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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 227-235, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-232717

RESUMEN

El objetivo fue examinar, desde una aproximación multi-informante, las medidas del Síndrome de Desconexión Cognitiva (SDC) de padres/madres e hijos/as y su relación con síntomas internalizantes y externalizantes. 279 niños/as (9-13 años), y sus padres/madres completaron las evaluaciones sobre SDC, la inatención del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y otras medidas internalizadas y externalizadas. Los ítems de las tres medidas de SDC convergieron razonablemente bien en el factor SDC. Se aportaron pruebas discriminantes de la validez de las relaciones entre las puntuaciones de las pruebas y las medidas de los tres constructos diferentes (SDC, soledad y preferencia por la soledad). La asociación más estrecha estuvo entre la evaluación parental de las medidas de SDC con ansiedad y depresión, y entre inatención con hiperactividad/impulsividad y trastorno negativista desafiante. Se observó capacidad predictiva de la medida de SDC sobre la soledad y preferencia por estar solo autoinformadas. Se encontró una posible asociación entre la medida del SDC evaluado por padres/madres y sexo y edad de los niños. En conclusión, los datos apoyan la inclusión de medidas autoinformadas en la evaluación del SDC. Las medidas del SDC en niños se vinculan con medidas internalizantes y, la inatención con las externalizantes.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Salud Infantil , Psicología Infantil , Desarrollo Infantil , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Ansiedad , Depresión
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1390107, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962774

RESUMEN

Early childhood is foundational for optimal and inclusive lifelong learning, health and well-being. Young children with disabilities face substantial risks of sub-optimal early childhood development (ECD), requiring targeted support to ensure equitable access to lifelong learning opportunities, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Although the Sustainable Development Goals, 2015-2030 (SDGs) emphasise inclusive education for children under 5 years with disabilities, there is no global strategy for achieving this goal since the launch of the SDGs. This paper explores a global ECD framework for children with disabilities based on a review of national ECD programmes from different world regions and relevant global ECD reports published since 2015. Available evidence suggests that any ECD strategy for young children with disabilities should consists of a twin-track approach, strong legislative support, guidelines for early intervention, family involvement, designated coordinating agencies, performance indicators, workforce recruitment and training, as well as explicit funding mechanisms and monitoring systems. This approach reinforces parental rights and liberty to choose appropriate support pathway for their children. We conclude that without a global disability-focussed ECD strategy that incorporates these key features under a dedicated global leadership, the SDGs vision and commitment for the world's children with disabilities are unlikely to be realised.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Niños con Discapacidad , Humanos , Preescolar , Salud Global , Desarrollo Sostenible , Países en Desarrollo , Lactante , Niño , Intervención Educativa Precoz
3.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 50: 101142, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964813

RESUMEN

Abusive head trauma (AHT) is associated with high mortality and poorer outcomes compared to accidental head injuries. The short and long-term developmental outcomes for AHT are not well identified. Variability in outcome measures, small sample sizes, difficulty in measuring domain-specific developmental skills, co-existence of comorbidities, genetic and environmental factors and high attrition rates all contribute to the challenges on providing data in this area. The objective of this article is to review the scientific literature on the developmental outcomes of AHT, highlighting factors that affect outcomes, the available assessment tools, and short and long-term developmental outcomes, recommended follow up, societal costs, and future opportunities for research. Authors searched OVID Medline and PubMed for articles published between 2013 and 2023 using the terms "abuse", "craniocerebral trauma" and "development". Fifty-five records were included for this review. The data shows that injuries sustained from AHT result in a spectrum of outcomes ranging from normal development to death. There are more than 100 outcome assessment tools limiting the ability to compare studies. More than half of patients are left with disabilities post discharge. Gross motor and cognition/academics are the 2 most common domains studied. Advancement in surgical and neurocritical care management has influenced AHT outcomes. Close long-term follow up is recommended to maximize each child's developmental potential, irrespective of the presence of disability at discharge. We suggest that future research should focus on adopting a consistent diagnostic and assessment approach and explore the social environmental factors that can affect recovery.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales , Discapacidades del Desarrollo , Humanos , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/etiología , Lactante , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Preescolar , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud
4.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 69, 2024 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961489

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fundamental motor skills (FMS) and physical fitness (FIT) play important roles in child development and provide a foundation for lifelong participation in physical activity (PA). Unfortunately, many children have suboptimal levels of PA, FMS, and FIT. The Active Learning Norwegian Preschool(er)s (ACTNOW) study investigated the effects of a staff-led PA intervention on FMS, FIT, and PA in 3-5-year-old children. METHODS: Preschools in Western Norway having ≥ six 3-4-year-old children were invited (n = 56). Of these, 46 agreed to participate and were cluster-randomized into an intervention (n = 23 preschools [381 children, 3.8 yrs., 55% boys]) or a control group (n = 23 [438, 3.7 yrs., 52% boys]). Intervention preschools participated in an 18-month PA intervention involving a 7-month staff professional development between 2019 and 2022, amounting to 50 h, including face-to-face seminars, webinars, and digital lectures. Primary outcomes in ACTNOW were cognition variables, whereas this study investigated effects on secondary outcomes. FMS was measured through 9 items covering locomotor, object control, and balance skills. FIT was assessed as motor fitness (4 × 10 shuttle-run test) and upper and lower muscular strength (handgrip and standing long jump). PA was measured with accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X +). All measures took place at baseline, 7-, and 18-month follow-up. Effects were analysed using a repeated measures linear mixed model with child and preschool as random effects and with adjustment for baseline scores. RESULTS: Participants in the intervention preschools showed positive, significant effects for object control skills at 7 months (standardized effect size (ES) = 0.17) and locomotor skills at 18 months (ES = 0.21) relative to controls. A negative effect was found for handgrip strength (ES = -0.16) at 7 months. No effects were found for balance skills, standing long jump, or motor fitness. During preschool hours, sedentary time decreased (ES = -0.18), and light (ES = 0.14) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (ES = 0.16) increased at 7 months, whereas light PA decreased at 18 months (ES = -0.15), for intervention vs control. No effects were found for other intensities or full day PA. CONCLUSIONS: The ACTNOW intervention improved some FMS outcomes and increased PA short-term. Further research is needed to investigate how to improve effectiveness of staff-led PA interventions and achieve sustainable improvements in children's PA, FMS, and FIT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT04048967 , registered August 7, 2019. FUNDING: ACTNOW was supported by the Research Council of Norway (grant number 287903), the County Governor of Sogn og Fjordane, the Sparebanken Sogn og Fjordane Foundation, and the Western Norway University of Applied Sciences.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Destreza Motora , Aptitud Física , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Noruega , Preescolar , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Desarrollo Infantil , Desarrollo de Personal/métodos , Fuerza de la Mano
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 58(6): 917-923, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955742

RESUMEN

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) have the characteristics of resistance to environmental degradation, bioaccumulation and long-distance migration potential. Maternal exposure to POPs during pregnancy can enter the fetal blood circulation through the placental barrier, and have a potential impact on the functional development of the nervous system of the offspring. This in turn leads to the occurrence and development of neurological defects and diseases in adulthood. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the effects of exposure to three major POPs (organochlorine compounds, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) during pregnancy on the functional development of the nervous system (social emotions, cognition, language, exercise, and adaptability) in children, and to provide reference for subsequent studies.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso , Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Sistema Nervioso/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema Nervioso/crecimiento & desarrollo , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Clorados , Desarrollo Infantil/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad
6.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 34(1): 27-38, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38957340

RESUMEN

Background: Children's growth is increasingly considered a key mediator of later life outcomes. When examining weight growth, the correlation between repeated observations on the same subject must be regarded as well-modelled. This study aimed to analyze children's weight growth variations and associated factors in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam using a fractional polynomial mixed-effects model. Methods: This study used longitudinal data from the Young Lives Cohort Study conducted from 2002 to 2016 in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. The study included 7,140 children of 1 to 15 years old A fractional polynomial mixed-effects model was used to analyze the data. Results: Ethiopian, Peruvian, and Vietnamese children had significantly higher average body weights than children in India (1.426, P<0.001; 1.992, P<0.001; 1.334, P<0.001, respectively). Girl children's average body weight was significantly 0.15 times less than that of boys (-0.148; P=0.027). The average weight of rural children was significantly 0.671 times less than that of urban children (0.671, P<0.001). Children from Peru and Vietnam had higher rates of weight change than those from India. However, the rate of weight change was lower in Ethiopian children than in Indian children. Children from urban areas had a significantly higher rate of weight gain than those from rural areas. Conclusion: Country, sex, residence, parental education, household size, wealth, good drinking water, and reliable power affected children's longitudinal weight growth. Therefore, WHO and the nation's health ministry should monitor children's weight growth status and these associated factors to plan future action.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Población Rural , Humanos , Etiopía , Vietnam/epidemiología , Perú , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , India , Preescolar , Adolescente , Lactante , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Longitudinales , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Aumento de Peso , Estudios de Cohortes
7.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(2): 214-221, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme, a large public health program, addresses the needs of young children with Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) as frontline agents of delivery. A scalable program incorporating early child development interventions (ASPIRE) has been developed to complement the program and address some of its gaps. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes formative work done with AWWs, as part of ASPIRE to assess their understanding of early childhood development (ECD) and acceptability of a novel ECD intervention using digital technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 31 AWWs, using a semi-structured guide. RESULTS: Framework analysis of their responses from FGDs led to the identification of three themes: (1) time use, (2) understanding of ECD, and (3) delivering messages using videos. The findings suggest that AWWs tight schedules often leave them feeling overburdened with work. They are aware of factors that can aid as well as hinder child growth and development, but their understanding of play is limited to games played by older children. They expressed acceptability in using a video intervention, specifying features that would increase relevance for families. CONCLUSION: Integration of novel ECD interventions delivered by frontline workers needs to take into account their existing work schedules and associated challenges. Training on ECD interventions will need to broaden AWWs understanding of the critical foundational experiences which responsive caregiving and early child stimulation can provide.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Grupos Focales , Humanos , India , Femenino , Masculino , Preescolar , Investigación Cualitativa , Adulto , Intervención Educativa Precoz/organización & administración , Intervención Educativa Precoz/métodos , Servicios de Salud del Niño/organización & administración , Lactante
8.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 284, 2024 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972993

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infant neurodevelopment in the first years after birth is determined by multiple factors, including parental care and maternal mental wellbeing. In this study, we aim to assess the impact of persistent maternal depressive symptoms during the first 3 months postpartum on infant neurodevelopment at 6 months. METHODS: Using a longitudinal cohort design, 1253 mother-infant pairs were followed up at 7, 45, and 90 days to assess postpartum depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); infants were followed up at 6 months to assess neuro-developmental status using the WHO's Infant and Young Child Development (IYCD) tool. A generalized linear regression model was used to assess the association between persistent postpartum depressive symptoms and infant neurodevelopmental delay at 6 months. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with a hospital as a random intercept was used to assess the persistent postpartum depressive symptoms with an IYCD score. Linear regression was used to compare the IYCD scores between exposure groups. RESULTS: In the study population, 7.5% of mothers had persistent depressive symptoms, and 7.5% of infants had neurodevelopmental delay. Infants born to mothers with persistent depressive symptoms had a higher proportion of neurodevelopmental delay than infants born to women without persistent symptoms (48.6% vs 5.1%; p < 0.001). In the adjusted regression model, infants whose mothers had persistent depressive symptoms at 7, 45, and 90 days had a 5.21-fold increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay (aRR, 5.21; 95% CI, 3.17, 8.55). Mean scores in the motor domain (12.7 vs 15.2; p < 0.001) and language domain (6.4 vs 8.5; p < 0.001) were significant when a mother had persistent depression vs. no depression. Mean scores in the general behavioral domain (5.9 vs 10.4, p < 0.001) and the socio-emotional domain (15.4 vs 17.7; p < 0.001) were significantly different when a mother had persistent depression vs no persistent depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that 6-month-old infants are at higher risk for neurodevelopment delays if their mother reports persistent symptoms of depression from 7 to 90 days postpartum. The neurodevelopmental delay can be observed in all functional domains. Preventive intervention to reduce maternal postpartum depression may reduce the impact on infant developmental delay.


Asunto(s)
Depresión Posparto , Humanos , Femenino , Depresión Posparto/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Lactante , Adulto , Nepal/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Masculino , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Recién Nacido
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(29): e2315149121, 2024 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980899

RESUMEN

Combinatorial thought, or the ability to combine a finite set of concepts into a myriad of complex ideas and knowledge structures, is the key to the productivity of the human mind and underlies communication, science, technology, and art. Despite the importance of combinatorial thought for human cognition and culture, its developmental origins remain unknown. To address this, we tested whether 12-mo-old infants (N = 60), who cannot yet speak and only understand a handful of words, can combine quantity and kind concepts activated by verbal input. We proceeded in two steps: first, we taught infants two novel labels denoting quantity (e.g., "mize" for 1 item; "padu" for 2 items, Experiment 1). Then, we assessed whether they could combine quantity and kind concepts upon hearing complex expressions comprising their labels (e.g., "padu duck", Experiments 2-3). At test, infants viewed four different sets of objects (e.g., 1 duck, 2 ducks, 1 ball, 2 balls) while being presented with the target phrase (e.g., "padu duck") naming one of them (e.g., 2 ducks). They successfully retrieved and combined on-line the labeled concepts, as evidenced by increased looking to the named sets but not to distractor sets. Our results suggest that combinatorial processes for building complex representations are available by the end of the first year of life. The infant mind seems geared to integrate concepts in novel productive ways. This ability may be a precondition for deciphering the ambient language(s) and building abstract models of experience that enable fast and flexible learning.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Humanos , Lactante , Femenino , Masculino , Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Desarrollo del Lenguaje
10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38986541

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Oral sucrose is repeatedly administered to neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to treat pain from commonly performed procedures; however, there is limited evidence on its long-term cumulative effect on neurodevelopment. We examined the association between total sucrose volumes administered to preterm neonates for pain mitigation in the NICU and their neurodevelopment at 18 months of corrected age (CA). METHODS: A prospective longitudinal single-arm observational study that enrolled hospitalised preterm neonates <32 weeks of gestational age at birth and <10 days of life was conducted in four level III NICUs in Canada. Neonates received 0.1 mL of 24% sucrose 2 min prior to all commonly performed painful procedures during their NICU stay. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Multiple neonatal and maternal factors known to affect development were adjusted for in the generalised linear model analysis. RESULTS: 172 preterm neonates were enrolled and 118 were included in the analysis at 18 months of CA. The total mean sucrose volume administered/neonate/NICU stay was 5.96 (±5.6) mL, and the mean Bayley-III composite scores were: cognitive 91 (±17), language 86 (±18) and motor 88 (±18). There was no association between Bayley-III scores and the total sucrose volume: cognitive (p=0.57), language (p=0.42) and motor (p=0.70). CONCLUSION: Cumulative sucrose exposure for repeated procedural pain in preterm neonates was neither associated with a delay in neurodevelopment nor neuroprotective effects at 18 months of CA. If sucrose is used, we suggest the minimally effective dose combined with other non-pharmacological interventions with demonstrated effectiveness such as skin-to-skin contact, non-nutritive sucking, facilitated tucking and swaddling. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02725814.


Asunto(s)
Recien Nacido Prematuro , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Dolor Asociado a Procedimientos Médicos , Sacarosa , Humanos , Sacarosa/administración & dosificación , Estudios Prospectivos , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Masculino , Recien Nacido Prematuro/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estudios Longitudinales , Lactante , Dolor Asociado a Procedimientos Médicos/prevención & control , Dolor Asociado a Procedimientos Médicos/etiología , Desarrollo Infantil/efectos de los fármacos , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Canadá , Administración Oral
11.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2375829, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979658

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chewing betel quid (BQ) - a preparation commonly containing areca nut and slaked lime wrapped in betel leaf - is entrenched in South Asia. Although BQ consumption during pregnancy has been linked to adverse birth outcomes, its effect on postnatal growth remains largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of BQ use during pregnancy with children's height-for-age and body mass index-for-age z-scores (HAZ and BAZ, respectively) and fat and fat-free mass along with sex-based differences in association in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: With a prospective cohort design, we assessed BQ use among mothers enrolled in the Preterm and Stillbirth Study, Matlab (n = 3140) with a structured questionnaire around early third trimester. Children born to a subset of 614 women (including 134 daily users) were invited to follow-up between October 2021 and January 2022. HAZ and BAZ were calculated from anthropometric assessment, and fat and fat-free mass were estimated using bioelectric impedance. Overall and sex-specific multiple linear regression models were fitted. RESULTS: Growth data were available for 501 children (mean age 4.9 years): 43.3% of them were born to non-users, 35.3% to those using prior to or less-than-daily during the survey, and 21.3% to daily users. No statistically significant associations were observed after adjusting for sex, parity, maternal height and education, and household wealth. CONCLUSIONS: There was no effect of BQ use during pregnancy on postnatal growth in this study. Longitudinal studies following up those born to heavy users beyond childhood are warranted for capturing long-term implications of prenatal BQ exposure.


Main findings: In this cohort study, no association was observed between maternal betel quid use during pregnancy and children's growth around five years of age.Added knowledge: Although catch-up growth among those born to heavy users may have attenuated any negative impact of prenatal exposure to betel quid on postnatal growth, such catch-up growth often involves greater acquisition and a more centralized distribution of body fat and insulin resistance later in life; leading to a potential heightening of cardiometabolic risk.Global health impact for policy and action: Given that betel quid consumption during pregnancy remains socially acceptable across south and south-east Asia, this study highlights the need for following up those born to betel quid users beyond childhood for capturing long-term health implications of prenatal betel quid exposure.


Asunto(s)
Areca , Desarrollo Infantil , Población Rural , Humanos , Femenino , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Embarazo , Areca/efectos adversos , Estudios Prospectivos , Preescolar , Desarrollo Infantil/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Masculino , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e083399, 2024 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951000

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a complex lipid-protein structure in mammalian milk and human milk that is largely absent from breastmilk substitutes. The objective of this trial is to investigate whether providing infant formula enriched with MFGM versus standard infant formula improves cognitive development at 12 months of age in exclusively formula-fed full-term infants. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised, controlled, clinician-blinded, researcher-blinded and participant-blinded trial of two parallel formula-fed groups and a breastfed reference group that were recruited in the suburban Adelaide (Australia) community by a single study centre (a medical research institute). Healthy, exclusively formula-fed, singleton, term-born infants under 8 weeks of age were randomised to either an MFGM-supplemented formula (intervention) or standard infant formula (control) from enrolment until 12 months of age. The reference group was not provided with formula. The primary outcome is the Cognitive Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Fourth Edition (Bayley-IV) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes are the Bayley-IV Cognitive Scale at 24 months, other Bayley-IV domains (language, motor, emotional and behavioural development) at 12 and 24 months of age, infant attention at 4 and 9 months of age, parent-rated language at 12 and 24 months of age, parent-rated development at 6 and 18 months of age as well as growth, tolerance and safety of the study formula. To ensure at least 80% power to detect a 5-point difference in the mean Bayley-IV cognitive score, >200 infants were recruited in each group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Women's and Children Health Network Human Research Ethics Committee reviewed and approved the study (HREC/19/WCHN/140). Caregivers gave written informed consent prior to enrolling in the trial. Findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000552987; Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: anzctr.org.au.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Cognición , Glucolípidos , Glicoproteínas , Fórmulas Infantiles , Gotas Lipídicas , Humanos , Glucolípidos/administración & dosificación , Fórmulas Infantiles/química , Glicoproteínas/administración & dosificación , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Lactante , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Suplementos Dietéticos , Lactancia Materna , Leche Humana/química
13.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(6): e22521, 2024 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952248

RESUMEN

Infants rely on developing attention skills to identify relevant stimuli in their environments. Although caregivers are socially rewarding and a critical source of information, they are also one of many stimuli that compete for infants' attention. Young infants preferentially hold attention on caregiver faces, but it is unknown whether they also preferentially orient to caregivers and the extent to which these attention biases reflect reward-based attention mechanisms. To address these questions, we measured 4- to 10-month-old infants' (N = 64) frequency of orienting and duration of looking to caregiver and stranger faces within multi-item arrays. We also assessed whether infants' attention to these faces related to individual differences in Surgency, an indirect index of reward sensitivity. Although infants did not show biased attention to caregiver versus stranger faces at the group level, infants were increasingly biased to orient to stranger faces with age and infants with higher Surgency scores showed more robust attention orienting and attention holding biases to caregiver faces. These effects varied based on the selective attention demands of the task, suggesting that infants' attention biases to caregiver faces may reflect both developing attention control skills and reward-based attention mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Sesgo Atencional , Cuidadores , Desarrollo Infantil , Reconocimiento Facial , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Lactante , Femenino , Cuidadores/psicología , Reconocimiento Facial/fisiología , Sesgo Atencional/fisiología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Atención/fisiología , Conducta del Lactante/fisiología
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e082475, 2024 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960456

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations of traffic-related air pollution exposures in early pregnancy with birth outcomes and infant neurocognitive development. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Eligible women attended six visits in the maternity clinics of two centres, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University and Chongqing Health Centre for Women and Children. PARTICIPANTS: Women who were between 20 and 40 years of age and were at 11-14 weeks gestation with a singleton pregnancy were eligible for participation. Women were excluded if they had a history of premature delivery before 32 weeks of gestation, maternal milk allergy or aversion or severe lactose intolerance. 1273 pregnant women enrolled in 2015-2016 and 1174 live births were included in this analysis. EXPOSURES: Air pollution concentrations at their home addresses, including particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), during pre-conception and each trimester period were estimated using land-use regression models. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth outcomes (ie, birth weight, birth length, preterm birth, low birth weight, large for gestational age and small for gestational age (SGA) status) and neurodevelopment outcomes measured by the Chinese version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development. RESULTS: An association between SGA and per-IQR increases in NO2 was found in the first trimester (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.32) and during the whole pregnancy (OR: 1.33, 99% CI: 1.01 to 1.75). Both PM2.5 and NO2 exposure in the 90 days prior to conception were associated with lower Psychomotor Development Index scores (ß: -6.15, 95% CI: -8.84 to -3.46; ß: -2.83, 95% CI: -4.27 to -1.39, respectively). Increased NO2 exposure was associated with an increased risk of psychomotor development delay during different trimesters of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Increased exposures to NO2 during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of SGA and psychomotor development delay, while increased exposures to both PM2.5 and NO2 pre-conception were associated with adverse psychomotor development outcomes at 12 months of age. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-IOR-16007700.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Desarrollo Infantil , Exposición Materna , Material Particulado , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , China/epidemiología , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Estudios Prospectivos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Desarrollo Infantil/efectos de los fármacos , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Lactante , Peso al Nacer , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Masculino
15.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(6): e22527, 2024 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973217

RESUMEN

This study examined the co-development of infant reaching and postural control across the transition to arms-free sitting at home. We observed infants with typical likelihood (TL; n = 24) and elevated likelihood (EL; n = 20) for autism at four biweekly sessions spanning the transition to arms-free sitting (infant age = 4.5-8 months at first session). At each session, infants sat on a pressure-sensitive mat with external support or independently, wore magneto-inertial sensors on both wrists, and reached for toys presented at midline. Analyses focused on characterizing and comparing control of sitting during reaching actions and standard kinematic metrics of reaching during Supported versus Independent Sitting. Although EL infants achieved arms-free sitting later than TL peers, there were no group differences on any measures. Across sessions, infants' control of the sitting posture during concurrent reaching movements improved in both contexts, though they were less stable as they reached when sitting independently compared to when sitting with support. A similar effect was apparent in the kinematics of reaches, with overall improvement over time, but evidence of poorer control in Independent relative to Supported Sitting. Taken together, these findings underscore the mutually influential and dynamic relations between emerging skills and well-established behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Sedestación , Humanos , Fenómenos Biomecánicos/fisiología , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(27): e38190, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968475

RESUMEN

To explore the differential cohort situation between preschool development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and naturally conceived infants. From April 2014 to June 2022, 60 preschool IVFs were selected as the research subjects for follow-up at the pediatric health clinic of hospital's prevention and health department. They were set as the experimental group (Group S), and 60 naturally conceived infants of the same age were selected as the control group (Group Z). Data from both groups were collected through telephone follow-up and other methods. No significant difference showed between the 2 groups in age specific height, age specific weight, Gesell developmental score, Denver developmental screening test screening results, intellectual development index, and motor development index (P > .05). The influence of birth environment factors such as family background and maternal education level on children's height and weight was not significant (P > .05), while maternal education level had a significant impact on children's intellectual development index (P < .05). No significant difference showed in the development of preschool children in IVF compared to naturally conceived children, and the level of parental education has a significant impact on children's mental and motor development.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Fertilización In Vitro , Humanos , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Fertilización In Vitro/estadística & datos numéricos , Fertilización In Vitro/métodos , Femenino , Preescolar , Masculino , Escolaridad , Estudios de Cohortes
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15741, 2024 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977822

RESUMEN

Rhythmic entrainment is a fundamental aspect of musical behavior, but the skills required to accurately synchronize movement to the beat seem to develop over many years. Motion capture studies of corporeal synchronization have shown immature abilities to lock in to the beat in children before age 5, and reliable synchronization ability in adults without musical training; yet there is a lack of data on full-body synchronization skills between early childhood and adulthood. To document typical rhythmic synchronization during middle childhood, we used a wireless motion capture device to measure period- and phase-locking of full body movement to rhythm and metronome stimuli in 6 to 11 year-old children in comparison with adult data. Results show a gradual improvement with age; however children's performance did not reach adult levels by age 12, suggesting that these skills continue to develop during adolescence. Our results suggest that in the absence of specific music training, full-body rhythmic entrainment skills improve gradually during middle childhood, and provide metrics for examining the continued maturation of these skills during adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Música , Humanos , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Periodicidad , Adulto , Movimiento/fisiología , Adolescente
18.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999826

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate whether age at introduction of solid foods in preterm infants influences growth in the first year of life. This was a prospective observational study in very low birth weight infants stratified to an early (<17 weeks corrected age) or a late (≥17 weeks corrected age) feeding group according to the individual timing of weaning. In total, 115 infants were assigned to the early group, and 82 were assigned to the late group. Mean birth weight and gestational age were comparable between groups (early: 926 g, 26 + 6 weeks; late: 881 g, 26 + 5 weeks). Mean age at weaning was 13.2 weeks corrected age in the early group and 20.4 weeks corrected age in the late group. At 12 months corrected age, anthropometric parameters showed no significant differences between groups (early vs. late, mean length 75.0 vs. 74.1 cm, weight 9.2 vs. 8.9 kg, head circumference 45.5 vs. 45.0 cm). A machine learning model showed no effect of age at weaning on length and length z-scores at 12 months corrected age. Infants with comorbidities had significantly lower anthropometric z-scores compared to infants without comorbidities. Therefore, regardless of growth considerations, we recommend weaning preterm infants according to their neurological abilities.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Alimentos Infantiles , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Recién Nacido de muy Bajo Peso , Destete , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Recien Nacido Prematuro/crecimiento & desarrollo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Masculino , Lactante , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Recién Nacido de muy Bajo Peso/crecimiento & desarrollo , Edad Gestacional , Antropometría
19.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 53(6): 361-370, 2024 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979992

RESUMEN

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of developmental and emotional/ behavioural concerns in maltreated children and to examine the impact of adverse family/caregiver risk factors on these outcomes. Method: We analysed family demographic and baseline data of 132 maltreated children and their caregivers from a family support programme in Singapore. We examined the associations of 3 main risk factors (i.e., caregiver mental health, educational attainment, and family socio-economic status [SES]) with developmental/behavioural outcomes using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for caregiver relationship to the child. Caregiver mental health was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) tools. Developmental/behavioural outcomes were assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3), ASQ-Social-Emotional (ASQ-SE), and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results: The children ranged in age, from 2 months to 3 years 11 months (median age 1.7 years, interquartile range [IQR] 0.9-2.6). Among caregivers, 86 (65.2%) were biological mothers, 11 (8.3%) were biological fathers, and 35 (26.5%) were foster parents or extended family members. Low family SES was associated with communication concerns on the ASQ-3 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.04, 95% CI 1.08-8.57, P=0.04). Caregiver mental health concerns were associated with increased behavioural concerns on the CBCL (AOR 6.54, 95% CI 1.83-23.33, P=0.004) and higher scores on the ASQ-SE (AOR 7.78, 95% CI 2.38-25.38, P=0.001). Conclusion: Maltreated children with caregivers experiencing mental health issues are more likely to have heightened emotional and behavioural concerns. Those from low SES families are also at increased risk of language delay, affecting their communication.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Maltrato a los Niños , Humanos , Preescolar , Cuidadores/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Singapur/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactante , Escolaridad , Salud Mental , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Familia/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Clase Social
20.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(6): e22529, 2024 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39010701

RESUMEN

Impaired cerebral inhibition is commonly observed in neurodevelopmental disorders and may represent a vulnerability factor for their development. The hippocampus plays a key role in inhibition among adults and undergoes significant and rapid changes during early brain development. Therefore, the structure represents an important candidate region for early identification of pathology that is relevant to inhibitory dysfunction. To determine whether hippocampal function corresponds to inhibition in the early postnatal period, the present study evaluated relationships between hippocampal activity and sensory gating in infants 4-20 weeks of age (N = 18). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure hippocampal activity, including the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and fractional ALFF. Electroencephalography during a paired-stimulus paradigm was used to measure sensory gating (P50). Higher activity of the right hippocampus was associated with better sensory gating (P50 ratio), driven by a reduction in response to the second stimulus. These findings suggest that meaningful effects of hippocampal function can be detected early in infancy. Specifically, higher intrinsic hippocampal activity in the early postnatal period may support effective inhibitory processing. Future work will benefit from longitudinal analysis to clarify the trajectory of hippocampal function, alterations of which may contribute to the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and represent an intervention target.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía , Hipocampo , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Filtrado Sensorial , Humanos , Hipocampo/fisiología , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Filtrado Sensorial/fisiología , Inhibición Psicológica , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología
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