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2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229937, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240180

RESUMEN

Here we argue that due to the difference between real GDP growth rate and nominal deposit rate, a demand pull inflation is induced into the economy. On the other hand, due to the difference between real GDP growth rate and nominal lending rate, a cost push inflation is created. We compare the performance of our model to the Fisherian one by using Toda and Yamamoto approach of testing Granger Causality in the context of non-stationary data. We then use ARDL Bounds Testing approach to cross-check the results obtained from T-Y approach.


Asunto(s)
Cuenta Bancaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Inflación Económica/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Económicos , Países Desarrollados , Países en Desarrollo , Producto Interno Bruto/tendencias , Humanos
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 12, 2020 01 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964379

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urban-rural disparities have been extensively investigated, while most investigators overlooked urban-suburban-rural variations in population health. Although regional disparities in East-West China have been largely discussed, limited attention has been directed to the interaction between regional differences and urban-suburban-rural disparities. This study aims to analyze urban-suburban-rural variations in all-cause mortality rates across four geographic regions in China. METHODS: Data came from China's National Census Survey and public statistical yearbooks in 2000 and 2010. Urban districts, county-level cities, and counties were respectively defined as urban, suburban, and rural areas. We obtained 2322 areas, including 2148 areas with two observations and 174 areas with only one observation. Data visualization was performed to depict geographic variations and changes in all-cause mortality rates. Five hierarchical linear regression analyses with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyze variations in all-cause mortality rates over time. Demographic and socioeconomic attributes were introduced as covariates. RESULTS: Despite an overall decline in all-cause mortality rate, rural residents generally achieved worse health than urban and suburban counterparts. In contrast, urban-suburban disparities could be fully explained by demographic and socioeconomic differences. In addition, Northeastern and Central residents achieved better health than Eastern and Western residents. Last, there existed urban/suburban-rural disparities in all regions, except Northeastern, where urban/suburban-rural disparities were eliminated after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic attributes. CONCLUSION: Even though suburban and rural areas were often merged, there exist urban/suburban-rural disparities in population health. Furthermore, urban/suburban-rural disparities vary across regions.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Mortalidad/tendencias , Salud Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Suburbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947802

RESUMEN

Hydropower development brings a very large number of external benefits which are enjoyed by the beneficiaries for free. These external benefits are defined and the beneficiaries are identified. Models to measure the external benefits are established to reflect their dynamic changes at different periods. To improve the benefit sharing mechanism, a model to internalize these external benefits is established to further compensate those adversely affected. The Z hydropower project in China is taken as the example to calculate its external benefits and their internalization. The external benefits enjoyed by beneficiaries in the surrounding and downstream areas gradually increase from 18 million US dollars in 2006 to 114 million US dollars in 2065, and their compensation standards increase from 4 million US dollars in 2006 to 97 million US dollars in 2065. The external benefits enjoyed by beneficiaries in the power receiving areas increase from 125 million US dollars in 2015 to the maximum of 133 million in 2026, and their compensation standards increase from 38 million US dollars in 2015 to the maximum of 133 million US dollars in 2033. Sharing of external benefits can improve the benefit-sharing mechanism, and properly redistribute the external benefits of hydropower development.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Centrales Eléctricas/economía , Centrales Eléctricas/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 7835-7850, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889284

RESUMEN

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an important driving force for economic growth and technological innovation, but it also brings environmental pollution problems along with economic development. From the perspective of technological innovation, the impact of FDI on China's environmental pollution deserves further study. With the spatial econometric tools employed to account for the potential spatial dependence of environmental pollution, this study uses the panel data of 30 province-level units in China from 1998 to 2016 to investigate the impact of FDI and technological innovation on environmental pollution. The results show that increased FDI can reduce environmental pollution, confirming the existence of the "pollution halo hypothesis"; technological innovation can reduce the emissions of sulfur dioxide and smoke dust but increase the chemical oxygen demand. Therefore, vigorous introduction of foreign capital is good for sustainable development for government, but it is also necessary to pay attention to screening and identifying environment-friendly enterprises with advanced production technology and management experience and to reject high-pollution and high-energy-consuming enterprises eliminated by developed countries.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Inversiones en Salud , Dióxido de Carbono/química , China , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 1935-1940, 2020 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932433

RESUMEN

A growing empirical literature associates climate anomalies with increased risk of violent conflict. This association has been portrayed as a bellwether of future societal instability as the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events are predicted to increase. This paper investigates the theoretical foundation of this claim. A seminal microeconomic model of opportunity costs-a mechanism often thought to drive climate-conflict relationships-is extended by considering realistic changes in the distribution of climate-dependent agricultural income. Results advise caution in using empirical associations between short-run climate anomalies and conflicts to predict the effect of sustained shifts in climate regimes: Although war occurs in bad years, conflict may decrease if agents expect more frequent bad years. Theory suggests a nonmonotonic relation between climate variability and conflict that emerges as agents adapt and adjust their behavior to the new income distribution. We identify 3 measurable statistics of the income distribution that are each unambiguously associated with conflict likelihood. Jointly, these statistics offer a unique signature to distinguish opportunity costs from competing mechanisms that may relate climate anomalies to conflict.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados/economía , Cambio Climático , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Violencia/economía , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(2): 2248-2263, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776902

RESUMEN

The related literature reveal that the papers on environmental pollution do not sufficiently analyse the cement production which is an important determinant of air pollution and health problems by using econometric methods. To fill this gap, this paper aims to examine the relationship between cement production, air pollution, mortality rate, and economic growth by employing MS Bayesian Vector Autoregressive (MScBVAR) and Markov Switching Bayesian Granger causality (MScBGC) approaches from 1960 to 2017 for China, Brazil, India, Turkey and the USA. MSIA(2)-BVAR(1) model for China, MSIAH(2)-BVAR(3) models for India, MSIAH(3)-BVAR(2) for Brazil, and MSIAH(3)-BVAR(1) for Turkey, and MSIAH(2)-BVAR(2) for the USA were selected. The MScBGC results revealed that the cement production is granger cause of mortality rate, air pollution, and economic growth in all regimes for China, India, Brazil, Turkey, and the USA.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Desarrollo Económico , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , India , Turquia
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(2): 2374-2385, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782096

RESUMEN

This paper is a maiden empirical attempt to analyze the dynamic causal linkages among urban agglomeration, electricity consumption, construction industry, and economic performance, making use of simultaneous structural equations. A national panel of 30 provinces and three sub-national panels of China, for time span 2000 to 2016, have been estimated employing system and difference generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator. A construction industry-augmented model of economic growth has been proposed, incorporating construction industry and urban agglomeration as exogenous shocks to the aggregate production and electricity consumption as the input of production function. The core empirical results are first, the urban agglomeration and construction industry positively cause electricity consumption but are not caused by the same. It revealed the critical role played by urban agglomeration along with construction industry in boosting electricity consumption. Second, the economic performance positively causes electricity consumption, urban agglomeration, and construction industry and is also caused by the same. Third, urban agglomeration causes the construction industry and is caused by the same. It exposed the mutual role of urban agglomeration and urban industry in reinforcing each other in the times of high economic performance. Finally, among the three regions, the eastern zone is found to be strongest in terms of linkages among urban agglomeration, construction industry, electricity consumption, and economic performance. The intermediate zone is moderately strong, while the western zone is found to have the least strong linkages as compared with the two regions. These results are in line with the sub-national level of economic development of China. These findings, in terms of statistical significance, are highly robust across all the panels. Furthermore, depending upon empirical results, the related strategies are proposed.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Electricidad , Empleo
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(5): 4830-4839, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845263

RESUMEN

This paper aims to find out relationships among the energy, environment, and the industrial production for a developing country which is in earlier stages of development. It also tests a few contradicting hypotheses to find the possible shape of an environmental Kuznets curve. Using the time series data, the study finds robust long-run relationships between energy, environment, and industrial production for Pakistan. The scale economy is also assumed. It is also found that the capital and labor elasticities of income show increasing returns in the presence of energy and emission variables. It finds evidence of EKC in a quadratic restricted model but not in a cubic function. This analysis implies that the focus of policy authorities should be to persuade environment-friendly energy resources. After an initial stage of economic development, society has to take serious measure to tackle the issues of environmental degradation.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta , Pakistán , Políticas
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816963

RESUMEN

The terrestrial ecosystem plays an important role in maintaining an ecological balance, protecting the ecological environment, and promoting the sustainable development of human beings. The impacts of precipitation, temperature, and other natural factors on terrestrial ecosystem pattern change (TEPC) are the basis for promoting the healthy development of the terrestrial ecosystem. This paper took the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) as the study area, analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of TEPC from 1995 to 2015, and used spatial transfer matrix and terrestrial ecosystem pattern dynamic degree models to analyze the area transformation between different terrestrial ecosystem types. A bivariate spatial autocorrelation model and a panel data regression model were used to study the impacts of precipitation and temperature on TEPC. The results show that: (1) The basic pattern of the terrestrial ecosystem developed in a relatively stable manner from 1995 to 2005 in the YREB, and transformations between the farmland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, and grassland ecosystem were more frequent. The temporal and spatial evolution of precipitation and temperature in the YREB showed significant regional differences. (2) There was a significant negative bivariate global spatial autocorrelation effect of precipitation and temperature on the area change of the forest ecosystem, and a positive effect on the area change of the settlement ecosystem. The local spatial correlation between precipitation or temperature and the terrestrial ecosystem showed significant scattered distribution characteristics. (3) The impacts of precipitation and temperature on TEPC showed significant regional characteristics on the provincial scale. The impact utility in the tail region is basically negative, while both positive and negative effects exist in the central and head regions of the YREB. Moreover, the impact showed significant spatial heterogeneity on the city scale. (4) The Chinese government has promulgated policies and measures for strategic planning, ecological environment protection, and economic support, which could effectively promote ecological and sustainable development of the YREB and promote the coordinated development of the ecology, economy, and society in China.


Asunto(s)
Ecología , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Ecosistema , Lluvia , Ríos , Temperatura , China , Humanos , Análisis Espacial
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816978

RESUMEN

The Beijing-Tianji-Hebei region (BTHR) is economically developed and densely populated, but its water resources are extremely scarce. A clear understanding of the decoupling relationship between water footprint and economic growth is conducive to facilitating and realizing the coordinated development of water resources and economic growth in this region. This study calculated the water footprint and other related indicators of BTHR from 2004 to 2017, and objectively evaluated the utilization of water resources in the region. Then, logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) method was applied to study the driving factors that resulted in the change of water footprint and their respective effects. Finally, Tapio decoupling model was used to research the decoupling relationships between water footprint and economic growth, and between the driving factors of water footprint and economic growth. There are three main results in this research. (1) The water utilization efficiency in BTHR continues to improve, and the water footprint shows a gradually increasing trend during the research period, among which the agricultural water footprint accounts for a relatively high proportion. (2) The change of water footprint can be attributed to efficiency effect, economic effect, and population effect. Furthermore, efficiency effect is the decisive factor of water footprint reduction and economic effect is the main factor of water footprint increase, while population effect plays a weak role in promoting the increase in water footprint. (3) The decoupling status between water footprint and economic growth show a weak decoupling in most years, while the status between water footprint intensity and economic growth always remains strong decoupling. Moreover, population size and economic growth always show an expansive coupling state. In sum, it is advisable for policy makers to improve water utilization efficiency, especially agricultural irrigation efficiency, to raise residents' awareness of water conservation, and increase the import of water-intensive products, so as to alleviate water shortage and realize the coordinated development of water resources and economic growth in BTHR.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Abastecimiento de Agua , Agricultura/economía , Agricultura/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultura/tendencias , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China , Humanos , Densidad de Población
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817346

RESUMEN

Work is a cornerstone of social development. Quantifying the impact on development of fluctuations in work hours is important because longer work hours increasingly seem to be the norm. Based on an integrative perspective that combines individual, organizational, and social factors, we constructed a model using data from 31 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The proposed model was used to test the effect of work hours on different levels and to propose feasible suggestions accordingly. The results show that people in developing countries work more hours per week than those in developed countries, and that males work longer hours than females. Furthermore, regression analysis shows that current work hours are having a negative impact on development in OECD countries, especially in developing countries where people are working longer hours. Longer hours, in other words, do not promote development effectively. Specifically, work hours at the individual level are negatively related to health. At the level of organization, work hours are a reverse indicator of organizational performance, and at the level of society, there is a negative relationship between work hours and economic development. This study provides support for the proposition by the International Labour Organization to reduce work hours, and it facilitates our understanding of the relationship between work hours and social development.


Asunto(s)
Países Desarrollados , Países en Desarrollo , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Eficiencia Organizacional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Análisis de Regresión , Distribución por Sexo , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36248-36263, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713133

RESUMEN

This study investigates the impact of the human capital index, globalization, and financial development on carbon dioxide of grouping OECD countries using pool mean group estimation technique from 1990 to 2015. This study also applies the second-generation cross-sectional augmented Dickey-Fuller and cross-sectional Im, Pesaran, Shin panel (CIPS) unit root, and the latest (Westerlund 2008) cointegration tests for further investigations. The result shows that both the human development index and financial development stimulate environmental improvement by using PMG long-run panel estimation approach. Furthermore, the pairwise Dumitrescu-Hurlin panel causality results prove the two-way causal association between financial development and carbon emissions. The unidirectional causality running from globalization and human development index towards carbon emission is also supported. Based on the aforementioned results, we provide a set of recommendations for policy implication. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Humano , Internacionalidad , Estudios Transversales , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico/economía , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36274-36286, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713824

RESUMEN

In energy economics literature, we found few studies on the association between environmental quality energy consumption and financial development. The current study is an attempt to contribute in literature by examining the link between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, financial development, energy consumption, and economic growth, in South East Asian economies for the period 1980-2017 using annual time series data. For empirical analysis, Bound tests for cointegration and error correction approach are used. The estimated results confirm that financial development has positive impact on environmental quality. On the other hand, in the long run, the rise in energy consumption economic growth and trade openness is unfavorable for environment quality. Our results confirm U-shaped relationship between economic growth and environmental quality that is a proof of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Additionally, the government needs to design different modes of energy consumption to solve the problem of environmental degradation. Moreover, the major conclusion extends new insight for authority to make a comprehensive trade and financial policies to improve environmental quality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Asia Sudoriental , Investigación Empírica , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía/economía , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía/estadística & datos numéricos , Ambiente , Internacionalidad
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671848

RESUMEN

Most authors apply the Granger causality-VECM (vector error correction model), and Toda-Yamamoto procedures to investigate the relationships among fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth, though they ignore the group joint effects and nonlinear behaviour among the variables. In order to circumvent the limitations and bridge the gap in the literature, this paper combines cointegration and linear and nonlinear Granger causality in multivariate settings to investigate the long-run equilibrium, short-run impact, and dynamic causality relationships among economic growth, CO2 emissions, and fossil fuel consumption in China from 1965-2016. Using the combination of the newly developed econometric techniques, we obtain many novel empirical findings that are useful for policy makers. For example, cointegration and causality analysis imply that increasing CO2 emissions not only leads to immediate economic growth, but also future economic growth, both linearly and nonlinearly. In addition, the findings from cointegration and causality analysis in multivariate settings do not support the argument that reducing CO2 emissions and/or fossil fuel consumption does not lead to a slowdown in economic growth in China. The novel empirical findings are useful for policy makers in relation to fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth. Using the novel findings, governments can make better decisions regarding energy conservation and emission reductions policies without undermining the pace of economic growth in the long run.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Económico/tendencias , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Combustibles Fósiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Emisiones de Vehículos , China , Predicción , Modelos Estadísticos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1449, 2019 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) have been one of the most critical public health problems in Thailand for decades. The objective of this study was to examine to what extent provincial economy was associated with RTIs, road traffic deaths and case fatality rate in Thailand. METHODS: A secondary data analysis on time-series data was applied. The unit of analysis was a panel of 77 provinces during 2012-2016. Data were obtained from relevant public authorities, including the Ministry of Public Health. Descriptive statistics and econometric models, using negative binomial (NB) regression, negative binomial regression with random-effects (RE) model, and spatial Durbin model (SDM) were employed. The main predictor variable was gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the outcome variables were incidence proportion of RTIs, traffic deaths and case fatality rate. The analysis was adjusted for key covariates. RESULTS: The incidence proportion of RTIs rose from 449.0 to 524.9 cases per 100,000 population from 2012 till 2016, whereas the incidence of traffic fatalities fluctuated between 29.7 and 33.2 deaths per 100,000 population. Case fatality rate steadily stood at 0.06-0.07 deaths per victim. RTIs and traffic deaths appeared to be positively correlated with provincial economy in the NB regression and the RE model. In the SDM, a log-Baht increase in GDP per capita (equivalent to a growth of GDP per capita by about 2.7 times) enlarged the incidence proportion of injuries and deaths by about a quarter (23.8-30.7%) with statistical significance. No statistical significance was found in case fatality rate by the SDM. The SDM also presented the best model fitness relative to other models. CONCLUSION: The incidence proportion of traffic injuries and deaths appeared to rise alongside provincial prosperity. This means that RTIs-preventive measures should be more intensified in economically well-off areas. Furthermore, entrepreneurs and business sectors that gain economic benefit in a particular province should share responsibility in RTIs prevention in the area where their businesses are running. Further studies that explore others determinants of road safety, such as patterns of vehicles used, attitudes and knowledge of motorists, investment in safety measures, and compliance with traffic laws, are recommended.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Análisis de Datos , Femenino , Producto Interno Bruto/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Análisis Espacial , Tailandia/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36658-36679, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734840

RESUMEN

This study aims to examine the stochastic convergence of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 21 OECD countries and 19 emerging market economies. After approximating both sharp and smooth breaks, the panel unit root tests are performed to test the convergence. The empirical results suggest stochastic convergence for the two groups of countries. However, the results are different when tests for individual countries are conducted separately. Specifically, CO2 emissions of only four OECD countries and four emerging market economies show evidence of convergence if smooth breaks are not considered. With the inclusion of both sharp and smooth breaks, convergence is observed for 11 OECD countries and 10 emerging market economies. These findings may have implications for climate change policy making in selected economies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico/tendencias , Cambio Climático/economía , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Empírica , Política Ambiental , Modelos Económicos , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico/economía
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597246

RESUMEN

With rapid economic development in China, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children and adolescents is on a decline. However, this appears to have slowed down, reaching stagnation in certain areas. However, it is unclear if the change in CRF is related to economic growth and development or not. This study describes trends in CRF of Chinese children and adolescents, and empirically tests the relationships between China's macro-economic developments and cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents over the past 30 years using provincial panel data collected from one million samples. We used per capita disposable income as the economic indicator. CRF was assessed by using running tests: 50 m × 8 for boys and girls (7-12 years), 1000 m for boys (13-22 years), and 800 m for girls (13-22 years). The results show that economic growth has a U-shaped relationship with CRF of children and adolescents (both boys and girls). It appears that as incomes increased, CRF of urban male and female students in China gradually decreased to its lowest point, after which it showed an upward trend. From a horizontal perspective, it can be inferred that for low-developed provinces, increases in incomes cause a decrease in CRF levels. In contrast, for highly developed provinces, as incomes increase, CRF levels increase. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the relationship between macro-economy and CRF of youth, based on provincial panel data. The results presented here can be used to formulate health policies targeting the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents from middle-income provinces in China. This study also provides a reference for developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud del Niño/tendencias , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Económico/tendencias , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , China , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597376

RESUMEN

In the global economy, tourism is one of the most noticeable and growing sectors. Thissector plays an important role in boosting a nation's economy. An increase in tourism flow canbring positive economic outcomes to the nations, especially in gross domestic product (GDP) andemployment opportunities. In South Asian countries, the tourism industry is an engine ofeconomic development and GDP growth. This study investigates the impact of tourism onPakistan's economic growth and employment. The period under study was from 1990 to 2015. Tocheck whether the variables under study were stationary, augmented Dickey-Fuller andPhillips-Perron unit root tests were applied. A regression technique and Johansen cointegrationapproach were employed for the analysis of data. The key finding of this study shows that there isa positive and significant impact of tourism on Pakistan's economic growth as well as employmentsector and there is also a long-run relationship among the variables under study. This studysuggests that legislators should focus on the policies with special emphasis on the promotion oftourism due to its great potential throughout the country. Policy implications of this recent studyand future research suggestions are also mentioned.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Producto Interno Bruto/estadística & datos numéricos , Viaje/economía , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , India , Pakistán
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623353

RESUMEN

Quantitative analysis on decoupling between economic output, carbon emission, and the driving factors behind decoupling states can serve to make the economy grow without increasing carbon emission in China's transport sector. In this work, we investigate the decoupling states and driving factors of decoupling states in the transport sector of China's four municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing) through combining the Tapio decoupling approach with the decomposition technique. The results show that (i) the decoupling state of Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin improved; Beijing stabilized in weak decoupling; Shanghai and Tianjin appeared to have strong decoupling, but the decoupling state of Chongqing deteriorated from decoupling to negative decoupling. (ii) The energy-saving effect was the primary contributor to decoupling in these four municipalities, promoting transport's economic growth strongly decouple from carbon emission. The economic scale effect was not optimized enough in Chongqing, facilitating expansive coupling, and expansive negative decoupling emerged. But it had a rather positive impact on decoupling process in Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, promoting economic growth to weakly decouple from carbon emission. (iii) The carbon-reduction effect promoted strong decoupling, which emerged in Shanghai's transport sector, more so than in the other three municipalities, in which weak decoupling emerged. Finally, several relevant policy recommendations were offered to promote the decoupling of carbon emission from economic growth and low-carbon transport.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía/estadística & datos numéricos , Urbanización/tendencias , Carbono/análisis , China/epidemiología , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Económico/tendencias , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía/economía , Humanos
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