Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.874
Filtrar
3.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(1): 1686201, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892281

RESUMEN

Fetal "heartbeat" bills have become the anti-abortion legislative measure of choice in the US war on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). In 2019, Georgia House Bill 481 (HB 481) passed by a narrow margin banning abortions upon detection of embryonic cardiac activity, as early as six weeks gestation. The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterise the arguments and tactics used by legislators and community members in support of Georgia's early abortion ban. Our data included testimony and debate from House Health and Human Services and the Senate Science and Technology Committees; data were transcribed verbatim and coded in MAXQDA 18 using a constant comparison method. Major themes included: the use of the "heartbeat" as an indicator of life and therefore personhood; an attempt to create a new class of persons - fetuses in utero - entitled to legal protection; and arguments to expand state protections for fetuses as a matter of state sovereignty and rights. Arguments were furthered through appropriation by misrepresenting medical science and co-opting the legal successes of progressive movements. Our analysis provides an initial understanding of evolving early abortion ban strategy and its tactics for challenging established legal standards and precedent. As the battle over SRHR wages on, opponents of abortion bans should attempt to understand, deconstruct, and analyse anti-abortion messaging to effectively combat it. These data may inform their tactical strategies to advance sexual and reproductive health, rights, and justice both in the US context and beyond.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comienzo de la Vida Humana , Regulación Gubernamental , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Personeidad , Femenino , Viabilidad Fetal , Georgia , Humanos , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395317

RESUMEN

In May 2018, the Irish electorate voted to remove from the Constitution one of the most restrictive abortion bans in the world. This referendum followed 35 years of legal cases, human rights advocacy, feminist activism and governmental and parliamentary processes. The reframing of abortion as an issue of women's health rather than foetal rights was crucial to the success of law reform efforts. The new law, enacted in 2018, provides for access to abortion on a woman's request up to 12 weeks of pregnancy and in situations of risk to the life or of serious harm to the health of the pregnant woman and fatal foetal anomaly thereafter. Abortion is now broadly accessible in Ireland; however, continued advocacy is needed to ensure that the state meets international human rights standards and that access to abortion care and abortion rights is fully secured within the law.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Aborto Legal , Femenino , Humanos , Irlanda , Política , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Salud Reproductiva
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300212

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization (WHO) Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems states that regulatory, policy, and programmatic barriers that hinder access to and timely provision of safe abortion care should be removed. Although some regulatory requirements facilitate access, where they act as barriers, they can deter women from seeking safe abortion care. We use data available in the Global Abortion Policies Database as of February 2019 to review policies related to regulatory requirements identified as access barriers in the Safe abortion guidance. We include only countries where such policies apply, i.e., where abortion is lawful on the woman's request, with no requirement for justification and/or for one or more legal grounds. The results demonstrate the variation that exists in regulatory requirements, but little remains known about how they are implemented in practice and the implications on how women access and how providers offer safe abortion services.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Aborto Legal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política de Salud , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/normas , Salud de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Salud Global , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Embarazo , Organización Mundial de la Salud
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230835

RESUMEN

This chapter reviews the evolving consensus in international human rights law, first supporting the liberalization of criminal abortion laws to improve access to care and now supporting their repeal or decriminalization as a human rights imperative to protect the health, equality, and dignity of people. This consensus is based on human rights standards or the authoritative interpretations of U.N. and regional human rights treaties in general comments and recommendations, individual communications and inquiry reports of treaty monitoring bodies, and in the thematic reports of special rapporteurs and working groups of the U.N. and regional human rights systems. This chapter explores the reach and influence of human rights standards, especially how high courts in many countries reference these standards to hold governments accountable for the reform and repeal of criminal abortion laws.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Aborto Legal , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres/legislación & jurisprudencia
9.
Clin Ter ; 170(1): e36-e43, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850482

RESUMEN

The author has delved into the most significant Italian and European court rulings related to heterologous fertilization and surrogate motherhood between 2012 and 2019, with a close focus on same-sex couples seeking to have their donor-conceived children born abroad legally registered in their country of origin. Undeniably, surrogacy has brought about a crisis in the traditional family model, made up of a mother and a father. The paper draws upon European Court of Human Rights established jurisprudence that upholds the children's best interests. Italian Court rulings are expounded upon as well, which have been instrumental in establishing the principles by which parental figures do not necessarily coincide with those who have generated the children (through biological bonds or delivery), but rather with those who wish to be recognized as parents. The cases herein examined involve homosexual couples who decided to travel abroad in order to gain access to surrogacy, from which children were born. In the case regarding two fathers, the child had no genetic tie with either one intended parent. The Italian Supreme Court's joint sessions have ruled that such children cannot be legally registered in Italy, since their foreign-issued birth certificates indicate no genetic connection between the children and their intended parents. The Author believes that the Supreme Court decision is valuable, but further legislative interventions will be necessary on account of scientific advancements; the issue of surrogacy is utterly complex and multi-faceted.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Civiles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Padre/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fertilización In Vitro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Global/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Matrimonio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Madres Sustitutas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Italia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino
10.
Recurso Educacional Abierto en Español | CVSP - Argentina | ID: oer-3880

RESUMEN

1º Jornada «Derecho a la Salud», organizada por el CVSP Nodo Argentina, la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba y la Escuela de Salud Pública y Ambiente de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas–UNC. La misma se llevó a cabo el día 4 de diciembre del corriente año en el Salón Rojo de la Secretaría de Graduados en Ciencias de la Salud FCM-UNC. La jornada contó con la presencia de Profesionales de la Salud, Profesionales del Derecho, alumnos de postgrado de las Carreras de Ciencias Médicas, Derecho y Ciencias Sociales y público en general. Conferencia dictada por el Dr. José María Palacio. Abogado- Doctor en Ciencias de la Salud. Miembro de la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba.


Asunto(s)
Ética , Bioética/tendencias , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Regulación y Fiscalización en Salud
14.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 43-54, nov. 2019.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184865

RESUMEN

En este trabajo se plantean algunas reflexiones respecto de la edición genética y su impacto en la responsabilidad. Me centraré en la investigación y en las prácticas que se realizan en línea germinal, ya que son las que más preocupan a nuestra sociedad. Aunque estas tecnologías no generan problemas realmente novedosos, cuestionan el alcance de nuestra noción tradicional de responsabilidad y nos plantean nuevos desafíos respecto de cómo afrontarlas. Podemos pensar la responsabilidad de manera individual, en tanto progenitores, a la hora de decidir respecto de nuestra descendencia. Pero también se puede plantear una responsabilidad colectiva: por ejemplo, en tanto científicos a la hora de regular la ciencia, o en tanto sociedad. En este último sentido pareciera que deberíamos considerar cómo estas tecnologías puedan afectar el sistema público de acceso al cuidado de la salud así como también tener en cuenta si determinados grupos de pacientes corren el riesgo de ser postergados sin olvidar cuál pueda ser el impacto en las futuras generaciones


In this article I would like to examine gene editing and its impact on responsibility. I will focus on germ line’ research and practice. Though these technologies do not raise novel issues, they make us re-think the scope of traditional responsibility. I will examine responsibility from an individual perspective: for example our role as parents and the impact of our decisions on our descendants. I will also examine responsibility from a collective perspective: scientists should examine how to regulate these technologies. In addition, as a society we should address how these technologies may affect public access to health care, or if groups of patients might be overlooked. We should also think the impact gene editing may have on future generations


En aquest treball es plantegen algunes reflexions respecte de l'edició genètica i el seu impacte en la responsabilitat. Em centraré en la recerca i en les pràctiques que es realitzen en la línia germinal, ja que són les que més preocupen la nostra societat. Encara que aquestes tecnologies no generen problemes realment nous, qüestionen l'abast de la nostra noció tradicional de responsabilitat i ens plantegen nous desafiaments respecte de com afrontar-les. Podem pensar la responsabilitat de manera individual, en tant progenitors, a l'hora de decidir respecte de la nostra descendència. Però també es pot plantejar una responsabilitat col·lectiva: per exemple, en tant que científics a l'hora de regular la ciència, o en tant que societat. En aquest últim sentit hauríem de considerar com aquestes tecnologies poden afectar el sistema públic d'accés a la salut així com també tenir en compte si determinats grups de pacients corren el risc de ser postergats sense oblidar quin pugui ser l'impacte en les futures generacions


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Edición Génica/ética , Responsabilidad Social , Células Germinativas , Sistemas de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sistemas de Salud/organización & administración , Tecnología/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia
15.
Anthropol Med ; 26(3): 280-295, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550907

RESUMEN

As immigration and health policy continue to be contentious topics globally, anthropologists must examine how policy creates notions of health-related deservingness, which may have broad consequences. This paper explores hidden relationships between immigration enforcement laws and the most recent health reform law in the United States, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which excludes immigrants from certain types of health services. Findings in this paper show how increasingly harsh immigration enforcement efforts provide health facilities a 'license to discriminate' against undocumented immigrants, resulting in some facilities 'dumping' undocumented patients or unlawfully transferring them from one hospital to another. Due to changes made through the ACA, patient dumping disproportionately complicates public hospitals' financial viability and may have consequences on public facilities' ability to provide care for all indigent patients. By focusing on the converging consequences of immigrant policing and health reform, findings in this paper ultimately show that examining deservingness assessments and how they become codified into legislation, which I call 'deservingness projects', can reveal broader elements of state power and demonstrate how such power extends beyond targeted populations. Exercises of state power can thus have 'spillover effects' that harm numerous vulnerable populations, highlighting the importance of medical anthropology in documenting the broad, hidden consequences of governmental actions that construct populations as undeserving of social services.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reforma de la Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Hispanoamericanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Transferencia de Pacientes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Inmigrantes Indocumentados/legislación & jurisprudencia , Antropología Médica , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/etnología
16.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(1): 1593787, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533569

RESUMEN

To improve sexual health, even in this charged political moment, necessitates going beyond biomedical approaches, and requires meaningfully addressing sexual rights and sexual pleasure. A world where positive intersections between sexual health, sexual rights and sexual pleasure are reinforced in law, in programming and in advocacy, can strengthen health, wellbeing and the lived experience of people everywhere. This requires a clear understanding of what interconnection of these concepts means in practice, as well as conceptual, personal and systemic approaches that fully recognise and address the harms inflicted on people's lives when these interactions are not fully taken into account. Bridging the conceptual and the pragmatic, this paper reviews current definitions, the influences and intersections of these concepts, and suggests where comprehensive attention can lead to stronger policy and programming through informed training and advocacy.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Salud Sexual , Educación Médica , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Placer , Política , Salud Reproductiva , Salud Sexual/educación , Parejas Sexuales , Sexualidad
17.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(1): 1620552, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533574

RESUMEN

This article explains how the strategic use of public health evidence, showing that criminalisation of abortion does not result in lower abortion rates, is changing the way judges are confronting constitutional challenges to abortion regulations. The state may have a legitimate interest - and in some legal systems, a duty - to protect prenatal life. Nevertheless, courts are upholding regulations liberalising abortion and declaring criminalisation regimes unconstitutional. This is possible given that lower abortion rates are not achieved through criminalisation, but through preventive policies. In addition, courts uphold liberalisation when the infringement of women's rights resulting from criminalisation outweighs its purported benefits. This new legal narrative has been developed during the last decades by a series of court decisions in Europe and Latin America, and may prove useful for legal advocacy in some countries in Africa. The narrative combines the use of an analytical framework called the proportionality principle with an interpretation of constitutional rights that draws from gender-sensitive international human rights standards and factual evidence about the effects of criminalisation on women's lives and health.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Criminal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Aborto Inducido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos , Aborto Inducido/estadística & datos numéricos , África , Crimen , Europa (Continente) , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , América Latina , Vida , Política , Salud Pública , Derechos de la Mujer
18.
Australas Psychiatry ; 27(5): 438-440, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545089

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine capacity assessment, coercive care and principles by which a seemingly reasonable request for the discontinuation of treatment may be considered. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical and socio-legal case may be made for 'coercive care'.


Asunto(s)
Coerción , Derechos Humanos , Competencia Mental , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Enfermos Mentales , Psiquiatría , Derechos Humanos/ética , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Competencia Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Enfermos Mentales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Psiquiatría/ética , Psiquiatría/legislación & jurisprudencia
19.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 19(1): 24, 2019 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375116

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Scholars have long been sceptical about the effectiveness of human rights treaties in changing the behaviour of states parties and prior empirical research has often justified that scepticism. However, only a few prior studies have considered the effects of adoption of core human rights treaties on health outcomes and only one prior study has analysed the effects of adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on children's health outcomes. METHODS: In this study, we estimated the effects of CRC adoption on child mortality rates and vaccination rates in less developed countries. In particular, we compared 43 less developed countries that adopted the CRC in 1990 with synthetic control groups drawn from 21 less developed countries that adopted it after 1992. RESULTS: We find that CRC adoption may be related to additional reductions in infant and under-5 mortality rates of about 1 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, on average, during the first three years after adoption, although those relationships are not statistically significant. And we find that CRC adoption is related to additional increases in vaccination rates for the five vaccines that we considered of about 4 to 5%, on average, during the first three years after adoption and that those relationships remain significant for up to seven years after adoption. CONCLUSION: From a policy perspective, our results further support the effectiveness of CRC adoption in promoting children's right to health in less developed countries. And from a research perspective, our results show the advantages of using synthetic control methods in these types of studies, because our analyses using other methods that have most commonly been used in these studies did not find any consistent, significant relationships between CRC adoption and mortality or vaccination rates.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad del Niño/tendencias , Derechos Humanos , Mortalidad Infantil/tendencias , Cooperación Internacional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Servicios de Salud del Niño , Bienestar del Niño , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Política de Salud , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Lactante , Naciones Unidas
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(6): 2167-2172, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269175

RESUMEN

This paper presents the issue of judicialization of the right to health in Brazil. Data from the National Council of Justice evidence a substantial increase in the number of lawsuits concerning the right to health. We emphasize that the national doctrine exhaustively discusses ways to make the authority more effective, but it does not, as a general rule, discuss the economic aspect of health judicialization. Using the concept of opportunity cost extracted from economics science, it is shown that the judge, by deferring the lawsuit formulated by the plaintiff, automatically forces the Executive Branch to reduce the scope of other policies to generate resources to meet the court order. In specific contexts, this setting ends up favoring individual rights at the expense of the collective rights of SUS users, in violation of the principle of isonomy and efficiency. Finally, the case of the judicialization promoted by the hemophiliac patients in the Federal District is shown as a way of evidencing, at the factual level, the consequences of judicialization in the SUS policies.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política de Salud , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Programas Nacionales de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Brasil , Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Hemofilia A/terapia , Humanos , Programas Nacionales de Salud/economía
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA