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1.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53156

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Costa Rica has long been a country of special interest in the Americas and in global health because of its good health. The United Nations Development Programme ranks countries according to their level of human development based on life expectancy, education and national income. Although Costa Rica is ranked at 63 and classified as ‘High’, in terms of health it belongs in the ‘Very High’ group. In 2018 mean life expectancy for the ‘Very High’ countries was 79.5, while in Costa Rica it was 80. In 2018, under five mortality was 8.8/1000 live births, lower than countries ranked in the ‘Very High’ human development group. Expected years of schooling in Costa Rica is 15.4, closer to the average, 16.4 years, of the ‘Very High’ human development group than the average of the ‘High’ group. The country is much healthier than would be predicted by its national income; rather, other features of society’s development are likely to have played a key role in the development of good health. These include (i) the decision to cease investment in national defence, which freed up money to invest in health, education and the welfare of the population; (ii) the decision to create a universal health system financed by the State, employers and workers in the 1940s; and (iii) the educational system, that generated opportunities to lift important sectors of the population out of poverty, allowing them to have basic sanitary conditions that increase their possibilities to live longer and in better conditions. Despite these advances, inequalities in terms of income and social conditions persist, presenting challenges in the field of health, particularly for lower-income populations and those of African and indigenous descent. These inequalities must be addressed using decisions based on scientific evidence, a greater use of disaggregated data to reveal progress in addressing these inequalities, and with a broader articulation of the health sector with policies that act on the social determinants of health.


[RESUMEN]. Costa Rica es un país de especial interés en las Américas y en la salud mundial debido a su buena salud. El Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo clasifica a los países según su nivel de desarrollo humano con base en la esperanza de vida, la educación y el ingreso nacional. Aunque Costa Rica está clasificada en el puesto 63 y clasificada dentro del grupo ‘Alto’, en términos de salud pertenece al grupo ‘Muy alto’. En 2018 la esperanza de vida media de los países del grupo ‘Muy alto’ era de 79,5 años, mientras que en Costa Rica era de 80. En 2018, la mortalidad en menores de cinco años era de 8,8/1000 nacidos vivos, inferior a la de los países clasificados en el grupo de desarrollo humano ‘Muy alto’. Los años de escolaridad esperados en Costa Rica son 15,4, más cercanos al promedio, 16,4 años, del grupo de desarrollo humano ‘Muy alto’ que el promedio del grupo ‘Alto’. El país es mucho más saludable de lo que podría predecirse por su ingreso nacional; más bien, es probable que otras características del desarrollo de la sociedad hayan desempeñado un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de la buena salud. Entre ellas figuran: (i) la decisión de dejar de invertir en la defensa nacional, que liberó dinero para invertir en salud, educación y bienestar de la población; (ii) la decisión de crear un sistema de salud universal financiado por el Estado, los empleadores y los trabajadores en el decenio de 1940; y (iii) el sistema educativo, que generó oportunidades para sacar de la pobreza a importantes sectores de la población, permitiéndoles disponer de condiciones sanitarias básicas que aumentan sus posibilidades de vivir más y en mejores condiciones. A pesar de estos avances, persisten desigualdades en términos de ingresos y condiciones sociales, lo que plantea desafíos en el ámbito de la salud, en particular para las poblaciones de menores ingresos y las de ascendencia africana e indígena. Estas desigualdades deben abordarse mediante decisiones basadas en pruebas científicas, un mayor uso de datos desagregados que revelen los progresos realizados para hacer frente a esas desigualdades, y una mayor articulación del sector de la salud con las políticas que actúan sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Desarrollo Humano , Esperanza de Vida , Costa Rica , Equidad en Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Desarrollo Humano , Esperanza de Vida
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e167, 2020 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895087

RESUMEN

AIMS: The number of mental hospital beds per population varies widely across countries, and the reasons for this variation are not fully understood. Given that differences in disease prevalence do not explain variation in inpatient mental health care availability, we examined the relationship between mental hospital beds and national income, education and longevity as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI). METHODS: We used an international dataset of social, economic and structural measures to conduct a mixed-effects longitudinal regression of predictors of the number of mental hospital beds per 100 000 in the overall population for 86 countries for years 2005-2015. RESULTS: Our initial dataset contained 1881 observations consisting of 11 years of potential measurements across 171 countries. After eliminations based on missing data and subsequent imputation, the dataset for the final regression model included 946 observations over 86 countries. The primary predictors of a country's number of mental hospital beds were year, HDI and GINI coefficient, the latter being a measure of income disparity. Holding all other factors constant, the number of beds decreased 8% per year, reflecting the ongoing international trend of deinstitutionalisation. As hypothesised, higher HDI predicted more mental hospital beds. Every 0.1 increase in HDI (0-1.0) was associated with a 126% increase in the number of hospital beds at the sample's mean GINI index score of 38 (0-100). However, a strong interaction between HDI and the GINI coefficient indicated that a high level of income disparity attenuated the positive association between HDI and mental hospital beds. At a GINI index score of 48, every 0.1 increase in HDI was associated with a 71% increase in the number of hospital beds. CONCLUSIONS: As countries reduce the number of hospital beds over time, higher levels of economic disparity are associated with a reduction in the strength of the association between national prosperity and investment in mental hospitals. As power becomes increasingly concentrated, perhaps those with the least are more easily forgotten.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad de Camas en Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Psiquiátricos , Desarrollo Humano , Factores Socioeconómicos , Ocupación de Camas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-03.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52540

RESUMEN

This is the eighth edition of the statistical brochure on Gender, Health, and Development in the Americas: Basic Indicators 2019. The usefulness of this brochure is widely recognized by various audiences throughout the Region of the Americas. The first step towards achieving gender equality is understanding the differences in the living and working conditions among men and women, as well as the risk factors and vulnerabilities that influence health outcomes. Additionally, in order to meet the targets set by the Sustainable Development Goals, countries should collect data to show the inequalities between diverse groups of men and women, identifying the most disadvantaged population groups and ensuring that no one is left behind. While countries of the Americas have taken significant strides in disaggregating health data by sex and age, additional efforts are still needed to include ethnic variables into health registries. This compendium of indicators illustrates the differences in health between men and women and, in the social, economic, and environmental determinants. It highlights once again the importance of continuing to collect disaggregated data to conduct gender-based analysis in order to determine, address, reduce, and eliminate the causes of gender-related inequalities.


Asunto(s)
Género y Salud , Equidad en Salud , Desarrollo Humano , Políticas Públicas Antidiscriminación , Américas
4.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(2): 160-163, May-Aug. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1114923

RESUMEN

Judging to make a decision amidst several possibilities that rise to risks, losses, gains and uncertainties is not a simple matter. In this process, the subject needs to verify the situation considering the alternatives that are made up of several elements, among them, the analysis of how much this decision will cost and what benefit it will have in response, and what the consequences will be in the long, medium and short term. In this sense, decision-making is associated with the deliberative and affective process that relates to multiple variables that are interconnected with the flow of information assimilated by the agent who is responsible for the judgment and the decision. This process is interdependent on the subject's structure with external stimuli. Thus, the individual's forces and social pressure are important elements to be considered for decision making. For the adolescent, this issue becomes even more important, as it is a phase of human development in which the person exhibits behaviors of risk and during this stage of life there is a process of maturation of the central nervous system, which are related to decision-making and motivational processes. Therefore, decision making among adolescents is a complex issue that in addition to biological factors are directly related to social and psychological elements, depends on a maturity in development, but can be impaired if stressful situations are constant stimuli in the lives of adolescents.


Julgar para tomar uma decisão em meio a várias possibilidades que ensejam riscos, perdas, ganhos e incertezas não se configura em questão simples. Nesse processo, o sujeito precisa verificar a situação considerando as alternativas que se compõem de diversos elementos, entre eles, a análise do quanto custará essa decisão e que beneficio terá em resposta, e quais serão as consequências a longo, médio e curto prazo. Nesse sentido, a tomada de decisão está associada ao processo deliberativo e afetivo que se relaciona com múltiplas variáveis que estão interligadas com o fluxo de informações assimiladas pelo agente que é responsável pelo julgamento e pela decisão. Esse processo é interdependente da estrutura do sujeito com os estímulos externos. Dessa forma, as forças do sujeito e as forças sociais são elementos importantes a serem considerados para a tomada de decisão. Para o adolescente essa questão se torna ainda mais importante, pois é uma fase do desenvolvimento humano em que a pessoa apresenta uma série de comportamentos de risco, isso considerando que durante essa etapa da vida está ocorrendo um processo de maturação do sistema nervoso central, que estão relacionadas a tomada de decisão e processos motivacionais. Portanto, tomada de decisão entre adolescentes se configura numa questão complexa que além de fatores biológicos se relacionam diretamente com elementos sociais e psicológicos, depende de uma maturidade no desenvolvimento, mas pode estar prejudicada se as situações de estresse forem estímulos constante na vida dos adolescentes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Asunción de Riesgos , Sistema Nervioso Central , Adolescente , Toma de Decisiones , Desarrollo Humano
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-07-31.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52538

RESUMEN

Esta es la octava edición del folleto estadístico Género, salud y desarrollo en la Américas. Indicadores básicos 2019, cuya utilidad es reconocida ampliamente por distintos públicos en la Región de las Américas. El primer paso hacia el logro de la igualdad de género consiste en conocer las diferencias en la situación y las condiciones de vida y de trabajo de los hombres y las mujeres, y los factores de riesgo, las vulnerabilidades y los resultados en el ámbito de la salud que las condicionan. Asimismo, con vistas a cumplir los compromisos asociados a los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, los países deben recopilar datos que reflejen las desigualdades entre los diversos grupos de hombres y de mujeres y que permitan identificar los grupos de población en mayor desventaja para asegurar que nadie se quede atrás. No obstante, si bien los países han mostrado grandes avances en la desagregación de los datos de salud por sexo y edad, aún se requieren mayores esfuerzos para integrar la variable de etnicidad en los registros de salud. Este compendio de indicadores muestra las diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en la salud y en los determinantes sociales, económicos y ambientales; y una vez más pone de relieve la importancia de continuar recopilando datos desagregados para realizar un análisis de las desigualdades con perspectiva de género, a fin de determinar las causas de dichas diferencias, abordarlas y reducirlas o eliminarlas.


Asunto(s)
Género y Salud , Equidad en Salud , Desarrollo Humano , Equidad de Género , Américas
7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 834-843, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539527

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The authors sought to directly compare these disorders using structural brain imaging data from ENIGMA consortium data. METHODS: Structural T1-weighted whole-brain MRI data from healthy control subjects (N=5,827) and from patients with ADHD (N=2,271), ASD (N=1,777), and OCD (N=2,323) from 151 cohorts worldwide were analyzed using standardized processing protocols. The authors examined subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area differences within a mega-analytical framework, pooling measures extracted from each cohort. Analyses were performed separately for children, adolescents, and adults, using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for age, sex, and site (and intracranial volume for subcortical and surface area measures). RESULTS: No shared differences were found among all three disorders, and shared differences between any two disorders did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Children with ADHD compared with those with OCD had smaller hippocampal volumes, possibly influenced by IQ. Children and adolescents with ADHD also had smaller intracranial volume than control subjects and those with OCD or ASD. Adults with ASD showed thicker frontal cortices compared with adult control subjects and other clinical groups. No OCD-specific differences were observed across different age groups and surface area differences among all disorders in childhood and adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest robust but subtle differences across different age groups among ADHD, ASD, and OCD. ADHD-specific intracranial volume and hippocampal differences in children and adolescents, and ASD-specific cortical thickness differences in the frontal cortex in adults, support previous work emphasizing structural brain differences in these disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Cerebro , Neuroimagen/métodos , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/fisiopatología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Cerebro/diagnóstico por imagen , Cerebro/patología , Cerebro/fisiopatología , Niño , Femenino , Desarrollo Humano/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/fisiopatología , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/psicología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Psicopatología , Informe de Investigación , Análisis de Sistemas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232014, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352971

RESUMEN

Despite being one of the most common measures of development, the Human Development Index [HDI] has been much criticized for its consistency, data requirements, difficulty of interpretation and trade-offs between indicators. The 'Human Life Indicator' [HLI] has been proposed as a 'simple effective means' of measuring development and, more specifically, as a viable alternative to the HDI. Reducing inequalities within countries is a core component of the Sustainable Development Goals; yet sub-national HDIs are subject to the same criticisms as national level indices (potentially more so). Our goal in this paper is to demonstrate 'proof of concept' in terms of the systematic application of the HLI to measure development at the subnational level. Using life tables for the United States of America, we calculate, for the first time, HLIs for each state for the period 1959-2016. This country was chosen for the comparatively long run of available sub-national life tables. We also calculate the extent to which mortality is distributed across the life course-a further measure of inequality and the role of the social determinants of health. The HLI clearly shows how striking regional inequalities exist across the United States. We find that HLI and HDI for the most recent time period are strongly correlated. The analysis demonstrates that HLI represents an effective means of measuring development at the sub-national level. Compared to HDI, HLIs are characterized by simpler calculation and interpretation; fewer data requirements; less measurement error; more consistency over time; and no trade-offs between components. A current challenge of producing sub-national HLIs is the lack of comprehensive civil registration and vital statistics systems in many parts of the Global South from which sub-national life tables can be generated. However, as more and more countries develop these systems the potential to produce HLIs will inevitably increase.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Humano/fisiología , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Carga Global de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global/normas , Humanos , Tablas de Vida , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual , Factores Socioeconómicos , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Estados Unidos
9.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 24(1): 53-61, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358937

RESUMEN

This study aimed to describe the current incidence and mortality rates of gynecologic cancer and their association with socio- economic development. The data for the age-standardized incidence rate (ASRI) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASRM) were acquired from the GLOBOCAN-2012 database. Human Development Index (HDI) data were obtained from the 2015- Human Development Report. The correlation between HDI and Mortality to Incidence Ratio (MIR) was assessed by Pearson- correlation. The effect of national-HDI on MIR was analyzed by linear regression analysis. The ASRI, ASRM, and MIR of cervix cancer were higher in the less developed regions (LDRs) than in more developed regions (MDRs). However, for corpus uteri cancer, the ASRI was 3.6 times and the ASRM was 1.5-times higher in the MDRs than in the LDRs. Strong inverse associations between MIR and HDI were reported from cervix (adjusted R2 = 0.825, ß = - 0.908, p < 0.001), corpus uteri (adjusted R2 = 0.554, ß = - 0.746, p < 0.001) and ovarian cancer (adjusted R2 = 0.579, ß = - 0.763, p < 0.001). The higher MIR of gynecologic cancer in LDRs demand for sustainable investment in health systems and balanced cancer control plans in the region.


Asunto(s)
Cuello del Útero/patología , Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/epidemiología , Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/mortalidad , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Desarrollo Humano , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Esperanza de Vida , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Neoplasias Ováricas/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiología
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: 1-16, jan.-maio 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1140079

RESUMEN

O objetivo desta pesquisa é apreender as percepções e expectativas de estudantes de graduação em psicologia acerca da psicologia escolar e das possibilidades de intervenção de psicólogos na educação. Participaram da pesquisa 48 graduandos de psicologia de instituições de ensino superior públicas e privadas. Foram aplicados um questionário sociodemográfico e uma entrevista semiestruturada que foi registrada por meio de um gravador de voz e posteriormente analisada conforme as diretrizes apresentadas no método de Bardin. Os resultados mostraram que houve diferenças nos argumentos utilizados entre os estudantes de psicologia que haviam cursado disciplinas do campo da psicologia escolar e Educacional e aqueles que ainda não haviam cursado tais disciplinas, o que indica que uma formação que contemple disciplinas desse campo pode favorecer uma maior apropriação teórica e metodológica acerca das especificidades dessa área e das possibilidades de atuação do psicólogo na educação, em especial, seu compromisso com processos de aprendizado e desenvolvimento humano...(AU)


This study records perceptions and expectations of psychology degree students about Scholar Psychology and the possibilities of psychologist actions in Education. The sample included 48 undergraduate Psychology students of Public and Private Higher Education Institutions. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview recorded via voice recorder were applied then analyzed according to the guidelines presented in Bardin's method. The results showed that there were differences in arguments used among psychology students who had taken disciplines of Scholar and Educational Psychology field and those who had not yet studied such disciplines, which indicates that training including disciplines of this field can foster greater theoretical and methodological appropriation of particularities of this area and psychologists' possibilities of acting in education, especially regarding commitment to learning and human development processes...(AU)


El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar las percepciones y expectativas de los estudiantes de graduación en Psicología acerca de la Psicología Escolar y de las posibilidades de intervención de psicólogos en la Educación. Participaron en el estudio 48 estudiantes de Psicología de Instituciones de Enseñanza Superior Públicas y Privadas. Se aplicó un cuestionario sociodemográfico y una entrevista semiestructurada, que se ha registrado por medio de una grabadora de voz para posteriormente evaluarla según las directrices presentadas en Bardin. Los resultados mostraron que hubo diferencias en los argumentos utilizados entre los estudiantes de psicología que habían cursado asignaturas del campo de la Psicología Escolar y Educacional y aquellos que aún no las habían cursado, lo que indica que una formación que contemple asignaturas de este campo puede favorecer una mayor apropiación teórica y metodológica acerca de las especificidades de esa área y de las posibilidades de actuación del psicólogo en la educación, sobre todo, en su compromiso con procesos de aprendizaje y desarrollo humano...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Psicología , Psicología Educacional , Investigación , Estudiantes , Educación , Aprendizaje , Niño , Intervención Educativa Precoz , Escolaridad , Instituciones de Enseñanza Superior , Desarrollo Humano
11.
Dev Psychol ; 56(6): 1220-1232, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223295

RESUMEN

Although many facets of social status (i.e., socioeconomic status, gender, race) are fairly stable, limited work has assessed how youths' identification with their status changes over time. Subjective social status (SSS) refers to one's perception of standing or rank relative to others, and for youth status is generally in the context of society or school. The current study assessed how adolescents' SSS in American society and in their school changes and predicts health and well-being during and after high school. A total of 336 adolescents (Mage = 16.40 at Wave 1) reported their SSS at up to three time points, each 2 years apart, such that youth provided data between the 10th grade and 3 years following the transition from high school. Piecewise multilevel modeling was used, including discontinuities to assess the importance of the transition from high school. Society SSS decreased across the period, especially among youth with lower family income, youth whose parents reported lower SSS, and youth who did not attend college. School SSS was stable during high school, declined after 12th grade, and remained stable thereafter. Moderation analyses revealed that school SSS declines more consistently among female adolescents than male adolescents and Latinos relative to other ethnic groups. Lower society and school SSS were associated with more depressive symptoms and greater likelihood of obesity, highlighting the relevance of SSS for health during this important developmental transition. Results suggest declines in SSS are especially common among disadvantaged groups as they age, and that lower SSS may indicate risk for poorer health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Depresión/etnología , Estado de Salud , Desarrollo Humano , Obesidad/etnología , Autoimagen , Clase Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Los Angeles/etnología , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
12.
Memorandum ; 37: 1-26, Abril 01, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: psi-72071

RESUMEN

O estudo sobre o desenvolvimento humano, por parte da Psicologia, se revela a partir de um panorama complexo e, por vezes, anárquico que contempla amplo leque de perspectivas. O que marca a alteridade desse campo do saber? O objetivo do presente artigo é compreender de que maneira surge a Psicologia do Desenvolvimento, demarcando condições de seu advento por meio de uma revisão não sistemática de literatura. Não há distinções significativas, do ponto de vista histórico e até mesmo gerencial, em Programas de Pós-Graduação no Brasil, entre Psicologia e Psicologia do Desenvolvimento. Por outro lado, Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e Psicologia Educacional são historicamente entrelaçadas. Encontram-se, também mais recentemente, esforços de destacar a Psicologia do Desenvolvimento do campo da Psicologia através da delimitação de objetos e métodos próprios, inserindo-se numa perspectiva não disciplinar como Ciência do Desenvolvimento.


The psychologist study of human development is revealed from a complex and sometimes anarchic panorama contemplating a wide range of perspectives. What marks the otherness of this field of knowledge? The aim of the present study is to understand how Developmental Psychology came up, marking its conditions of advent through a non-systematic literature review. We conclude that there are almost no distinction between Psychology and Developmental Psychology, from the historical and even managerial point of view in Graduate Programs in Brazil. On the other hand, Developmental Psychology and Educational Psychology are historically interlaced. More recently, there have also been efforts to separate the Developmental Psychology of the field of Psychology through a delimitation of its own objects and methods, inserting it among a non-disciplinary perspective, such as Science Development.


Asunto(s)
Psicología , Historia , Desarrollo Humano
13.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 72(1): 187-203, jan.-abr. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1114680

RESUMEN

Este artigo apresenta o resultado de um estudo realizado com adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade social, em Santa Cruz de Minas, Minas Gerais, participantes de atividades em grupo em uma orquestra jovem que atua como uma rede de apoio social. Toma-se como base a interlocução entre o Modelo Bioecológico de Desenvolvimento Humano de Bronfenbrenner e a Psicomúsica de Moreno, relacionando os campos de estudo da Música e da Psicologia. As informações foram coletadas a partir de observação participante e entrevistas com 12 participantes analisadas com base na Teoria Fundamentada. Foi possível notar efeitos positivos no desenvolvimento social dos envolvidos, com relatos de melhora nas relações entre pares dentro e fora da orquestra. Os resultados permitiram uma discussão com os referenciais teóricos e embasar para realização de atividades com grupos musicais, para fins terapêuticos, sociais ou para a prática musical. Com base na Psicomúsica apresenta-se sugestões de intervenção.


This paper presents the results of a study carried out with adolescents, in a situation of social vulnerability in Santa Cruz, Minas Gerais, who participate in group activities in a youth orchestra that works as a social support network. It is based on the interlocution between the Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model of Human Development and Moreno's Psychomusic, seeking to correlate the fields of study of Music and Psychology. The information was collected from participant observation and interviews with twelve participants and analyzed based on the Grounded Theory. It was possible to notice positive effects in the social development of those involved, by reports of improvement in the relationships between pairs inside and outside the orchestra. The results allowed a discussion with the theoretical references and support to carry out activities with musical groups, for therapeutic, social or for musical practice. Based on the Psychomusic, suggestions for intervention are presented.


Este artículo presenta el resultado de un estudio realizado con adolescentes socialmente vulnerables en Santa Cruz de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, que participan en actividades grupales en una joven orquesta que actúa como una red de apoyo social. Se basa en la interlocución entre el Modelo Bioecológico de Desarrollo Humano de Bronfenbrenner y la Psicomúsica de Moreno, que relaciona los campos de estudio de la Música y la Psicología.. La información se recopiló de la observación de los participantes y las entrevistas con doce participantes y se analizó en base a la Teoría Fundamentada. Fue posible notar efectos positivos en el desarrollo social de los involucrados, con informes de mejora en las relaciones entre pares dentro y fuera de la orquesta. Los resultados permitieron una discusión con los marcos teóricos y el apoyo para realizar actividades con grupos musicales, con fines terapéuticos, sociales o para la práctica musical. Basado en Psicomúsica, se presentan sugerencias para la intervención.


Asunto(s)
Psicología , Terapéutica , Adolescente , Vulnerabilidad Social , Teoría Fundamentada , Desarrollo Humano , Música
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1539-1546, abr. 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089526

RESUMEN

Resumen Se presenta una investigación teórica sobre la educación para la salud, la cual se propone desde una perspectiva emancipadora y constituye una oportunidad para promover la salud en las comunidades porque permite explicitar una concepción de justicia social. La visión de justicia social que se plantea en este artículo está centrada el enfoque de las capacidades que se entienden como un conjunto de oportunidades reales para que las personas tengan la vida que valoran. Este enfoque es pertinente para el trabajo en salud pública porque está centrado en el desarrollo humano, permite incorporar al sujeto en relación dialéctica con la sociedad y se enfoca en las oportunidades reales. Se consideran las diferencias entre las corrientes de salud pública para entender la justicia social y la relevancia de una concepción de salud que permita trascender el abordaje biomédico centrado en la enfermedad. Se reconoce la importancia de avanzar hacia un desarrollo pedagógico de la educación para la salud que supere la perspectiva de educación centrada en los cambios de comportamiento, para entenderla como un proceso social y político con base humanista emancipadora como oportunidad para la construcción de la salud pública.


Abstract Theoretical research on health education is presented, which is proposed from an emancipatory perspective and constitutes an opportunity to promote health in communities because it makes it possible to explain a concept of social justice. The vision of social justice that is put forward in this article is focused on the capabilities that are understood as a set of real opportunities for people to achieve the life they aspire to. This approach is relevant for public health work because it is centered around human development, allows the subject to be incorporated into a dialectical relationship with society and focuses on real opportunities. The differences between public health approaches are considered to understand social justice and the relevance of a health concept that makes it possible to transcend the biomedical approach focused on disease. The importance of advancing towards a pedagogical development of health education that exceeds the perspective of education focused on behavioral changes is acknowledged, in order to understand it as a social and political process with an emancipatory humanist base as an opportunity for the construction of public health.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Aptitud , Justicia Social/educación , Salud Pública/métodos , Educación en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Autonomía Personal , Desarrollo Humano , Derechos Humanos
15.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 150: 41-76, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204834

RESUMEN

Adverse experiences during childhood can have long-lasting impacts on physical and mental health. At the heart of most theories of how these effects are transduced into health impacts is the activity of stress-mediating systems, most notably the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Here we review the anatomy and physiology of the axis, models of stress and development, the development of the axis prenatally through adolescence, the role of experience and sensitive periods in shaping its regulation, the social regulation of the axis at different points in development, and finally conclude with suggestions for future research. We conclude that it is clear that early adversity sculpts the stress system, but we do not understand which dimensions have the most impact and at what points in early development. It is equally clear that secure attachment relationships buffer the developing stress system; however, the mechanisms of social buffering and how these may change with development are not yet clear. Another critical issue that is not understood is when and for whom adversity will result in hypo- vs hyperactivity of stress-mediating systems. These and other issues are important for advancing our understanding of how early adversity "gets under the skin" and shapes human physical and mental health.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Encéfalo , Desarrollo Humano/fisiología , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario , Relaciones Interpersonales , Apego a Objetos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Estrés Psicológico , Adolescente , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/anatomía & histología , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/fisiopatología , Lactante , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/metabolismo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/patología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/fisiopatología , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Estrés Psicológico/fisiopatología
16.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 150: 77-105, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204835

RESUMEN

Experiencing poverty in childhood has been associated with increased risk for physical and mental health difficulties later in life. An emerging body of evidence suggests that brain development may be one mediator of this relation. In this chapter, we discuss evidence for an association between childhood poverty and brain structure/function. First, we examine the association from a lifespan perspective discussing studies at multiple developmental stages from the prenatal period to late adulthood. Second, we examine existing studies that link childhood poverty, brain development, and physical and mental health outcomes. Third, we discuss studies linking childhood poverty and environmental risks and protective factors. Lastly, we discuss suggestions for future studies including advances in network neuroscience, population neuroscience, using multiple imaging modalities, and the use of longitudinal neuroimaging studies. Overall, associations between childhood poverty, brain development, and development over the life course may help to both better understand and eventually reveal salient intervention strategies to mitigate social disparities in health.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Encéfalo/fisiología , Desarrollo Humano/fisiología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Neuroimagen , Pobreza , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Red Nerviosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Red Nerviosa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Embarazo
17.
Edumecentro ; 12(1): 82-96, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090000

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: la valoración del crecimiento y desarrollo del paciente estomatológico permite unificar criterios y realizar una evaluación homogénea y eficiente de su enfermedad, por el futuro profesional de Estomatología. Objetivo: diseñar una guía para valorar el crecimiento físico general y craneofacial del paciente estomatológico. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en la Facultad de Estomatología, durante octubre 2017-abril 2018. Se utilizaron métodos del nivel teórico y empíricos: encuesta en forma de cuestionario a los estudiantes, técnica de grupo nominal y entrevista a informantes clave. La propuesta fue valorada por criterio de especialistas. Resultados: predominó un grado de información insuficiente sobre la temática en estudio por los estudiantes, los que indicaron como vías para adquirir conocimientos: "por los profesores en clase" y "en la atención ambulatoria", solo una minoría seleccionó el libro de texto básico. La técnica de grupo nominal y entrevista a informantes clave permitieron confirmar lo indagado e identificar los aspectos teóricos esenciales en la elaboración de la guía para valorar el crecimiento físico general y craneofacial de este tipo de paciente. Conclusiones: la propuesta resultó un medio de enseñanza pertinente, útil y factible de aplicar desde la asignatura Ortodoncia en el pregrado y en la especialidad, según la valoración de los especialistas consultados.


ABSTRACT Background: the assessment of the growth and development of the dental patient allows unifying criteria and performing a homogeneous and efficient evaluation of their disease, by the future professional of Dentistry. Objective: to design a guide to assess the general and craniofacial physical growth of the dental patient. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional investigation was carried out at the Dentistry Faculty, from October 2017 to April 2018. Methods of the theoretical and empirical level were used: a survey in questionnaire form to students, nominal group technique and interview to key informants. The proposal was assessed by specialists' criteria. Results: there was a predominance of insufficient information on the subject under study by the students, which they indicated as ways to acquire knowledge: "by teachers in class" and "in outpatient care", only a minority selected the basic textbook. The nominal group technique and interview to key informants allowed confirming what was investigated and identifying the theoretical aspects essential for the preparation of the guide to assess the general and craniofacial physical growth of the individual. Conclusions: the proposal was a relevant, useful and feasible teaching aid to apply from the subject Orthodontics in the undergraduate and in the specialty, according to the assessment of the specialists consulted.


Asunto(s)
Ortodoncia , Estudiantes de Odontología , Educación Médica , Desarrollo Humano
18.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(3): 504-511, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043221

RESUMEN

Most studies of visual search across the life span have focused on classic feature and conjunction searches in which observers search for a fixed, simple shape target among relatively homogeneous distractors over a block of multiple trials. In the present study, we examine a more realistic task in which participants (4 to 25 years-old) look for images of real objects, presented amongst a heterogeneous array of other objects. The target is unique on every trial, unlike in previous developmental studies of visual search. Our new touchscreen-based "Pirate-Treasure" search also allows the testing of younger children within a video-game-like task. With this method, we tested a large sample (n = 293) of typically developing children and young adults. We assessed the developmental course of different search metrics like search efficiency, motor response differences, and accuracy (misses and false-alarm errors). Results show the most rapid time courses in development for accuracy. Search slopes reach the young adult level most slowly. The intercepts of the Reaction Time (RT) × Set Size function are often attributed to nonsearch perceptual and motor components of the task. The intercept time course is intermediate between accuracy and slope. Interestingly, these developmental functions follow time courses proposed in neuropsychological models of executive function development. This suggests that a single, video-game-like search task could be useful in routine assessments of cognitive development.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Humano/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Percepción Espacial/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Atención/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
19.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 33(3): 542-551, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048401

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Scale of Emotional Development-Short (SED-S) is an instrument to assess the level of emotional development (ED) in people with intellectual and developmental disability. Index cases are developed as a didactic tool to standardize the application of the scale. METHOD: In a stepwise process, a European working group from six countries developed five index cases, one for each level of ED. All cases were first scored by 20 raters using the SED-S and then rephrased to reduce inter-rater variations (SD > 0.5). RESULTS: All five index cases yielded overall ratings that matched the intended level of ED. Across the range of ED, Regulating Affect needed rephrasing most to ensure a distinct description within each level of ED. CONCLUSIONS: The tri-lingual, cross-cultural evolution of five index cases contributes to a standardized application of the SED-S and can serve as training material to improve the inter-rater reliability of the SED-S across different cultures and languages.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/diagnóstico , Regulación Emocional , Desarrollo Humano , Discapacidad Intelectual/diagnóstico , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/normas , Psicometría/normas , Adulto , Afecto/fisiología , Comparación Transcultural , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/fisiopatología , Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Europa (Continente) , Desarrollo Humano/fisiología , Humanos , Discapacidad Intelectual/fisiopatología , Psicometría/instrumentación
20.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 90(2): 267-282, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105125

RESUMEN

Despite the proclamation of a "postracial" society, racism in the United States remains "alive and sick" (S. P. Harrell, 2000), negatively impacting the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being of Black Americans. Moreover, the complex impact of racism throughout the life span is inadequately understood. Coping with the insidiousness of racism in its myriad forms requires recognizing how it expresses across development. In this developmental overview, we apply a life-course perspective (Gee, Walsemann, & Brondolo, 2012) to investigate racism-related stress and coping over time. Within each period of development, we first explore how racism-related stress may present for Black Americans and then document what coping from this stress looks like, highlighting extant strategies and interventions where they exist. This work concludes with a set of definitional, methodological, and clinical future directions and recommendations for improving the field's ability to mitigate the deleterious impact of racism-related stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Afroamericanos/psicología , Desarrollo Humano , Racismo/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etnología , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Humanos , Estados Unidos/etnología
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