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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48525

RESUMEN

A ONU e seus parceiros no Brasil estão trabalhando para atingir os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável. São 17 objetivos ambiciosos e interconectados que abordam os principais desafios de desenvolvimento enfrentados por pessoas no Brasil e no mundo.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Brasil
2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258244, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767556

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diligent monitoring of inequalities in the coverage of essential reproductive, maternal, new-born and child health related (RMNCH) services becomes imperative to smoothen the journey towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this study, we aim to measure the magnitude of inequalities in the coverage of RMNCH services. We also made an attempt to divulge the relationship between the various themes of governance and RMNCH indices. METHODS: We used National Family Health Survey dataset (2015-16) and Public Affairs Index (PAI), 2016 for the analysis. Two summative indices, namely Composite Coverage Index (CCI) and Co-Coverage (Co-Cov) indicator were constructed to measure the RMNCH coverage. Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were employed to measure inequality in the distribution of coverage of RMNCH. In addition, we have used Spearman's rank correlation matrix to glean the association between governance indicator and coverage indices. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates an erratic distribution in the coverage of CCI and Co-Cov across wealth quintiles and state groups. We found that the distribution of RII values for Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal hovered around 1. Whereas, RII values for Haryana was 2.01 indicating maximum inequality across wealth quintiles. Furthermore, the essential interventions like adequate antenatal care services (ANC4) and skilled birth attendants (SBA) were the most inequitable interventions, while tetanus toxoid and Bacilli Calmette- Guerin (BCG) were least inequitable. The Spearman's rank correlation matrix demonstrated a strong and positive correlation between governance indicators and coverage indices.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Niño/normas , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/tendencias , Servicios de Salud Materno-Infantil/tendencias , Reproducción/fisiología , Niño , Familia , Femenino , Gobierno , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/normas , Factores Socioeconómicos , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258105, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624044

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Over the past two decades, there have been several global interventions including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), aimed at improving health outcomes. Despite efforts by countries to achieve the SDG targets, mental health challenges remain major public health concerns globally. We examined the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress as well as the comorbidities of these mental health issues among adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted among 2456 adults in four districts of the Volta Region of Ghana using data from the UHAS-Yonsei University Partnership Project. We analysed the data using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 51.8% of the participants had at least one of the mental health issues examined. The prevalence of a mental health issue was 25.2%, 53.3%, and 9.7% for depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Participants constituting 8.3% experienced all three mental health issues as comorbidities. Participants' level of formal education and income significantly predicted depression, anxiety, and stress respectively at the multivariable level. Adults with a tertiary level of education were, for instance, 68% (AOR = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.15-0.66), 65% (AOR = 0.35, 95%CI = 0.17-0.73), and 50% (AOR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.33-0.76) less likely to experience depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively compared with those who had no formal education. CONCLUSION: The majority of our study participants either experienced depression, anxiety, or stress. There were quite high comorbidities of the mental health issues among the adult population. To accelerate progress towards the achievement of SDG 3.4 target of promoting mental health and wellbeing for all by the year 2030, there is a need for effective implementation of the country's 2012 Mental Health Act which makes provisions for the establishment of a Mental Health Fund. This could improve the financial circumstances of indigenes as income has been realised in the present study as an important factor influencing depression, anxiety, and stress among the adult population.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/patología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/patología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/patología , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Adulto Joven
7.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
9.
Am J Nurs ; 121(9): 58-63, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438434

RESUMEN

This article is one in a series in which contributing authors discuss how the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are linked to everyday clinical issues; national public health emergencies; and other nursing issues, such as leadership, shared governance, and advocacy. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a 15-year plan of action to achieve the goals, was unanimously adopted by all UN member states in September 2015 and took effect on January 1, 2016. The Agenda consists of 17 SDGs addressing social, economic, and environmental determinants of health and 169 associated targets focused on five themes: people, planet, peace, prosperity, and partnership. The SDGs build on the work of the UN Millennium Development Goals, which were in effect from 2000 to 2015. The current article highlights SDG 16: "Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels."


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud/tendencias , Liderazgo , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Naciones Unidas/normas , Violencia/prevención & control , Enfermería Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252890, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133438

RESUMEN

Coronavirus has spread worldwide with over 140 million cases and resulting in more than 3 million deaths between November 2019 to April 2021, threatening the socio-economic and psychosocial stability of many families and communities. There has been limited research to understand the consequences of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations in West Africa, and whether such consequences differ by countries' previous experience with Ebola. Using a media analysis of leading online news sources, this study identified the populations particularly vulnerable to the threats of the COVID-19 pandemic, described the consequences of COVID-19 experienced by these populations, and reported on the solutions to address them. All articles from the selected news sources published between January 1 and June 30, 2020 on 6 West African countries were imported into Dedoose. A total of 4,388 news articles were coded for excerpts on vulnerable populations, only 285 excerpts of which mentioned the existing effects of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations or implemented solutions. News articles from countries with past experience with Ebola were more likely to mention the pandemic's effects on vulnerable populations, especially on incarcerated people. Vulnerable groups were reported to have experienced a range of effects including economic disruptions, heightened domestic and sexual abuse, arbitrary arrests, health care inaccessibility, and educational challenges throughout the pandemic. With implications for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for 2030 in West Africa, these countries should consider and focus more strategic efforts on vulnerable populations to overcome their fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and to achieve the SDG for 2030.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , África Occidental/epidemiología , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Medios de Comunicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Poblaciones Vulnerables/clasificación
11.
J Foot Ankle Res ; 14(1): 45, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130735

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare aims to promote good health and yet demonstrably contributes to climate change, which is purported to be 'the biggest global health threat of the 21st century'. This is happening now, with healthcare as an industry representing 4.4% of global carbon dioxide emissions. MAIN BODY: Climate change promotes health deficits from many angles; however, primarily it is the use of fossil fuels which increases atmospheric carbon dioxide (also nitrous oxide, and methane). These greenhouse gases prevent the earth from cooling, resulting in the higher temperatures and rising sea levels, which then cause 'wild weather' patterns, including floods, storms, and droughts. Particular vulnerability is afforded to those already health compromised (older people, pregnant women, children, wider health co-morbidities) as well as populations closer to equatorial zones, which encompasses many low-and-middle-income-countries. The paradox here, is that poorer nations by spending less on healthcare, have lower carbon emissions from health-related activity, and yet will suffer most from global warming effects, with scant resources to off-set the increasing health care needs. Global recognition has forged the Paris agreement, the United Nations sustainable developments goals, and the World Health Organisation climate change action plan. It is agreed that most healthcare impact comes from consumption of energy and resources, and the production of greenhouse gases into the environment. Many professional associations of medicine and allied health professionals are advocating for their members to lead on environmental sustainability; the Australian Podiatry Association is incorporating climate change into its strategic direction. CONCLUSION: Podiatrists, as allied health professionals, have wide community engagement, and hence, can model positive environmental practices, which may be effective in changing wider community behaviours, as occurred last century when doctors stopped smoking. As foot health consumers, our patients are increasingly likely to expect more sustainable practices and products, including 'green footwear' options. Green Podiatry, as a part of sustainable healthcare, directs us to be responsible energy and product consumers, and reduce our workplace emissions.


Asunto(s)
Podiatría/tendencias , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Huella de Carbono , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Podiatría/métodos
13.
Global Health ; 17(1): 59, 2021 05 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020654

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely impacting modern human civilization. A global view using a systems science approach is necessary to recognize the close interactions between health of animals, humans and the environment. DISCUSSION: A model is developed initially by describing five sequential or parallel steps on how a RNA virus emerged from animals and became a pandemic: 1. Origins in the animal kingdom; 2. Transmission to domesticated animals; 3. Inter-species transmission to humans; 4. Local epidemics; 5. Global spread towards a pandemic. The next stage identifies global level determinants from the physical environments, the biosphere and social environment that influence these steps to derive a generic conceptual model. It identifies that future pandemics are likely to emerge from ecological processes (climate change, loss of biodiversity), anthropogenic social processes (i.e. corporate interests, culture and globalization) and world population growth. Intervention would therefore require modifications or dampening these generators and prevent future periodic pandemics that would reverse human development. Addressing issues such as poorly planned urbanization, climate change and deforestation coincide with SDGs such as sustainable cities and communities (Goal 11), climate action (Goal 13) and preserving forests and other ecosystems (Goal 15). This will be an added justification to address them as global priorities. Some determinants in the model are poorly addressed by SDGs such as the case of population pressures, cultural factors, corporate interests and globalization. The overarching process of globalization will require modifications to the structures, processes and mechanisms of global governance. The defects in global governance are arguably due to historical reasons and the neo-liberal capitalist order. This became evident especially in the aftermath of the COVID-19 when the vaccination roll-out led to violations of universal values of equity and right to life by some of the powerful and affluent nations. A systems approach leads us to a model that shows the need to tackle several factors, some of which are not adequately addressed by SDGs and require restructuring of global governance and political economy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Salud Global/tendencias , Análisis de Sistemas , COVID-19/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251988, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043670

RESUMEN

The accurate identification of urban functional areas is of great significance for optimizing urban spatial structure, rationally allocating spatial elements, and promoting the sustainable development of the city. This paper proposes a method to precisely identify urban functional areas by coupling Open Street Map (OSM) and Point of Interest (POI) data. It takes the central urban area of Hangzhou as a case study to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of the functional areas. The results show that: (1) The central urban areas of Hangzhou are divided into 21 functional areas (6 single functional areas, 14 mixed functional areas and 1 comprehensive functional area). (2) The single functional areas and the mixed functional areas show the geographical distribution characteristics of the looping stratification, which means "Core-periphery" differentiation is obvious, and the comprehensive functional area is relatively scattered. (3) The mixed degree of regional function with ecological function and production function is low while comprehensive functional areas are usually associated with higher potential and vitality. (4) The identification results are in great agreement with the actual situation of Hangzhou central urban area, and the method is feasible. Therefore, this paper can provide a reference for urban development planning and management.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades/métodos , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Remodelación Urbana/organización & administración , China , Ciudades , Humanos , Urbanización/tendencias
16.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251958, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043663

RESUMEN

Scaling is a ubiquitous concept in agricultural research in the global south as donors require their research grantees to prove that their results can be scaled to impact upon the livelihoods of a large number of beneficiaries. Recent studies on scaling have brought critical perspectives to the rather technocratic tendencies in the agricultural innovations scaling literature. Drawing on theoretical debates on spatial strategies and practical experience of agricultural innovation scaling in Ethiopia, this paper adds to the current debate on what constitutes scaling and how to overcome critical scaling constraints. The data for the paper came from a qualitative assessment using focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and document analysis on scaling work done in Ethiopia by a USAID-funded research for development project. The paper concludes with four broad lessons for the current understating of agricultural innovation scaling. First, scaling of agricultural innovations requires a balanced focus on technical requirements and associated social dynamics surrounding scaling targets, actors involved and their social relations. Second, appreciating the social dynamics of scaling emphasizes the fact that scaling is more complex than a linear rolling out of innovations towards diffusion. Third, scaling may not be strictly planned; instead, it might be an extension of the innovation generation process that relies heavily on both new and long-term relationships with key partners, trust, and continuous reflection and learning. Fourth, the overall implication of the above three conclusions is that scaling strategies need to be flexible, stepwise, and reflective. Despite the promises of flourishing scaling frameworks, scaling strategies it would appear from the Africa RISING experience that, if real impact is to be achieved, approaches will be required to be flexible enough to manage the social, processual and emergent nature of the practice of scaling.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Invenciones/economía , Desarrollo de Programa/métodos , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Financiación del Capital/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía , Humanos , Desarrollo de Programa/economía , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250167, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861764

RESUMEN

Environmental challenges to natural resources have been attributed to human behavior and traditional agricultural production techniques. Natural resource degradation in agriculture has always been a prime concern in agro ecological research and sustainability analysis. There are many techniques for assessing environmental performance; one of which, ecological footprint (EF), assesses human pressure on the environment and natural resources. The main purpose of this study was calculation of ecological indices including biocapacity (BC) and EF of rural areas of Fars province of Iran. The study was accomplished using survey and structured interviews consisting of three main questionnaires in two different steps. Different agricultural stakeholders, including farmers (for the first step) as well as the policymakers, extension managers and authorities (for the second step) were interviewed. Based on multi-stage stratified random sampling, 50 villages and 423 farmers were selected. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by a panel of specialists as well as conducting a pilot study, respectively. The paradigmatic perspectives of agricultural policy makers and managers (22 individuals) were also analyzed using another specific questionnaire by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings revealed that most of the studied villages faced a critical environmental condition due to the results of ecological indicator which was calculated in the study. According to the four main components of human ecology (POET model) including Population, Organization, Environment and Technology, village groups that differed in terms of sustainability level also showed significantly differences due to population, social participation, use of green technologies and attitude towards diverse environmental management paradigms. The causal model also revealed that population, green technology, social participation and attitude toward frontier economics, which were in accordance with the elements of human ecology model, were the main factors affecting the ecological index. Finally, AHP results determined the dominant economic perspectives of agricultural authorities. A paradigm shift toward the comprehensive paradigm of eco-development plus consideration of the results of the ecological indicator calculation as the base of agricultural planning at the local level were recommended.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Agricultura , Proceso de Jerarquía Analítica , Fenómenos Ecológicos y Ambientales , Ecología , Agricultores , Humanos , Irán , Recursos Naturales , Proyectos Piloto , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250130, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861771

RESUMEN

The sustainable development of pension systems has been investigated from a financial perspective worldwide. However, the pension adequacy and its effect on the sustainability of a national pension system are still understudied. Using actual replacement rate and modified living standards replacement rate, this study empirically evaluates whether China's New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) grants enough livelihood protection for the rural residents in the Northwestern China. The results show that the NRPS fails to meet the basic needs of the elderly people (i.e., age of sixty years or older) or the middle-aged people (forty-five to fifty-nine years old), while it only provides limited protection for the young people (sixteen to forty-four years old). These findings suggest that the current NRPS benefits are very low in the Northwestern China and policy reforms should be further implemented to improve the sustainable development of the New Rural Pension Scheme.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Gubernamental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pensiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , China , Financiación Gubernamental/métodos , Financiación Gubernamental/tendencias , Programas de Gobierno/métodos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Calidad de Vida/legislación & jurisprudencia , Jubilación , Población Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos , Desarrollo Sostenible/legislación & jurisprudencia , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
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