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1.
Nat Med ; 30(3): 660-669, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454127

RESUMEN

The human right to health is universal and non-exclusionary, supporting health in full, and for all. Despite advances in health systems globally, 3.6 billion people lack access to essential health services. Women and girls are disadvantaged when it comes to benefiting from quality health services, owing to social norms, unequal power in relationships, lack of consideration beyond their reproductive roles and poverty. Self-care interventions, including medicines and diagnostics, which offer an additional option to facility-based care, can improve the autonomy and agency of women in managing their own health. However, tackling challenges such as stigma is essential to avoid scenarios in which self-care interventions provide more choice for those who already benefit from access to quality healthcare, and leave behind those with the greatest need. This Perspective explores the opportunities that self-care interventions offer to advance the health and well-being of women with an approach grounded in human rights, gender equality and equity.


Asunto(s)
Autocuidado , Salud de la Mujer , Humanos , Femenino , Pobreza , Derechos de la Mujer
3.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 164 Suppl 1: 12-20, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360032

RESUMEN

The Maputo Protocol, adopted over 20 years ago, is a promising regional treaty for advancing gender equity and sexual and reproductive health and rights. This instrument has driven progress in women's health and rights across Africa, with much remaining to achieve to realize its full potential for women and girls, including access to safe abortion. The present paper shares the strategies and lessons from the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) reform centered on the domestication of the Protocol, specifically applying its commitments on abortion decriminalization and access. With a vision of addressing maternal mortality and rectifying the impacts of widespread sexual violence against women during war, abortion as a human right and health imperative was at the heart of the DRC's reform. Governmental commitment, broad coalition building, evidence generation, and an intersectional advocacy agenda were critical to overcoming opposition, stigma, and other challenges. This paper shares key learnings from the DRC's complex yet collaborative reform strategies and its processes. The strategy prioritized domestication of the Protocol for numerous reforms, including paving the path to legal abortion on the broad grounds of rape or incest, and saving women's health and/or life. With a commitment to maximizing quality, access, task sharing, and equity, progressive national comprehensive abortion guidelines were created alongside an implementation roadmap for accountability. The DRC's experience leveraging the Maputo Protocol's obligations to advance abortion rights and access offers valuable insights for consideration globally.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Derechos de la Mujer , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , República Democrática del Congo , Domesticación , Derechos Humanos , Aborto Legal
4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295239, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363759

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization (WHO) is committed to empowering countries by implementing a gender, equity, and human rights approach in the health sector. The objective of this gender and inclusion analysis is to assess potential gender disparities of health sector management in the Kyrgyz Republic. The employed mixed-method approach takes advantage of data triangulation. Besides information from the literature and policy documents available at the international and national levels, the analysis includes interviews and data from the self-assessment of health services managers in the Kyrgyz Republic. A convenience sample of 75 health managers was taken and after up to three reminders a commendable response rate of 80% was achieved which resulted the final sample size of N = 60. A factor analysis using quartimax orthogonal rotation was applied to investigate the correlation between Teaching Qualification, Digitalization, Training Usefulness, Computer Workplace, and Gender Equality. In 2021, the Kyrgyz Republic adopted a new Constitution, which provides a sound legal framework to support gender equality and promote women's empowerment. However, according to a survey, only 42.9% of the respondents felt that equal rights and opportunities were integrated into their job descriptions. Similarly, only 40.7% believed that their institutions' written documents reflected a commitment to equal rights and opportunities for both genders. Two factors were identified as influencing gender equality: (1) personal and (2) technical aspects. Regarding personal aspects, gender equality, teaching qualification, and training usefulness were found to be significant. Regarding technical aspects, the computer workplace was related. In recent years, the Kyrgyz Republic has been developing a culture of gender equality. Political will is essential to promote and make organizational change possible. It is important to create a written mid-term policy that affirms a commitment to gender equality in organizational behavior, structures, staff, and management board compositions. Healthcare institutions need to prepare strategic and operational plans that incorporate gender equality principles.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Derechos de la Mujer , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Kirguistán , Derechos Humanos , Políticas
5.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296910, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381720

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the evolution of China's social structure and values, there has been a shift in attitudes towards marriage and fertility, with an increasing number of women holding diverse perspectives on these matters. In order to better comprehend the fundamental reasons behind these attitude changes and to provide a basis for targeted policymaking, this study employs natural language processing techniques to analyze the discourse of Chinese women. METHODS: The study focused on analyzing 3,200 comments from Weibo, concentrating on six prominent topics linked to women's marriage and fertility. These topics were treated as research cases. The research employed natural language processing techniques, such as sentiment orientation analysis, Word2Vec, and TextRank. RESULTS: Firstly, the overall sentiment orientation of Chinese women toward marriage and fertility was largely pessimistic. Secondly, the factors contributing to this negative sentiment were categorized into four dimensions: social policies and rights protection, concerns related to parenting, values and beliefs associated with marriage and fertility, and family and societal culture. CONCLUSION: Based on these outcomes, the study proposed a range of mechanisms and pathways to enhance women's sentiment orientation towards marriage and fertility. These mechanisms encompass safeguarding women and children's rights, promoting parenting education, providing positive guidance on social media, and cultivating a diverse and inclusive social and cultural environment. The objective is to offer precise and comprehensive reference points for the formulation of policies that align more effectively with practical needs.


Asunto(s)
Matrimonio , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Dinámica Poblacional , Derechos de la Mujer , Fertilidad , Actitud , China
6.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 16, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308322

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women in Mozambique are often disempowered when it comes to making decisions concerning their lives, including their bodies and reproductive options. This study aimed to explore the views of women in Mozambique about key elements of empowerment for reproductive decisions and the meanings they attach to these elements. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews were undertaken with 64 women of reproductive age (18-49 years) in two provinces in Mozambique. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Data collection took place between February and March 2020 in Maputo city and Province, and during August 2020 in Nampula Province. A thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Women described crucial elements of how power is exerted for reproductive choices. These choices include the ability to plan the number and timing of pregnancies and the ability either to negotiate with sexual partners by voicing choice and influencing decisions, or to exercise their right to make decisions independently. They considered that women with empowerment had characteristics such as independence, active participation and being free. These characteristics are recognized key enablers for the process of women's empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings contribute to an expanded conceptualization and operationalization of women's sexual and reproductive empowerment by unveiling key elements that need to be considered in future research and approaches to women's empowerment. Furthermore, it gave women the central role and voice in the research of empowerment's conceptualization and measurement where women's views and meanings are seldom considered.


Women who are empowered seem to make better health decisions for themselves. Nevertheless, women's views about and understanding of empowerment are seldom considered in the study of empowerment and its definitions. In this study we explore how women in Mozambique view, understand and experience empowerment, i.e., gaining power and control in the household, and specifically around decision-making processes concerning their reproductive lives. A total of 64 adult women were interviewed in rural and urban areas within two provinces of Mozambique. Through the data analysis, we identified key characteristics of the empowerment process that Mozambican women perceived to be of relevance in their context. Women who have power were perceived as financially and socially independent, free to choose their own pathway, and be active participants in the household decision-making process. In reproductive decisions, women show power through the ability to negotiate with their partner, or by making sole decisions and by planning the number of pregnancies and the size of the family. The elements identified provide important information for improving the definition and the measurement of empowerment in Mozambique, as well as for the support of women in their pathways to empowerment within this context.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Reproducción , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mozambique , Empoderamiento , Investigación Cualitativa , Derechos de la Mujer
7.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 14, 2024 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321449

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While most countries that allow abortion on women's request also grant physicians a right to conscientious objection (CO), this has proven to constitute a potential barrier to abortion access. Conscientious objection is regarded as an understudied phenomenon the effects of which have not yet been examined in Germany. Based on expert interviews, this study aims to exemplarily reconstruct the processes of abortion in a mid-sized city in Germany, and to identify potential effects of conscientious objection. METHODS: Five semi-structured interviews with experts from all instances involved have been conducted in April 2020. The experts gave an insight into the medical care structures with regard to abortion procedures, the application and manifestations of conscientious objection in medical practice, and its impact on the care of pregnant women. A content analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed. RESULTS: Both the procedural processes and the effects of conscientious objection are reported to differ significantly between early abortions performed before the 12th week of pregnancy and late abortions performed at the second and third trimester. Conscientious objection shows structural consequences as it is experienced to further reduce the number of possible providers, especially for early abortions. On the individual level of the doctor-patient relationship, the experts confirmed the neutrality and patient-orientation of the vast majority of doctors. Still, it is especially late abortions that seem to be vulnerable to barriers imposed by conscientious objection in individual medical encounters. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that conscientious objection possibly imposes barriers to both early and late abortion provision and especially in the last procedural steps, which from an ethical point of view is especially problematic. To oblige hospitals to partake in abortion provision in Germany has the potential to prevent negative impacts of conscientious objection on women's rights on an individual as well as on a structural level.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Negativa al Tratamiento , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Derechos de la Mujer , Investigación Cualitativa , Conciencia
8.
Lancet ; 403(10422): 137, 2024 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218606
11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 184(1): 16-17, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048126

RESUMEN

This essay describes a physician's experience with terminating a wanted pregnancy and underscores the importance of access to abortion care.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Derechos de la Mujer , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 164(1): 358-363, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37927165

RESUMEN

This article describes how Russian drug policy defies international ethical standards in patient care and violates the human rights of pregnant people who use drugs. While the CEDAW Committee previously found Russia to be in violation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) by failing to ensure that pregnant people have access to gender-sensitive drug dependence treatment, to date the Committee has refused to address the role of drug criminalization in enabling this human rights violation. This article outlines the gendered impacts of Russia's punitive approach to drug use, including its detrimental effects on maternal health, and concludes by urging the CEDAW Committee to follow the approach of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the UN Chief Executives, the World Health Organization, and UNAIDS, as well as senior UN lawyers and international legal experts to assess drug criminalization critically through the prism of the CEDAW convention.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Salud Materna , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Política Pública , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Federación de Rusia , Derechos de la Mujer , Política de Salud
13.
Health Care Anal ; 32(1): 15-32, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37479907

RESUMEN

As COVID-19 keeps impacting the world, its impact is felt differently by people of different sexes and genders. International guidelines and research on gender inequalities and women's rights during the pandemic have been published. However, data from Taiwan is lacking. This study aims to fill the gap to increase our knowledge regarding this issue and provide policy recommendations. This study is part of a more extensive project in response to the fourth state report concerning the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in Taiwan in 2022. We have drawn on the guidelines and documents published by the United Nations human rights bodies, conducted interviews with advocacy and professional practitioners, and hosted a study group comprising students and teachers from the National Taiwan University College of Public Health to supplement the interview data. The data were analyzed thematically. The results include five themes: (1) particular health risks to carers (primarily women); (2) COVID-related measures' impact on women's health and health behaviors; (3) highly gendered psychological maladjustment; (4) increase in gender-based violence and domestic violence; and (5) mental health inequities and intersectionality. The study has global implications for societies of similar sociopolitical contexts and developmental statuses. To truly live up to the standard of CEDAW and other international human rights principles, we ask that central and local government be more aware of these lived experiences and adjust their policies accordingly, accounting for gender sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Pandemias , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Derechos de la Mujer , Inequidades en Salud
16.
Soc Sci Res ; 117: 102937, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38049208

RESUMEN

We examine the conditions under which women's economic and political status is less vulnerable in the aftermath of natural disasters. We theorize that women in natural disaster-hit countries that receive higher levels of foreign direct investment (FDI) are less susceptible to the gendered impacts of those disasters. Since FDI is vital to post-disaster economic recovery, countries grappling with natural disasters are motivated to uphold women's rights as a strategy to attract FDI. Furthermore, multinational corporations (MNCs)' operation and commitment to gender equality-based values and practices are also an impetus to address the deterioration in respect for women's rights. By conducting a time-series cross-sectional, ordered logistic analysis with random effects and using a comprehensive dataset on natural disasters and women's rights, including 107 developing countries from 1990 to 2011, we find that FDI mitigates natural disasters' adverse effects on women's economic rights but not their political rights.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Desastres Naturales , Femenino , Humanos , Derechos de la Mujer , Países en Desarrollo , Estudios Transversales , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 643, 2023 12 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042837

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Although there are calls for women's empowerment and gender equity globally, there are still large disparities regarding women's autonomy in healthcare decision making. The autonomy of women is believed to be crucial in improving their health-related outcomes. This review discusses factors that influence autonomy among women in healthcare decision making. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus were searched from 2017-2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The inclusion criteria include original articles, case studies and reports that has been written in the English Language, while manuscripts with no full article, reviews, newspaper reports, grey literatures, and articles that did not answer the review objectives were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We carried out data extraction using a standardized data extraction form, that has been organized using Microsoft Excel. A narrative synthesis was carried out to combine the findings of all included articles. RESULTS: A total of 70 records were identified and 18 were reviewed, yielding eight articles to be included in the accepted list of studies. All studies were conducted in developing countries and most of the studies were cross sectional. Factors that were associated with women's autonomy in healthcare decision making were age, women's education and occupation, husbands'/partners' education and occupation, residential location or region of residence, household wealth index as well as culture and religion. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of these factors may help stakeholders in improving women's autonomy in healthcare decision making. Policymakers play a crucial role in healthcare decision making by enacting laws and policies that protect women's rights, promoting gender-sensitive healthcare services, ensuring access to comprehensive information, promoting health education, and supporting vulnerable populations. These efforts ensure women's autonomy including able to access to unbiased and effective healthcare services.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Derechos de la Mujer , Femenino , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Toma de Decisiones , Atención a la Salud , Autonomía Personal
19.
J Law Med Ethics ; 51(3): 485-489, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38088610

RESUMEN

Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health continues a trajectory of U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence that undermines the normative foundation of public health - the idea that the state is obligated to provide a robust set of supports for healthcare services and the underlying social determinants of health. Dobbs furthers a longstanding ideology of individual responsibility in public health, neglecting collective responsibility for better health outcomes. Such an ideology on individual responsibility not only enables a shrinking of public health infrastructure for reproductive health, it facilitates the rise of reproductive coercion and a criminal legal response to pregnancy and abortion. This commentary situates Dobbs in the context of a long historical shift in public health that increasingly places burdens on individuals for their own reproductive health care, moving away from the possibility of a robust state public health infrastructure.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Coerción , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Derechos de la Mujer , Salud Pública , Salud de la Mujer , Decisiones de la Corte Suprema
20.
J Law Med Ethics ; 51(3): 480-484, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38088615

RESUMEN

Abortion stories have always played a powerful role in advancing women's rights. In the abortion sphere particularly, the personal is political. Following the Court's reversal of Roe v. Wade, abortion politics, and abortion storytelling, take on an even deeper political role in challenging the bloodless judicial language of Dobbs with the lived experience of women.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Aborto Legal , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Derechos de la Mujer , Decisiones de la Corte Suprema
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