Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.242
Filtrar
1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200054, 2021. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1114765

RESUMEN

RESUMEN OBJETIVO Analizar la influencia de cambios socio-políticos, educativos y feministas de España en el mantenimiento de lactancia materna. MÉTODO Revisión histórico-descriptiva de documentación en bases de datos, Boletines Oficiales del Estado, del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo y Bienestar Social. RESULTADOS La lactancia materna es un fenómeno complejo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociales y psicológicos. Ha cambiado a lo largo de la historia y, evolucionado con los movimientos feministas. La incorporación de la mujer al mercado laboral (s.XIX), produjo una modificación en el rol familiar y pareja. La sociedad del siglo XXI reclama a los poderes públicos la conciliación personal y laboral para la crianza de sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES E IMPLICACIÓN PARA LA PRÁCTICA Han sido múltiples los factores y procesos evolutivos para la situación socio-cultural de la mujer en la lactancia materna. Actualmente sigue siendo complicado compaginar gestación y crianza con el empleo, las redes formales e informales permiten avances en políticas sanitarias.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a influência das mudanças sócio-políticas, educativas e feministas em Espanha na manutenção do aleitamento materno. MÉTODO Revisão histórico-descritiva da documentação em bases de dados, Boletins Oficiais do Estado, do Ministério da Saúde e do Consumo e da Previdência Social. RESULTADOS O aleitamento materno é um fenómeno complexo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociais e psicológicos. Ela mudou ao longo da história e evoluiu com os movimentos feministas. A incorporação das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho (século XIX), produziu uma modificação no papel da família e do casal. A sociedade do século XXI exige do poder público a conciliação pessoal e laboral para a educação dos seus filhos. CONCLUSÕES E IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA Tem havido múltiplos factores e processos evolutivos para a situação sociocultural das mulheres em aleitamento materno. Hoje em dia, ainda é complicado combinar gravidez e educação com emprego, e as redes formais e informais permitem avanços nas políticas de saúde.


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of socio-political, educational and feminist changes in Spain on the maintenance of breastfeeding. METHOD Historical-descriptive review of documentation in databases, Official State Bulletins, of the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare. RESULTS Breastfeeding is a complex phenomenon influenced by demographic, biological, social and psychological factors. It has changed throughout history and evolved with the feminist movements. The incorporation of women to the labor market (19th century), produced a modification in the family and couple role. The society of the 21st century demands from the public authorities the personal and labor conciliation for the upbringing of their children. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE There have been multiple factors and evolutionary processes for the socio-cultural situation of women in breastfeeding. Nowadays, it is still complicated to combine pregnancy and upbringing with employment, and formal and informal networks allow advances in health policies.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Lactancia Materna , Feminismo/historia , España/etnología , Mujeres Trabajadoras/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos de la Mujer/historia , Responsabilidad Parental , Igualdad de Género
2.
New Bioeth ; 26(4): 328-350, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196403

RESUMEN

United States law recognizes adult reproductive liberty and many states view surrogacy services through that lens. During the COVID-19 pandemic in March, 2020, New York State enacted the Child-Parent Surrogacy Act (CPSA) into law, after feminists and their allies had caused its defeat in 2019. Just before approval of the CPSA, a group of legislators introduced the Alternative Surrogacy Bill (ASB). This article is a case study that examines how the CPSA and not the ASB became law, examining surrogate rights, the best interests of the child, and the ethical issues related to adult donor-conceived and surrogacy born children's rights to information about their ancestry.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos , Legislación Médica/ética , Técnicas Reproductivas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control Social Formal , Madres Sustitutas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Acceso a la Información , Adulto , Niño , Bienestar del Niño , Comercio/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Disentimientos y Disputas , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Industrias/ética , Industrias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Madres , New York/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Embarazo , Técnicas Reproductivas/economía , Técnicas Reproductivas/ética , Derechos de la Mujer
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239589, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052933

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The underrepresentation of women in academic medicine at senior level and in leadership positions is well documented. Biomedical Research Centres (BRC), partnerships between leading National Health Service (NHS) organisations and universities, conduct world class translational research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in the UK. Since 2011 BRCs are required to demonstrate significant progress in gender equity (GE) to be eligible to apply for funding. However, the evidence base for monitoring GE specifically in BRC settings is underdeveloped. This is the first survey tool designed to rank and identify new GE markers specific to the NIHR BRCs. METHODS: An online survey distributed to senior leadership, clinical and non-clinical researchers, trainees, administrative and other professionals affiliated to the NIHR Oxford BRC (N = 683). Participants ranked 13 markers of GE on a five point Likert scale by importance. Data were summarised using frequencies and descriptive statistics. Interrelationships between markers and underlying latent dimensions (factors) were determined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 36% (243 respondents). Respondents were more frequently female (55%, n = 133), aged 41-50 years (33%, n = 81), investigators (33%, n = 81) affiliated to the BRC for 2-7 years (39.5%, n = 96). Overall participants ranked 'BRC senior leadership roles' and 'organisational policies on gender equity', to be the most important markers of GE. 58% (n = 141) and 57% (n = 139) respectively. Female participants ranked 'organisational policies' (64.7%, n = 86/133) and 'recruitment and retention' (60.9%, n = 81/133) most highly, whereas male participants ranked 'leadership development' (52.1%, n = 50/96) and 'BRC senior leadership roles' (50%, n = 48/96) as most important. Factor analyses identified two distinct latent dimensions: "organisational markers" and "individual markers" of GE in BRCs. CONCLUSIONS: A two-factor model of markers of achievement for GE with "organisational" and "individual" dimensions was identified. Implementation and sustainability of gender equity requires commitment at senior leadership and organisational policy level.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Sexismo , Éxito Académico , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Enseñanza/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional/organización & administración , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido , Derechos de la Mujer/organización & administración , Derechos de la Mujer/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239012, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112856

RESUMEN

Emerging evidence demonstrates that female-authored publications are not well represented in course readings in some fields, resulting in a syllabi gender gap. Lack of representation may decrease student awareness of opportunities in professional fields and disadvantage the career success of female academics. We contribute to the evidence on the syllabi gender gap by: 1) quantifying the extent to which female authors are represented in assigned course readings; 2) examining representation of female authors by gender of instructor and discipline; and 3) comparing female representation in syllabi with the workforce and with representation as authors of peer-reviewed journal articles. From a list of courses offered in 2018-2019 at Washington University in St. Louis, we selected a stratified random sample of course syllabi from four disciplines (humanities; social science; science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; and other). We coded the gender of course instructors and course reading authors using the genderize application programming interface. We examined representation of female authors at the reading, course, and discipline level using descriptive statistics and data visualization. The final sample included 2435 readings from 129 unique courses. The mean percentage of female authors per reading was 34.1%; 822 (33.8%) of readings were female-led (i.e., a female first or sole author). Female authorship varied by discipline, with the highest percentage of female-led readings in social science (40%). Female instructors assigned a higher percentage of readings with female first authors and readings with higher percentages of females on authorship teams. The representation of female authors on syllabi was lower than representation of females as authors in the peer-reviewed literature or in workforce. Adding to evidence of the syllabi gender gap, we found that female authors were underrepresented as sole and first authors and as members of authorship teams. Since assigned readings promote academic scholarship and influence workforce diversity, we recommend several strategies to diversify the syllabi through increasing awareness of the gap and improving access to female-authored publications.


Asunto(s)
Autoria , Curriculum , Sexismo , Universidades , Docentes , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Missouri , Edición , Derechos de la Mujer , Recursos Humanos
6.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 812-828, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880400

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed an underlying pandemic of neglect affecting women's reproductive rights, particularly in the provision of abortion services and maternity care. The systemic neglect in the Australian context has resulted in a rise in demand for the services provided by privately practising midwives (PPMs) that is not matched by systemic support for, nor recognition of, women choosing to birth at home. As a result, PPMs are unable to meet the rise in demand, which in itself reflects decades of limited State support for the choice to birth at home and opposition by incumbent stakeholders in the provision of maternity care to healthy women with low-risk pregnancies. We discuss the historical backdrop to these currently erupting issues, along with the real reasons for the opposition to PPMs in Australia. Finally, we offer solutions to this ongoing issue.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Parto Domiciliario , Servicios de Salud Materna , Partería , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Australia , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Derechos de la Mujer
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238495, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881931

RESUMEN

SETTING: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional surgical modification of the female genitalia comprising all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or nontherapeutic reasons. It can be harmful and violates girls' and women's human rights. FGM is a worldwide problem but mainly practiced in Africa. FGM is still widely practiced in Ethiopia despite being made a criminal offence in 2004. OBJECTIVE: Using data from three Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2016 the objective was to assess changes in prevalence of FGM and associated factors among women of reproductive age and their daughters. METHODS: EDHS datasets for the three surveys included data on FGM prevalence and socio-demographic factors. After weighting, the data were analysed using frequencies, proportions and the chi square test for trend. Categorical variables associated with FGM in 2016 were compared using OpenEpi and presented as prevalence ratios (Pr) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Levels of significance were set at 5% (P<0.05). RESULTS: There was overall decline in FGM prevalence (from 79.9% to 74.3% to 65.2%, P<0.001), especially in younger women aged 15-19 years, and in the proportion of women who believed that the practice should continue (from 59.7% to 28.3% to 17.5%, P<0.001). There was also a decreasing trend of FGM in the daughters of the mothers who were interviewed, with prevalence significantly lower in mothers who had not themselves undergone FGM. Most (88.3%) women with FGM had the surgery as a child with the procedure mainly performed by a traditional circumciser (87.3%). Factors associated with higher FGM prevalence and lack of progress over the sixteen years included living in certain regions, especially Somali where FGM prevalence remained consistently >95%, lack of school education, coming from rural areas and living in less wealthy households. CONCLUSION: Although progress has been slow, the prevalence of FGM in Ethiopia has declined over time. Recommendations to quicken the trajectory of decline targeting integrated interventions to high prevalence areas focusing on mothers, fathers, youngsters, religious leaders and schools and ensuring that all girls receive some form of education.


Asunto(s)
Circuncisión Femenina/ética , Circuncisión Femenina/estadística & datos numéricos , Circuncisión Femenina/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Genitales Femeninos/cirugía , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Derechos Humanos/tendencias , Humanos , Madres , Núcleo Familiar , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Derechos de la Mujer/tendencias
10.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(10): 799-802, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819829

RESUMEN

This article summarizes discussions at a Gender Equity Workshop run during the Molecular Approaches to Malaria Conference in February 2020. Barriers to career progression in science for women and minority groups, along with suggestions to overcome ongoing roadblocks, are discussed. The emerging challenges that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is bringing to this sector are also considered.


Asunto(s)
Movilidad Laboral , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Ciencia , Derechos de la Mujer/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Ciencia/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235825, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687506

RESUMEN

Although women's empowerment has gained attention over the last two decades, our understanding of the associations between different dimensions of women's empowerment and different children's health outcomes is limited. This study aims to measure the extent of women's empowerment and to examine its associations with the children's health status in Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). The sample is restricted to a sub-sample of 10,641 women from 15 to 49 years old and their children under the age of five years. We used children's height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores and pneumonia and anemia experience as indicators of children's health outcome. Women's empowerment is measured by five indices reflecting their participation in decision-making, attitudes towards wife-beating by husband, barriers to health care access, asset ownership, and socio-economic variables. These indicators of empowerment were constructed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model was employed to examine the relationship between women's empowerment and latent child health outcomes, after controlling for relevant covariates. Results suggests that enhancing women's empowerment in the household in terms of their socio-economic status (i.e., increasing women's access to education, information, media, and promoting saving) was associated with less likelihood of the children's being stunted or wasted (p<0.05). Higher women's empowerment in terms of household decision-making power were also associated with better children's health status measured by the children's experience of pneumonia and anemia (p<0.05). All aspects of women's empowerment are not related with children's health indicators. Women's empowerment dimensions related with child health have a varying degree of association with the different children's health indicators. Gender-specific policies focusing on increasing women's access to education, media, information, and promoting saving and their participation in the household decision making are some of the strategies for improving their children's health and wellbeing.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Estado de Salud , Derechos de la Mujer , Adulto , Preescolar , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino
13.
Lancet ; 396(10246): 234, 2020 07 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711790
14.
Lancet ; 396(10246): 234-235, 2020 07 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711791
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 349-353, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649500

RESUMEN

In recognition of the 100 anniversary of women's suffrage, we reviewed the difficulties reformists overcame in passing the 19th Amendment and discuss the similarities to current challenges in providing evidence-based, affordable, accessible women's health care. Many current health care problems arise from systemic, not medical, issues, and we can better focus on them through the lenses of the social determinants of health and reproductive justice. Addressing systemic inadequacies and injustices requires policy implementation and legislative activism, like that pursued by the suffragists. We propose that, ultimately, voting is our professional, fundamental duty to make the desired changes. We then present advocacy avenues and opportunities available to all women's health care specialists.


Asunto(s)
Política , Salud de la Mujer , Derechos de la Mujer , Anticoncepción , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Defensa del Paciente
16.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 59-75, jul. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192094

RESUMEN

Este artículo describe el discurso de actores relevantes sobre la noción y argumentos de la objeción de conciencia en el contexto del aborto en Chile. Los resultados dan cuenta de la complejidad para abordar esta temática. Hay actores que consideran la objeción de conciencia un derecho fundamental. Para otros, constituye un privilegio y una manifestación de desigualdad ante la ley. Los principales argumentos aluden a la libertad de conciencia y religión. Se considera contrastar la objeción de conciencia con el compromiso de conciencia, debiendo incorporarse la reflexión ética en la formación y capacitación de los equipos de salud. Deben generarse instancias de fiscalización y regulación, evitando vulnerar los derechos de las mujeres que puedan resultar afectadas por esta objeción


This article describes the discourse of relevant actors on the notion and arguments of conscientious objection to abortion in Chile. The results show the complexity of addressing this issue. There are actors who consider conscientious objection a fundamental right. For others, it constitutes a privilege and a manifestation of legal inequality. The main arguments refer to freedom of conscience and religion. It is considered to contrast conscientious objection with conscientious commitment, and ethical reflection should be incorporated into the education and training of health teams. Monitoring and regulatory instances must be created to avoid violating the rights of women who may be affected by this objection


Aquest article descriu el discurs d'actors rellevants sobre la noció I arguments de l'objecció de consciència en el context de l'avortament a Xile. Els resultats evidencien la complexitat per abordar aquesta temàtica. Hi ha actors que consideren l'objecció de consciència un dret fonamental. Per altres, constitueix un privilegi I una manifestació de desigualtat davant la llei. Els principals arguments al·ludeixen a la llibertat de consciència I religió. Es considera contrastar l'objecció de consciència amb el compromís de consciència, I s'ha d'incorporar la reflexió ètica a la formació I capacitació dels equips de salut. S'han de generar instàncies de fiscalització I regulació, evitant vulnerar els drets de les dones que puguin resultar afectades per aquesta objecció


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Aborto , Derechos de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conciencia , Salud Reproductiva/ética , Salud Sexual/ética , Chile , Salud de la Mujer/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Reproductiva/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Sexual/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ética Médica
17.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 349-352, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510724

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To measure public opinion about access to abortion in South Australia. METHODS: An online survey conducted in 2019. SPSS statistical package version 22 was used for data analysis, with data weighted by age, gender, and region. RESULTS: The majority (65%) of the 1,012 respondents supported the ready availability of abortion care and an additional 25% supported availability in certain circumstances. Most (70%) were unaware that abortion remains in criminal law and 80% supported decriminalisation. Support for safe access zones (88%) and the application of existing protections (69%) and obligations (94%) for conscientious objectors was high. A majority (63%) considered that later abortion should be available 'when the woman and her healthcare team decide it is necessary'. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the trend of increasing support for access to abortion and add two new insights. There was majority support for using existing general protections for the rights and obligations of those with a conscientious objection to abortion. Second, there was strong support for decisions about later abortion to be decided through normal clinical consultation. These results indicate general community approval of abortion being normalised as healthcare, with the safeguards and accountabilities that status entails. Implications for public health: These results invite repeal of special laws about abortion care, to enable better access.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/ética , Aborto Legal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/ética , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Materna/organización & administración , Opinión Pública , Aborto Inducido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Aborto Legal/ética , Aborto Legal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Embarazo , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Australia del Sur , Salud de la Mujer , Derechos de la Mujer , Adulto Joven
19.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 25: 100538, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534228

RESUMEN

Because of the COVID-19 Pandemic many problems have emerged in the organization of the National Health Systems. In Italy, a very serious problem is emerging which needs a rapid solution. Italian women are finding increasingly difficult to access abortion. These difficulties are related to the organizational changes that have occurred in many hospitals due to the emergency COVID-19. A possible solution would be to resort to the procedure of pharmacological abortion which, however, in Italy, is characterized by many limitations imposed by law. To protect the right to health of all women will need a reorganization of abortion procedures in Italy with implementation of telehealth services.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Legal , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres , Aborto Legal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Aborto Legal/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Innovación Organizacional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Embarazo , Telemedicina , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres/normas , Derechos de la Mujer
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA