to this justice gap. An international standard in the form of a binding legal obligation that specifically addresses older persons' rights of access to justice is needed urgently as part of a new international treaty on the human rights of older persons.


Asunto(s)
Ageísmo , Trastornos Mentales , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Salud Mental , Justicia Social
13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(10): 865-868, 2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449188
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(7): 910-12, 2021 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343114

RESUMEN

Confirmed new cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have accelerated in Sub-Saharan Africa against a backdrop of fragile health systems, a high burden of comorbidities and socioeconomic instability. The context makes the region particularly vulnerable to the virus and its impact. As cases escalate, the need to tailor-make COVID-19-related response strategies to the African context is imperative. This paper aims to discuss key considerations on the public health response to the pandemic and its intersection with ethics and human rights. With this perspective, we bring attention to the conflict between healthcare workers' obligations and patient rights under the unclear policy and regulatory frameworks and the application of restrictive measures in the context of poverty. The indirect effects of the pandemic on already existing health problems are also highlighted. We appeal to the African States to establish appropriate systems which integrate human rights-based approaches to COVID-19 response. These systems should be ethically sound systems and ensure no-one is left behind in terms of testing, access to therapeutics and vaccination, and social protection; based on lessons learned over the past 12 months of the pandemic's presence in SSA, and patterns emerging across the globe.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Derechos Humanos/ética , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Pública , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Pobreza
16.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 135-140, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365440

RESUMEN

The article focuses on the fact that 2020 has become a new point in the history of mankind, irrevocably changing the ways of life accepted in society and forcing the entire population of the earth to live in a new way. If a person's health is threatened and / or worried about the thought of a terminal illness, it is difficult to focus on something else. Over the past year, many have experienced this reality for the first time. Effective January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization has declared the coronavirus outbreak a health emergency, causing international concern. The fact that some countries (New Zealand, Australia and South Korea) quickly contained the spread of the virus, but faced new, imported cases, leads to the conclusion that the victory over COVID-19 is possible only worldwide. And if in 2020 masks and social distancing were the methods of fighting the virus, then the main method of 2021 will be the vaccination of the inhabitants of the earth. However, here, too, the key factor is the scale of vaccination, which is one of the main factors in the effectiveness of the fight against any large-scale disease. Here, every person faces a moral and legal question: participation in vaccination is the right of every person as a bearer of human dignity, which implies the impossibility of taking any action on a person without his consent, or the duty of a member of society, which implies the need for vaccination as the question of the survival of the human race as a whole. The article draws attention to the refusal to vaccinate against measles in Ukraine and the consequences of such a choice. The reason for the lack of measles vaccination at the required epidemiological level in Ukraine is not the lack of the necessary vaccines, but the conscious choice of a negative model of behavior by the citizens of the country. The refusal to vaccinate children may be due to a psychological factor caused by the death of a student who was vaccinated against measles on the eve of death. At the same time, the media thirteen years after the event, conducting numerous medical examinations, provides fundamentally contradictory information about the causal relationship between the vaccination of a student against measles and his death. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection and severe outcomes caused by viruses. Despite this vaccination coverage against viral infections, seasonal influenza in many countries around the world remains low. Even if a vaccine is available to the citizens of a particular country, but educational programs are not carried out on the need and importance of vaccination, the potential for increasing vaccination rates against viruses will continually diminish. The most common explanation for the current upsurge in vaccine uncertainty is that the Internet enables vaccine deniers to reach out to a wide audience by publicizing their beliefs. Some activists only criticize some vaccines. Such a selective stance may indicate a communication strategy used to promote a particular vaccine. Attention should also be paid to the refusal to vaccinate due to the lack of acceptance by the human mind of traditional medicine, not belief in its effectiveness, the use of alternative, alternative medicine in the treatment of diseases. The reasons for not trusting the vaccination process are highlighted. These include: lack of trust in vaccine manufacturers who are economically motivated to make a profit; not trusting medical institutions that provide vaccinations and the conditions in which vaccines are stored; lack of confidence in government agencies involved in the procurement of vaccines, the possibility of corruption in case of abuse of their powers; fear of disease and side effects due to vaccination; distortion by the media of objective data on vaccination.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Niño , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
18.
Br J Nurs ; 30(15): 934-935, 2021 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379469

RESUMEN

Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, continues his series on the articles of the European Convention on Human Rights and considers Article 8 in the context of assisted dying.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Suicidio Asistido , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Suicidio Asistido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reino Unido
19.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 32(1): 113-134, 2021 May 24.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378882

RESUMEN

As gestational surrogacy was forbidden in France in July 2015, the French supreme court decided to depart from previous case-law on the matter after the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled against France in four separate cases. Now, (as in the April 2017 communication1), the French Cour de Cassation has ruled that in the case of gestational surrogacy carried out abroad, the birth certificate of a child born by way of such method may be added to the French civil register along with the father’s name and without the mother’s name as she did not deliver birth.The article provides an analysis of this change in case-law. First part will examine the evolution of gestational surrogacy-related case-law and the measures taken by the French legislator on the matter. Second part will focus on the Cour de cassation’s turnaround in case-law that followed the ECHR ruling against France on the issue of the approval by domestic law of the legal relationship established between a French biological father and a child born abroad as a result of surrogacy treatment.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Madres Sustitutas , Niño , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Embarazo
20.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 32(1): 15-60, 2021 May 24.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378884

RESUMEN

The article aims to show the trends that have occurred in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. We establish three lines of interest (human dignity; right to health and adequate medical practices; clinical bioethics and right to life), as well as a fourth line of jurisprudence with the Poblete Vílches vs.Chile Case. We are facing jurisprudence that develops a new concern of the Court for these issues.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Respeto , Estados Unidos , Valor de la Vida
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