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1.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 41-55, 2021 02.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728877

RESUMEN

This contribution analyses the way in which the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights handle the concept of Human Dignity in cases that present bioethical stakes. As they do not comprehend it in the same way – ‘Dignity-Freedom’ on the one hand, ‘Dignity-Equality’ on the other – it implies differences of solutions in areas such as the definition of the human person, the right to personal autonomy, the right to health or even the right to a healthy environment. This comparative analysis also allows us to grasp better the limits that a too liberal reading of human rights can represent and to propose some means of improvement. That would involve a review of the equal dignity of human beings by the European Court, thanks to different tools that can be put into action without the Court’s being forced to reconsider the theoretical basis on which its whole system is founded.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bioética , Libertad , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Respeto , Humanos , Autonomía Personal , Estados Unidos
3.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 21, 2021 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596901

RESUMEN

Since the start of the opioid epidemic in 2016, the Downtown Eastside community of Vancouver, Canada, has lost many pioneering leaders, activists and visionaries to the war on drugs. The Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU), the Western Aboriginal Harm Reduction Society (WAHRS), and the British Columbia Association People on Opiate Maintenance (BCAPOM) are truly concerned about the increasing overdose deaths that have continued since 2016 and have been exacerbated by the novel coronavirus (SARS-COVID-19) despite many unique and timely harm reduction announcements by the British Columbia (B.C.) government. Some of these unique interventions in B.C., although in many cases only mere announcements with limited scope, are based on the philosophy of safe supply to illegal street drugs. Despite all the efforts during the pandemic, overdose deaths have spiked by over 100% compared to the previous year. Therefore, we urge the Canadian federal government, specifically the Honorable Patty Hajdu, the federal Minister of Health, to decriminalize simple possession immediately by granting exemption under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. The Canadian federal government has a moral obligation under Sect. 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to protect the basic human rights of marginalized Canadians.


Asunto(s)
Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reducción del Daño , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , /mortalidad , Analgésicos Opioides , Colombia Británica/epidemiología , Canadá , Sobredosis de Droga/mortalidad , Gobierno Federal , Libertad , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Epidemia de Opioides/mortalidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides
7.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 167-182, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910670

RESUMEN

In this paper present, from a bioethical perspective, a reflection on how to reconcile efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic with the safeguard of human rights. To do this, I develop three points. First, the regulatory framework that justifies the restriction or suspension of rights in the face of serious threats to public health. Second, the declarations of the international bioethics committees on the way in which human rights should be protected during public health crisis. And third, a review of the main rights threatened both by the public health crisis and by the means adopted to combat it. Before going into each of these points, I offer a preliminary note to clarify certain legal concepts and underline the need to overcome disjunctive approaches in considering human rights.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/ética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Pública/ética , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Comités de Ética , Unión Europea , Libertad , Recursos en Salud/ética , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/ética , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos del Paciente/ética , Derechos del Paciente/legislación & jurisprudencia , Autonomía Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/ética , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sujetos de Investigación , Asignación de Recursos/ética , España , UNESCO
8.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 183-202, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910671

RESUMEN

The article deals with the analysis of the criteria for the allocation of scarce health resources during the pandemic produced by the COVID 19 virus in Spain. It critically analyses the absence of a legal-constitutional perspective in the elaboration of such criteria and suggests the incorporation of the criterion of equity as a guarantee of the effective exercise of the constitutional right to health protection by vulnerable persons.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Recursos en Salud/ética , Pandemias/ética , Asignación de Recursos/ética , Constitución y Estatutos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Teoría Ética , Agencias Gubernamentales , Prioridades en Salud , Recursos en Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/ética , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , Pandemias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Publicaciones , Asignación de Recursos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Rol , Justicia Social , Sociedades Médicas , España/epidemiología , Triaje/ética , Poblaciones Vulnerables
9.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 456-457, 2020 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880550

RESUMEN

In the midst of an unprecedented public health crisis, extraordinary containment measures must be implemented. These include both isolation and quarantine, either on a voluntary basis or enforced. In the transition from voluntary to mandatory isolation, conflicts arise at the intersection of ethics, human rights and the law. The Siracusa Principles adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1985 and enshrined in international human rights legislation and guidelines specify conditions under which civil liberties may be infringed. In order for isolation processes in South Africa to claim legitimacy, it is important that these principles as well as national laws and constitutional rights are embedded in state action.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aislamiento de Pacientes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ética Médica , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
11.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101593, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768103

RESUMEN

A state's real commitment to its international human rights obligations is never more challenged than when it faces emergency situations. Addressing actual and potential resourcing pressures arising from the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in, amongst other things, modifications to Scottish mental health and capacity law and the issuing of new guidance relating to associated practice. Whether these emergency or ordinary measures are invoked during the crisis there are potential implications for the rights of persons with mental illness, learning disability and dementia notably those relating to individual autonomy and dignity. This article will consider areas of particular concern but how strict adherence to the legal, ethical and human rights framework in Scotland will help to reduce the risk of adverse consequences.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Competencia Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Escocia/epidemiología
12.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101602, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768125

RESUMEN

This article examines the changes made to mental health and capacity laws in Northern Ireland through temporary emergency legislation, known as the Coronavirus Act 2020. The purpose of the legislation was to respond to the emergency situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular the increase pressure placed on health services in the United Kingdom. An overview is provided of the government's rationale for the changes to Northern Ireland mental health and capacity laws, as well as exploring how they are likely to be operationalised in practice. Consideration is also given as to how such changes may impact upon existing human rights protections for persons assessed as lacking mental capacity. It is argued that it is important that regular parliamentary oversight is maintained in relation to the potential impact and consequences of such changes during the period they are in force. This should be done in order to assess whether they remain a necessary, proportionate and least restrictive response to the challenges faced in managing mental health and capacity issues in Northern Ireland during this public health emergency.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Internamiento Obligatorio del Enfermo Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Competencia Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Pandemias , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia
13.
Cuad. bioét ; 31(102): 167-182, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-194276

RESUMEN

En este trabajo presento una reflexión sobre el modo de conciliar los esfuerzos por combatir la pandemia de la COVID-19 con la salvaguarda de los derechos humanos, desde una perspectiva bioética. Para ello desarrollo tres puntos: el marco normativo que justifica la restricción o suspensión de derechos ante amena-zas graves para la salud pública; las declaraciones de los comités internacionales de bioética sobre el modo en que se deben proteger los derechos humanos durante la crisis de salud pública que vivimos; y un repaso de los principales derechos amenazados tanto por la crisis de salud pública como por los medios adoptados para combatirla. Antes de entrar en cada uno de esos puntos, ofrezco una nota preliminar para esclarecer determinados conceptos jurídicos y subrayar la necesidad de superar los planteamientos disyuntivos en la consideración de los derechos humanos


In this paper present, from a bioethical perspective, a reflection on how to reconcile efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic with the safeguard of human rights. To do this, I develop three points. First, the regulatory framework that justifies the restriction or suspension of rights in the face of serious threats to public health. Second, the declarations of the international bioethics committees on the way in which human rights should be protected during public health crisis. And third, a review of the main rights threatened both by the public health crisis and by the means adopted to combat it. Before going into each of these points, I offer a preliminary note to clarify certain legal concepts and underline the need to overcome disjunctive approaches in considering human rights


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Bioética/tendencias , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/ética , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Políticas Públicas de Salud
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236281, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687522

RESUMEN

Access to water for rural populations is vital not only for personal consumption and hygiene but also for food production, income generation and cultural practices. To deepening the understanding of this issue, this research addressed the access to water in a settlement of the Landless Workers Movement. The perspective of the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation was used as a theoretical framework, assessing how inadequate access to water impacts the quality of rural populations. A qualitative research was used, through participant observation and individual interviews with 12 rural workers, living at the Ulisses Oliveira settlement. The findings reflect that water is not sufficiently available to meet the community's social, economic and cultural needs and that such conditions can lead to a loss of identity. Therefore, access to water must be understood in the light of its political, social and cultural dimensions and the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation can be used as an instrument to public policies.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Calidad de Vida , Población Rural , Saneamiento/legislación & jurisprudencia , Abastecimiento de Agua/legislación & jurisprudencia , Brasil , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Discriminación Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Discriminación Social/prevención & control
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 100-101, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657677

RESUMEN

The South African Constitution provides that children have the right to healthcare, as well as all other rights. Furthermore, in all matters affecting them, their best interests must be 'of paramount importance'. It seems common practice that, when parents refuse blood transfusions for their children solely on religious grounds, doctors and health authorities apply for a court order to overturn such refusals. However, since the implementation of the Children's Act of 2005, it may be that the onus is no longer on doctors and authorities to apply to court to reverse the decision of parents and guardians. It can be argued instead that the burden has shifted to the parents to apply to court for an order to overrule the decision of doctors, by proving to the court that alternative choices are available. Guidance is given for situations, particularly in the public sector, where alternative choices are not available.


Asunto(s)
Transfusión Sanguínea/legislación & jurisprudencia , Padres , Religión y Medicina , Negativa del Paciente al Tratamiento/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Rol Judicial , Sudáfrica
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235894, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697775

RESUMEN

States often seek to regulate the use of police force though citizen complaint systems. This paper examines these systems, specifically, whether patterns of bias found in other juridical contexts are mirrored in the adjudication of police assault. The analysis focuses on prosecutors as the first instance of adjudication who determine whether to move forward with investigation, effectively deciding the majority of cases. We ask whether prosecutor sex is associated with the probability that a police assault claim will be investigated. We leverage a natural experiment in Sweden where prosecutors are assigned through a modified lottery system, effectively randomizing appointment. Our findings suggest that prosecutor gender plays a role in judicial outcomes: women prosecutors are 16 percentage points more likely to investigate claims of police assault than their male counterparts. These findings have implications for scholars interested in state human rights abuses, democratic institutions, and judicial inequality.


Asunto(s)
Rol Judicial , Policia/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Suecia , Violencia/legislación & jurisprudencia
19.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(2): 75-80, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193994

RESUMEN

En los últimos años la genética ha adquirido una gran importancia en los procesos de identificación masiva de víctimas y constituye, en muchos casos, la única herramienta útil. Algunas instituciones externalizan estos análisis en laboratorios especializados. Es el caso de la Unidad de Derechos Humanos del Servicio Médico Legal (SML) de Chile, creada con el objetivo de identificar y restituir a las familias los restos de las víctimas de la dictadura cívico-militar instaurada en el país entre 1973 y 1990, que provocó más de 1.300 desaparecidos y muertos sin entrega. La externalización de los análisis impone la necesidad de establecer una rigurosa sistemática de revisión y control de calidad de los análisis realizados por el laboratorio externo, lo que incluye asegurar la trazabilidad de las muestras y los análisis, además de reproducir tanto la comparación de los perfiles genéticos como su valoración estadística. En este trabajo se presenta la experiencia del SML en esta materia y se establecen una serie de recomendaciones que pueden ser utilizadas como guía por otras instituciones que decidan externalizar los análisis genéticos en procesos de identificación masiva de víctimas


In recent years, genetics has acquired great importance in the processes of mass victim identification and, in many cases, is the only useful tool. Some institutions outsource these analyses to specialized laboratories. This is the case of the Human Rights Unit of the Legal Medical Service (SML) of Chile, created with the objective of identifying and restoring to families the remains of the victims of the civic-military dictatorship established in the country between 1973 and 1990, which caused more than 1,300 missing and dead without delivery. The outsourcing of the analyses imposes the need to establish a rigorous systematic review and quality control of the analyses performed by the external laboratory, which includes ensuring traceability of the samples and analyses, in addition to reproducing the comparison of the genetic profiles and their statistical assessment. This paper presents the experience of the SML in this area and establishes a series of recommendations that can be used as a guide by other institutions that decide to outsource genetic analysis in processes of mass identification of victims


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Pruebas Genéticas/métodos , Bases de Datos de Ácidos Nucleicos/organización & administración , Identificación de Víctimas , Genética Forense/métodos , Gestión de la Calidad Total/métodos , Chile/epidemiología , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Antropología Forense/métodos , Control de Calidad , Estándares de Referencia
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