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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809128

RESUMEN

The implications of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have stretched far beyond human health and wellbeing, causing serious setbacks for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although governments worldwide have implemented different fiscal stimulus measures to mitigate the implications of COVID-19, it is important to develop a precise understanding of their focus areas to ensure if the progress of SDGs is on track. For a specific case of Indonesia, this study establishes a thorough understanding of the COVID-19 implications on SDGs, and its fiscal stimulus package through a literature review and semi-formal interviews with the core stakeholders in Indonesia. The study results highlighted that COVID-19 has varyingly affected the progress of all SDGs in Indonesia. Amongst the four pillars of sustainable development in Indonesia, the SDGs on the social and economic development pillars are stated to be the most impacted. As for the fiscal stimulus, it is perceived that it can help maintain the SDGs' attainment progress to a certain extent, although there are several concerns on its implementation. Deriving lessons from the conducted research, the study puts forward key suggestions for the effective implementation of SDGs in the post-COVID-19 era.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Humanos , Indonesia , Pandemias
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248319, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705479

RESUMEN

The outbreak of COVID-19 around the world has caused great damage to the global economy. The tourism industry is among the worst-hit industries. How to focus on visitors who are most helpful to the tourism industry and develop sustainable strategy of operation is a very important question for after the epidemic is over. This study applied two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate past statistics from the Tourism Bureau and explore the shopping patterns of tourists who travel to Taiwan. The focus will be on tourists from major countries such as China, Japan, and Southeast Asian countries. According to the analysis of tourists from different countries, the money spent by tourists from different countries is concentrated on different items, and there are subitems that they particularly like to purchase. For the analysis of the purpose of coming to Taiwan, some tourism areas worth developing (such as medical treatment and leisure) are also presented in the research results. Based on these results, and according to the sustainable development goals, specific recommendations for the sustainability strategy of operation are made as a reference for the government and relevant industries. This research also broadens the scope of application of DEA and points out a different direction for future research.


Asunto(s)
Turismo , /epidemiología , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Pandemias , Desarrollo Sostenible , Taiwán/epidemiología , Viaje
3.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 380-387, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723458

RESUMEN

All countries worldwide have signed up to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and have committed to the objective of achieving 'universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all'. During the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, advancement toward universal health coverage (UHC) will become more difficult for many countries, demonstrating that locally led priority setting is urgently needed to provide health services with appropriate financial protection to all. Because resources are limited and no national constituency can provide an unlimited number of services to their whole population in a sustainable manner, rationing and setting priorities for the selection of interventions to be included in a defined package of services is critical. In this Perspective, we discuss how packages of essential health services can be developed in resource-constrained settings, and detail how experts and the public can decide on principles and criteria, use a comprehensive array of analytical methods and choose which services to be provided free of charge. We illustrate these main steps while drawing on a recently conducted exercise of revising the national essential health services package in Ethiopia, which we compare with examples from other countries that have defined their essential benefits packages. This Perspective also provides recommendations for other low- and middle-income countries on their pathway to UHC.


Asunto(s)
Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud , Planificación en Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Atención de Salud Universal , Etiopía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Desarrollo Sostenible
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771820

RESUMEN

Worldwide, approximately 11 million people are currently being held in prison, a number that has steadily grown since the turn of the 21st century. The prison population is more likely to suffer from physical and mental ailments both during and prior to their imprisonment due to poverty, social exclusion and chaotic lifestyles. Recognition of people in prison is noticeably absent from the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), despite the goals' ethos of 'leaving no one behind'.We present the first analysis of how improving the health of people in prison can contribute to achieving 15 SDGs. Relevant indicators are proposed to fulfil these goals while meeting the existing international prison health standards. We also assess the political, economic and social challenges, alongside the unparalleled COVID-19 pandemic that can thwart the realisation of the SDGs. To reach the 'furthest behind first', prison health must be at the forefront of the SDGs.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Objetivos , Prisiones , Desarrollo Sostenible , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
5.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668684

RESUMEN

The disposal of food waste is a current and pressing issue, urging novel solutions to implement sustainable waste management practices. Fish leftovers and their processing byproducts represent a significant portion of the original fish, and their disposal has a high environmental and economic impact. The utilization of waste as raw materials for the production of different classes of biofuels and high-value chemicals, a concept known as "biorefinery", is gaining interest in a vision of circular economy and zero waste policies. In this context, an interesting route of valorization is the extraction of omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) for nutraceutical application. These fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have received attention over the last decades due to their beneficial effects on human health. Their sustainable production is a key process for matching the increased market demand while reducing the pressure on marine ecosystems and lowering the impact of waste production. The high resale value of the products makes this waste a powerful tool that simultaneously protects the environment and benefits the global economy. This review aims to provide a complete overview of the sustainable exploitation of fish waste to recover ω-3 FAs for food supplement applications, covering composition, storage, and processing of the raw material.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/farmacología , Peces/metabolismo , Alimentos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Residuos/análisis , Animales , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/química , Aceites de Pescado/química , Aceites de Pescado/aislamiento & purificación , Aceites de Pescado/farmacología
7.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112338, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752049

RESUMEN

Sustainable Development Goal 6.2 of the Agenda 2030 is addressed to achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all. Further, one of the major principles underlying the Lisbon Charter is that sustainable and safe management of wastewaters are fundamental to the health of communities and their sustainable socio-economic development. Within this framework, the management of sewage sludge in a sustainable manner is one of the critical issues facing modern society, due to the growing rise of its production, increasing difficulties in properly locating treatment and disposal works, and complying with more stringent environmental quality requirements, thus requiring a re-thinking of its management. This paper discusses major concepts and principles for re-thinking the sludge management in order to achieve the above-mentioned objectives.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Objetivos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Aguas Residuales
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-03-09.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53335

RESUMEN

La atención concedida a la equidad en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible obliga a encontrar nuevas formas de ampliar progresivamente los servicios a las poblaciones que no los reciben. Las alianzas satisfactorias entre el sector encargado del suministro de agua, el saneamiento y la higiene (WASH, por su sigla en inglés) y los programas de lucha contra las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas (ETD) pueden contribuir a lograr esta aspiración. Sin embargo, colaborar para encontrar juntos esas nuevas formas, exige nuevos modos de pensar. En esta edición corregida se presenta un conjunto de herramientas para ayudar a los países y los programas de lucha contra la ETD a colaborar con la comunidad relacionada con las acciones de agua, saneamiento e higiene, y guía en la creación de alianzas, en la movilización de recursos y en el diseño, la aplicación y la evaluación de las intervenciones. Más que una guía de “buenas prácticas”, se trata de un conjunto de herramientas basadas en la experiencia adquirida en la realidad de un programa. Se espera que los interesados en usar este documento puedan elegir las herramientas y adaptarlas a sus necesidades y al contexto local. Estas herramientas ayudarán a 1) crear alianzas multisectoriales con los interesados directos clave: ministerios, agencias de WASH nacionales y locales, empresas, grupos locales activos en cuestiones de salud, expertos en cambio de comportamientos y en comunicación, etc.; 2) a formar estructuras de programa inteligentes centradas en la rendición de cuentas y en los objetivos comunes; 3) a establecer un método de programación adaptativo y flexible; 4) a garantizar la sostenibilidad mediante la creación de capacidad local a todos los niveles; y 5) a brindar apoyo y complementar las intervenciones clínicas y de salud pública en la lucha contra las EID.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desatendidas , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Desarrollo Sostenible , Indicadores de Desarrollo Sostenible , Saneamiento , Agua , Higiene , Abastecimiento de Agua
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-03-04.
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53322

RESUMEN

La Región de las Américas ha priorizado el logro de la equidad en la salud —“la ausencia de diferencias evitables o remediables entre grupos de personas definidos desde un punto de vista social, económico o geográfico” según la Organización Mundial de la Salud— tanto mediante los acuerdos regionales, como la Agenda de Salud Sostenible para las Américas 2018-2030, como mediante la información sobre el progreso hacia la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible y sus Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. Las políticas del sector público son el instrumento inicial principal mediante el cual los gobiernos locales y nacionales establecen y financian las medidas para acelerar el logro de la equidad en la salud. En este estudio, se evaluaron 32 planes nacionales de salud para determinar si los países de la Región están integrando el logro de la equidad en la salud en las líneas estratégicas de acción del sector de la salud, y la manera en que lo están haciendo. Además, se proporciona un panorama general de los enfoques y los logros, lo que permite el intercambio de conocimientos entre los países en relación con las opciones que posibilitan tener en cuenta la equidad en las políticas en materia de salud. Esta evaluación también facilitará el futuro seguimiento de las tendencias en la integración de los objetivos y los enfoques de la equidad en la salud en las políticas. En el estudio se encontró que es común establecer un compromiso general con la equidad en la salud, como los compromisos con respecto al desglose de los datos y al seguimiento de las desigualdades, mientras que otros aspectos de la equidad en la salud, como la determinación de los grupos poblacionales en situación de vulnerabilidad, reciben menos atención. Si bien es necesario investigar más la aplicación y las repercusiones de los enfoques en las medidas programáticas específicas, en el estudio se brindan algunas apreciaciones útiles para sustentar las iniciativas dirigidas a establecer un marco más sólido para la acción en materia de equidad en la salud hacia el logro de las metas de la Región para el 2030.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Equidad , Sistemas de Salud , Equidad en el Acceso a los Servicios de Salud , Indicadores de Desigualdad en Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Monitoreo de las Desigualdades en Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus
10.
Sex Health ; 18(1): 41-49, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653504

RESUMEN

The 2016 global commitments towards ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 require the Asia-Pacific region to reach the Fast-Track targets by 2020. Despite early successes, the region is well short of meeting these targets. The overall stalled progress in the HIV response has been further undermined by rising new infections among young key populations and the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines the HIV situation, assesses the gaps, and analyses what it would take the region to end AIDS by 2030. Political will and commitments for ending AIDS must be reaffirmed and reinforced. Focused regional strategic direction that answers the specific regional context and guides countries to respond to their specific needs must be put in place. The region must harness the power of innovative tools and technology in both prevention and treatment. Community activism and meaningful community engagement across the spectrum of HIV response must be ensured. Punitive laws, stigma, and discrimination that deter key populations and people living with HIV from accessing health services must be effectively tackled. The people-centred public health approach must be fully integrated into national universal health coverage while ensuring domestic resources are available for community-led service delivery. The region must utilise its full potential and draw upon lessons that have been learnt to address common challenges of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics and achieve the goal of ending AIDS by 2030, in fulfillment of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Epidemias/prevención & control , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/transmisión , Asia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Objetivos , Implementación de Plan de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Islas del Pacífico , Política , Desarrollo Sostenible , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/organización & administración
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e489-e551, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607016
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540632

RESUMEN

The scientific analysis of spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics and driving factors of illegal land use is of great significance for the formulation and optimization of policies to control the emergence of illegal land use. This paper establishes two variable systems of illegal land use and its driving factors, defined the multidimensional characteristic variables of illegal land use and analyzes the relationships among them by the Pearson's correlation coefficient; In addition, the spatial-temporal characteristics of each variable of illegal land use from 2004 to 2017 are described by the spatial autocorrelation analysis; Finally, based on the geographical detectors, the influence direction and degree of the factors of economic structure, social structure and land market behavior on the characteristics of different illegal land use are studied. The results show that the spatial agglomeration of different characteristics of illegal land use had been weakening from 2004 to 2017, but the rate of weakening was different, and L-L agglomeration changed between Xinjiang and other central-western provinces, H-H agglomeration changed in the coastal regions of the central-eastern of China, the level and ability of the central government and local governments to govern illegal land use is constantly improving on the whole; the compositional factors of economic development structure, social development structure, and land market behavior of driving factors had different influence in the degree, the location or the direction of different characteristics of illegal land use. According to the spatial-temporal characteristics and the differences of driving factors, managers can formulate differentiated illegal land use control policies, which will help to control the occurrence of illegal land use and help the settlement of illegal land use cases, and ultimately achieve sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Desarrollo Sostenible , China , Geografía , Análisis Espacial
16.
Nature ; 590(7844): 47-56, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536649

RESUMEN

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, found in trees, waste from agricultural crops and other biomass. The fibres that comprise cellulose can be broken down into building blocks, known as fibrillated cellulose, of varying, controllable dimensions that extend to the nanoscale. Fibrillated cellulose is harvested from renewable resources, so its sustainability potential combined with its other functional properties (mechanical, optical, thermal and fluidic, for example) gives this nanomaterial unique technological appeal. Here we explore the use of fibrillated cellulose in the fabrication of materials ranging from composites and macrofibres, to thin films, porous membranes and gels. We discuss research directions for the practical exploitation of these structures and the remaining challenges to overcome before fibrillated cellulose materials can reach their full potential. Finally, we highlight some key issues towards successful manufacturing scale-up of this family of materials.


Asunto(s)
Biotecnología/métodos , Biotecnología/tendencias , Celulosa/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Materiales Biocompatibles/química , Geles/química , Humanos , Porosidad
17.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53290

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. El Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia, en colaboración con el Instituto Nacional de Salud y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, convocaron en 2018 a todos los actores asociados al Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis (PNPCT) y el Sistema Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación a la conformación de una red nacional que coordinara la investigación operativa (IO) relacionada con la tuberculosis (TB) en el país. Se realizaron siete talleres en los que se llegó al consenso de establecer la Red Nacional de Gestión de Conocimiento, Investigación e Innovación en Tuberculosis en Colombia (Red TB Colombia). Con más de 180 participantes, organizados en un nodo central y cinco nodos regionales que agrupan a las 37 entidades territoriales, en 2019 la Red TB Colombia realizó cuatro jornadas de capacitación en IO y definió 65 temas priorizados de investigación, ajustados a las líneas estratégicas establecidas por el PNPCT: prevención y atención integral, con foco en los afectados por la TB (41 temas en tres módulos) y compromiso político, protección social y sistemas de apoyo (24 temas en cuatro módulos). La priorización se realizó por el método de comparación por pares. La Red TB Colombia sigue activa y contribuye a la gestión del conocimiento dirigido a eliminar la TB en el país y ha permitido avanzar en la construcción de planes y la ejecución de proyectos locales de IO que generan resultados científicamente validados para fortalecer el PNPCT y mejorar la atención de los pacientes con TB.


[ABSTRACT]. In 2018, the Colombian Ministry of Health and Social Protection, in collaboration with the National Health Institute and the Pan American Health Organization, convened all actors associated with the National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program (PNPCT) and the National Science, Technology, and Innovation System to form a national network to coordinate operations research on tuberculosis (TB) in the country. Seven workshops were held and a consensus was reached to establish the National Network for Knowledge Management, Research, and Innovation in Tuberculosis in Colombia (TB Colombia Network). With more than 180 participants, a central node, and five regional nodes that bring together the country's 37 territorial entities, the TB Colombia Network conducted four days of training in operations research in 2019, defining 65 priority research topics aligned with the strategic lines in the PNPCT: prevention and comprehensive care, with a focus on people affected by TB (41 topics in three modules); and political commitment, social protection, and support systems (24 topics in four modules). The peer comparison method was used for prioritization. The TB Colombia Network remains active and contributes to knowledge management aimed at eliminating TB in Colombia. It has helped make progress in building plans and implementing local operations research projects that generate scientifically validated results to strengthen the PNPCT and improve the care of TB patients.


[RESUMO]. O Ministério da Saúde e Previdência Social da Colômbia, em cooperação com o Instituto Nacional de Saúde e a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), convocou em 2018 todas as partes interessadas vinculadas ao Programa Nacional de Prevenção e Controle da Tuberculose (PNPCT) e ao Sistema Nacional de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação para formar uma rede nacional com o objetivo de coordenar a pesquisa operacional em tuberculose no país. Foram promovidos sete seminários e, deste processo, se chegou a um consenso para criar a Rede Nacional de Gestão do Conhecimento, Pesquisa e Inovação em Tuberculose na Colômbia (Rede TB Colômbia). A rede conta com mais de 180 participantes, organizados em um núcleo central e cinco núcleos regionais que congregam 37 entidades territoriais. Em 2019, a Rede TB Colômbia realizou quatro jornadas de capacitação em pesquisa operacional e definiu 65 áreas temáticas prioritárias de pesquisa harmonizadas com as linhas estratégicas estabelecidas pelo PNPCT: prevenção e atenção integral com enfoque nas pessoas com TB (41 áreas temáticas divididas em três módulos) e compromisso político, proteção social e sistemas de apoio (24 áreas temáticas divididas em quatro módulos). A priorização foi definida pelo método de comparação pareada. A Rede TB Colômbia continua ativa contribuindo para a gestão do conhecimento voltado à eliminação da tuberculose no país e possibilitando avançar na formulação de planos e execução de projetos locais de pesquisa operacional com a produção de resultados científicos validados para fortalecer o PNPCT e melhorar a atenção das pessoas com TB.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Colombia , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Tuberculosis , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Desarrollo Sostenible , Colombia
18.
Santiago; PAHO; 2021-02-11.
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53264

RESUMEN

Durante 2019, 7,4% da população da América Latina e do Caribe conviveu com a fome, o que equivale a 47,7 milhões de pessoas. A situação vem se deteriorando nos últimos 5 anos, com um aumento de 13,2 milhões de pessoas subalimentadas. Se essa tendência continuar, a possibilidade de cumprimento da meta Fome Zero da Meta 2 (ODS2) dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) está se afastando. Estima-se que, em 2030, a fome afetará 67 milhões de pessoas na região, número que não inclui as repercussões da pandemia de COVID-19. A população afetada pela insegurança alimentar continuou a aumentar na América Latina durante os últimos 5 anos. Em 2019, quase um terço da população, ou seja, 191 milhões de pessoas, foram afetadas pela insegurança alimentar moderada ou grave. O atraso do crescimento infantil está diminuindo na região e o sobrepeso entre as crianças com menos de 5 anos de idade está aumentando. Informações recentes sobre a desnutrição nos países da região, mostram que cerca de um em cada cinco territórios está muito atrasado, seja devido à baixa estatura ou ao sobrepeso em crianças menores de 5 anos. Os níveis mais altos de atraso no crescimento encontram-se nas áreas rurais que têm alto índice de pobreza, baixa renda, baixa escolaridade, maior grau de informalidade no emprego, menor acesso a serviços e maior proporção de população indígena e afrodescendente. O sobrepeso parece estar distribuído geograficamente de forma mais homogênea. Contudo, os territórios mais atrasados tendem a se concentrar nas áreas urbanas, com maiores rendas, menor pobreza, maior acesso a serviços e maior formalidade de trabalho. Embora a real dimensão do impacto da pandemia de coronavírus ainda seja desconhecida, ela ameaça ampliar essas diferenças e as lacunas entre territórios atrasados e não atrasados. A pandemia atinge especialmente as populações e territórios mais vulneráveis, onde existe um maior número de empregos informais, os rendimentos são mais baixos e os alimentos saudáveis são escassos. Enfrentar o problema da segurança alimentar e nutricional em territórios atrasados requer intervenções multidimensionais que abordem as várias causas da má nutrição de forma integrada e que ofereçam uma resposta coordenada em várias dimensões do desenvolvimento. O Panorama descreve algumas das principais intervenções políticas que são desenvolvidas na região em torno de três grupos de medidas com foco em: 1) melhorar e promover o acesso econômico a alimentação adequada, 2) melhorar o acesso físico aos alimentos e produzir alimentos que promovam uma nutrição adequada e 3) melhorar o uso e a qualidade dos alimentos.


Asunto(s)
Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Alimentos , Hambre , Nutrición de los Grupos de Riesgo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Indicadores de Desarrollo Sostenible , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Pobreza , Áreas de Pobreza
19.
Santiago; PAHO; 2021-02-11.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53263

RESUMEN

During 2019, 7.4 percent of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) lived in hunger, which is equivalent to 47.7 million people. The situation has been deteriorating over the past 5 years, with an increase of 13.2 million undernourished people. If this trend continues, the possibility of meeting the Zero Hunger target of Goal 2 (SDG2) of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) will be even further away. It is estimated that, in 2030, hunger will affect 67 million people in the region, a figure that does not take into account repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic. The population affected by food insecurity in Latin America has continued to increase over the past 5 years. In 2019, almost a third of the population, or 191 million people, were affected by moderate or severe food insecurity. In the region, child stunting is decreasing and overweight in children under 5 is increasing. Recent information on malnutrition in the region’s countries shows that nearly one in every 5 territories is lagging in relation to either stunting or overweight in children under 5. The highest lags in relation to stunting are found in rural areas. These territories have high levels of poverty, low income, low schooling rate, a higher presence of informal employment, less access to services and a higher proportion of indigenous and Afro-descendant population. Overweight in children under 5 seems to be geographically distributed in a more homogeneous way. However, highly lagging territories tend to be concentrated in urban areas, with higher incomes, lower poverty, greater access to services and more formal labor. Although the real dimension of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic is still unknown, it threatens to widen these differences and the gaps between lagging and non-lagging territories. The pandemic hits the most vulnerable populations and territories particularly hard, where there are a greater number of informal jobs, incomes are lower and healthy food is scarce. Addressing the problem of food security and nutrition in lagging territories requires multidimensional interventions that address the various causes of malnutrition in an integrated manner, and that offer a coordinated response across various dimensions of development. This Regional Overview describes some of the main policy interventions that are being carried out in the region within three groups of measures focused on: 1) improving and promoting economic access to adequate food, 2) improving physical access to food and the production of food that promotes adequate nutrition, and 3) improving food use and quality.


Asunto(s)
Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Alimentos , Hambre , Nutrición de los Grupos de Riesgo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Indicadores de Desarrollo Sostenible , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Pobreza , Áreas de Pobreza
20.
Global Health ; 17(1): 18, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522937

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The success of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is predicated on multisectoral collaboration (MSC), and the COVID-19 pandemic makes it more urgent to learn how this can be done better. Complex challenges facing countries, such as COVID-19, cut across health, education, environment, financial and other sectors. Addressing these challenges requires the range of responsible sectors and intersecting services - across health, education, social and financial protection, economic development, law enforcement, among others - transform the way they work together towards shared goals. While the necessity of MSC is recognized, research is needed to understand how sectors collaborate, inform how to do so more efficiently, effectively and equitably, and ascertain similarities and differences across contexts. To answer these questions and inform practice, research to strengthen the evidence-base on MSC is critical. METHODS: This paper draws on a 12-country study series on MSC for health and sustainable development, in the context of the health and rights of women, children and adolescents. It is written by core members of the research coordination and country teams. Issues were analyzed during the study period through 'real-time' discussions and structured reporting, as well as through literature reviews and retrospective feedback and analysis at the end of the study. RESULTS: We identify four considerations that are unique to MSC research which will be of interest to other researchers, in the context of COVID-19 and beyond: 1) use theoretical frameworks to frame research questions as relevant to all sectors and to facilitate theoretical generalizability and evolution; 2) specifically incorporate sectoral analysis into MSC research methods; 3) develop a core set of research questions, using mixed methods and contextual adaptations as needed, with agreement on criteria for research rigor; and 4) identify shared indicators of success and failure across sectors to assess MSCs. CONCLUSION: In responding to COVID-19 it is evident that effective MSC is an urgent priority. It enables partners from diverse sectors to effectively convene to do more together than alone. Our findings have practical relevance for achieving this objective and contribute to the growing literature on partnerships and collaboration. We must seize the opportunity here to identify remaining knowledge gaps on how diverse sectors can work together efficiently and effectively in different settings to accelerate progress towards achieving shared goals.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Colaboración Intersectorial , Investigación , Desarrollo Sostenible , /prevención & control , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos
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