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1.
Mo Med ; 118(1): 81-84, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551491

RESUMEN

The public health community has used contact tracing to address pandemics since the eighteenth century. With the emergence of COVID-19, these classical skills are the primary defense for communities to limit morbidity and mortality during the pandemic. Here we describe the methods, strengths, and challenges of contact tracing.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Concienciación , /epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Humanos , Missouri/epidemiología , Aislamiento de Pacientes/métodos , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/normas , Cuarentena/métodos , /aislamiento & purificación
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 22-39, 2021 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571143

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Efforts have been made to contain COVID-19. Human behavior, affected by knowledge and perceptions, may influence the course of disease. METHODOLOGY: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 422 participants. It consisted of 28 questions in four sections; seven questions about sociodemographic characteristics of participants, 12 questions to estimate level of knowledge about COVID-19, six questions to evaluate attitudes toward disease, and three questions to assess practices to prevent disease transmission. RESULTS: Their overall understanding of COVID-19 was satisfactory. 69% of the participants had satisfactory levels of knowledge, and the main sources of information were social media platforms (79.70%) and television (70.90%). There was a significant difference in knowledge as a function of gender (p = 0.50), occupation (p = 0.012), and smoking (p = 0.041). The participants held optimistic attitudes and adopted appropriate protective measures. Most participants agreed that COVID-19 can cause death (64.7%), poses greater risks to elderly (93.4%) and those with chronic diseases (96.7%), it is mandatory to quarantine infected individuals (98.1%), preventive health measures are important (97.6%), and health authorities will succeed in controlling the pandemic (67.5%). There was a statistically significant association between satisfactory levels of knowledge and the practice of wearing masks and the adoption of protective measures (avoiding crowded places, frequent hand washing). CONCLUSIONS: Residents of Al-Jouf region in Saudi Arabia have satisfactory levels of knowledge, optimistic attitudes, and good practice during the rapid rise period of the pandemic. Awareness campaigns will improve any misbeliefs and risky behaviors.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24421, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546088

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the perception about hand washing and health status among Koreans using the data from the Community Health Survey.We examined the differences in the perceptions about hand washing and health statuses of 220,440 participants of the 2017 community health survey. The sample was divided into groups based on demographic variables, perceptions about hand washing, and prevalence of metabolic diseases. Participants' demographic characteristics were analyzed using frequency, and perceptions about hand washing and subjective health status-related parameters were analyzed using t tests. The prevalence of metabolic disorder was analyzed with χ2 tests.There were significant differences in subjective health status, subjective oral health status, and perceived obesity in the positive and negative hand washing perception groups (P < .01). The prevalence rate of hypertension and diabetes mellitus significantly differed in the positive and negative hand washing perception groups (P < .01), but no differences were observed for hyperlipidemia (P < .01).This study showed that positive hand washing perception is associated with good health care practices. The perceptions of hand washing, which are formed during early childhood, were closely associated with health status. This finding could be useful evidence for developing programs focusing on major health behaviors and levels of health.


Asunto(s)
Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estado de Salud , Percepción , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 75, 2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446137

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The elderly population in Hong Kong is rapidly growing, and the need for residential care homes (RCHs) is increasing. The risk of being infected with micro-organisms increases among the frail and the vulnerable elderly population as their immunity system begins to deteriorate. Furthermore, the residents in RCHs are at high risk of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to the confined living environments and individual co-morbidities. In relation to this, infection control practice (ICP) is considered a crucial and effective approach in preventing HAIs. This study aimed to observe the daily ICP of healthcare workers in RCH settings. METHODS: An observational study was conducted to observe daily ICP among healthcare workers in private and subsidized RCHs. Each RCH was separated into different units based on the location (common area and bedroom area) and nature of residents for successive days. The ICP episodes were observed until 200 opportunities in each unit. The ICP episodes were recorded by an electronic tool called "eRub," which is an ICP checklist based on international guidelines. RESULTS: The most frequent observed ICP episodes were hand hygiene (n = 1053), the use of gloves (n = 1053) and respiratory protection (n = 1053). The overall compliance of hand hygiene was poor, with only 15% of participants performing this during the "five moments for hand hygiene." Furthermore, the observations showed that 77.9% improperly performed the use of gloves, and 31.8% failed to wear a mask during the care provision for the elderly. However, the results showed that most healthcare workers can wear the mask in a proper way when they should. Generally, the personal care workers were the worst in terms of hand hygiene and use of gloves compared with the other types of healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that the practice of hand hygiene, the use of gloves, and respiratory protection were the important elements of ICP, overall compliance to these elements was still poor. Personal care workers had the most frequent contact with the residents, but they had the worst compliance rate. Hence, continued monitoring and training among healthcare workers is needed, particularly personal care workers, in this healthcare service setting.


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones de Salud , Personal de Salud , Hogares para Ancianos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Casas de Salud , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Guantes Protectores , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Máscaras , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 12, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397344

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, billions of people have to change their behaviours to slow down the spreading of the virus. Protective measures include self-isolation, social (physical) distancing and compliance with personal hygiene rules, particularly regular and thorough hand washing. Prevalence estimates for the compliance with the COVID-19 measures are often based on direct self-reports. However, during a health crisis there is strong public pressure to comply with health and safety regulations so that people's responding in direct self-reports may be seriously compromised by social desirability. METHODS: In an online survey, an indirect questioning technique was used to test whether the prevalence of hygiene practices may be lower than in conventional surveys when confidentiality of responding is guaranteed. The Extended Crosswise Model is an indirect questioning technique that guarantees the confidentiality of responding. To the degree that direct self-reports are biased by social desirability, prevalence estimates of hygiene practices such as thorough hand washing based on the Extended Crosswise Model should be lower than those based on direct self-reports. RESULTS: We analysed data of 1434 participants. In the direct questioning group 94.5% of the participants claimed to practice proper hand hygiene; in the indirect questioning group a significantly lower estimate of only 78.1% was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that estimates of the degree of commitment to measures designed to counter the spread of the disease may be significantly inflated by social desirability in direct self-reports. Indirect questioning techniques with higher levels of confidentiality seem helpful in obtaining more realistic estimates of the degree to which people follow the recommended personal hygiene measures. More realistic estimates of compliance can help to inform and to adjust public information campaigns on COVID-19 hygiene recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24730, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465034

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, new digital solutions have been developed for infection control. In particular, contact tracing mobile apps provide a means for governments to manage both health and economic concerns. However, public reception of these apps is paramount to their success, and global uptake rates have been low. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to identify the characteristics of individuals or factors potentially associated with voluntary downloads of a contact tracing mobile app in Singapore. METHODS: A cohort of 505 adults from the general community completed an online survey. As the primary outcome measure, participants were asked to indicate whether they had downloaded the contact tracing app TraceTogether introduced at the national level. The following were assessed as predictor variables: (1) participant demographics, (2) behavioral modifications on account of the pandemic, and (3) pandemic severity (the number of cases and lockdown status). RESULTS: Within our data set, the strongest predictor of the uptake of TraceTogether was the extent to which individuals had already adjusted their lifestyles because of the pandemic (z=13.56; P<.001). Network analyses revealed that uptake was most related to the following: using hand sanitizers, avoiding public transport, and preferring outdoor over indoor venues during the pandemic. However, demographic and situational characteristics were not significantly associated with app downloads. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to introduce contact tracing apps could capitalize on pandemic-related behavioral adjustments among individuals. Given that a large number of individuals is required to download contact tracing apps for contact tracing to be effective, further studies are required to understand how citizens respond to contact tracing apps. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04468581, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04468581.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Aplicaciones Móviles/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Desinfectantes para las Manos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Singapur , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043356, 2021 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462101

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and to identify factors associated with non-adherence. DESIGN: A cross-sectional population-based online survey. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in 22 provinces of the DRC. Five provinces with a satisfactory number of respondents were included in the analysis: Haut Katanga, Kasaï-Central, Kasaï-Oriental, Kinshasa and North Kivu. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were people aged ≥18 years, living in the DRC. A total of 3268 participants were included in the study analysis. INTERVENTIONS: Both convenience sampling (surveyors themselves contacted potential participants in different districts) and snowball sampling (the participants were requested to share the link of the questionnaire with their contacts) methods were used. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We computed adherence scores using responses to 10 questions concerning COVID-19 preventive measures recommended by the WHO and the DRC Ministry of Health. We used logistic regression analysis with generalised estimating equations to identify factors of poor adherence. We also asked about the presence or absence of flu-like symptoms during the preceding 14 days, whether a COVID-19 test was done and the test result. RESULTS: Data from 3268 participants were analysed. Face masks were not used by 1789 (54.7%) participants. Non-adherence to physical distancing was reported by 1364 (41.7%) participants. 501 (15.3%) participants did not observe regular handwashing. Five variables were associated with poor adherence: lower education level, living with other people at home, being jobless/students, living with a partner and not being a healthcare worker. CONCLUSION: Despite compulsory restrictions imposed by the government, only about half of the respondents adhered to COVID-19 preventive measures in the DRC. Disparities across the provinces are remarkable. There is an urgent need to further explore the reasons for these disparities and factors associated with non-adherence.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , República Democrática del Congo , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(1): 67-71, ene, 22, 2021. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1146488

RESUMEN

En el neonato las infecciones asociadas a la atención sanitaria son causas de aumento de morbilidad, mortalidad y una estancia hospitalaria prolongada. El Hospital Nacional San Juan de Dios de San Miguel, reportó una tasa de estas infecciones de 3,1 %, entre el 2008 al 2013. Objetivo. Describir la disminución de la tasa de infecciones asociadas a la atención sanitaria en la unidad de cuidado intensivos neonatal y servicio de neonatología en el hospital nacional San Juan de Dios de San Miguel con las medidas preventivas mejoradas. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y neonatología entre 2014 y 2019. Se valoró la tasa anual, que identifica los casos de la vigilancia de infecciones asociadas a atención sanitaria en neonatos ingresados posterior a la intervención, que consistió en mejorar las medidas preventivas dirigidas al usuario, personal de salud y al entorno. Resultados. La tasa promedio de infecciones en ambos servicios presentó una variación, de 3,1 % de 2008-2013 a 1,6 % de 2014-2019 (p<0,3). Conclusiones. Las acciones de mejora en la prevención de infecciones asociadas a atención sanitaria, planificadas sobre sus causas y en coordinación con los tomadores de decisiones, influyen efectivamente en la incidencia de casos


In the neonate, infections associated with health care are causes of increased morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospital stay. The San Juan de Dios National Hospital in San Miguel, reported a rate of these infections of 3.1%, between 2008 and 2013. Objective. Describe the decrease in the rate of infections associated with health care in the neonatal intensive care unit and neonatology service at the San Juan de Dios national hospital in San Miguel with improved preventive measures. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the intensive care and neonatology units between 2014 and 2019. The annual rate was assessed, which identifies the cases of surveillance of infections associated with health care in neonates admitted after the intervention, which consisted of improving preventive measures aimed at the user, health personnel and the environment. Results. The average rate of infections in both services varied, from 3.1% from 2008-2013 to 1.6% from 2014-2019 (p <0.3). Conclusions. Actions to improve the prevention of healthcare-associated infections, planned on their causes and in coordination with decision makers, effectively influence the incidence of cases


Asunto(s)
Recién Nacido , Esterilización , Desinfección de las Manos , Infecciones
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466858

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices of visitors to the Prophet's Mosque in Al Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. Using a self-administered electronic questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among domestic residents, who visited the mosque between 31 July and 3 August 2020. Participants' demographic data, hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices were collected. Four hundred participants aged 18-65 (median 36) years completed the survey, of which 215 (53.8%) were female. The visitors' mean knowledge score about hand hygiene was 6.4 (± standard deviation (SD) 1.35) of total 12. Most participants (392, 98%) were aware of the role of hand hygiene in preventing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); nevertheless, 384 (96%) said hand hygiene lowers body immunity and 316 (79%) thought <60% alcohol is sufficient for hand disinfection. Males had a higher knowledge score than females (6.46 (±1.41) vs. 6.14 (±1.27), p = 0.02) and, visitors who had no formal education scored higher than those with post-graduate education (6.88 (±1.45) vs 5.73 (±1.12), p = 0.01). Washing hands with soap and water was the predominant method practiced after a meal (365, 91.7%), after toilet visit (354, 88.5%), after touching a surface (262, 65.7%), after waste disposal (332, 83.2%), and when hands were visibly dirty (357, 89.5%). Al Madinah visitors had moderate knowledge about hand hygiene, but demonstrated some knowledge gaps and negligence in practice that are crucial to curb the spread of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Higiene de las Manos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Arabia Saudita , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
Contact Dermatitis ; 84(1): 1-14, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063847

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of alcoholic-based hand rubs (ABHRs) is an important tool for hand hygiene, especially in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Possible irritant effects of ABHR may prevent their use by persons at risk of infection. METHODS: This systematic review is based on a PubMed search of articles published between January 2000 and September 2019 in English and German, and a manual search, related to the irritation potential of alcohol-based disinfectants restricted to n-propanol (1-propanol) and its structural isomer isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol, 2-propanol). RESULTS: The majority of the included studies show a low irritation potential of n-propanol alone. However, recent studies provide evidence for significant barrier damage effects of repeated exposure to 60% n-propanol in healthy, as well as atopic skin in vivo. The synergistic response of combined irritants, (ie, a combination of n-propanol or isopropanol with detergents such as sodium lauryl sulfate) is greater, compared with a quantitatively identical application of the same irritant alone. CONCLUSION: While recent studies indicate a higher risk of skin irritation for n-propanol and isopropanol than reported in the past, this risk still seems to be lower than that for frequent handwashing with detergents, as recommended by some to prevent COVID-19 infections.


Asunto(s)
1-Propanol/efectos adversos , 2-Propanol/efectos adversos , Dermatitis Irritante/etiología , Antiinfecciosos Locales/efectos adversos , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Humanos
11.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 46(1): 142-144, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705718

RESUMEN

COVID-19 healthcare workers (HCWs) require frequent handwashing and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to prevent infection. However, evidence is emerging that these practices are causing adverse effects on their skin integrity. A single-centre, cross-sectional study of HCWs from an Irish hospital was undertaken to evaluate the degree of COVID-19-related irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) between April and May 2020. Of 270 participants surveyed, 223 (82.6%) reported symptoms of ICD. The hands were the most commonly affected site (76.47%) and the most frequently reported symptom was dry skin (75.37%). Nearly all (268; 99.26%) HCWs had increased hand-washing frequency, but 122 (45.35%) did not use emollients. In the ICD group, 24.7% cited a history of dermatitis compared with 4.3% of unaffected staff (P < 0.001). The ICD group recorded PPE usage for an average of 3.15 h compared with the non-ICD group at 1.97 h (P = 0.21). Promoting awareness of COVID-19-related ICD is vital to highlight prevention and treatment for frontline staff.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Dermatitis Irritante/etiología , Equipo de Protección Personal/efectos adversos , /genética , Concienciación , /patología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Dermatitis por Contacto/etiología , Dermatitis Profesional/epidemiología , Dermatitis Profesional/etiología , Emolientes/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiología , Irritantes/efectos adversos , Masculino
12.
Health Promot Pract ; 22(1): 9-12, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830564

RESUMEN

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is having a devastating impact on global health. In the United States and abroad, there is concern for how the novel coronavirus will affect vulnerable populations, including people experiencing homelessness. Individuals who lack stable housing are more likely to have preexisting health conditions and limited access to basic preventative hygiene practices such as handwashing and sanitizing. The situation has become critical in Los Angeles' Skid Row neighborhood, where nearly 5,000 unhoused residents (13% of the city's homeless population) reside on any given night. Community members' concerns have mounted as social and health services in the area have decreased, and early efforts to prevent the transmission of coronavirus did not adequately address the lack of access to handwashing stations and hand sanitizing products. This Practice Note details an academic-community partnership that uses grassroots organizing to provide "do-it-yourself" handwashing stations to the Skid Row neighborhood. We describe how an academic-community partnership was mobilized to establish innovative practices in response to the coronavirus, offering lessons and recommendations for others hoping to do similar work.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Desinfección de las Manos , Personas sin Hogar , /epidemiología , Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Universidades , Poblaciones Vulnerables
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375506

RESUMEN

The objectives were to (1) assess the prevalence of hand-washing practices across 80 countries and (2) assess frequency of hand-washing practice by economic status (country income and severe food insecurity), in a global representative sample of adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2003-2017 were analyzed. Data on age, sex, hand-washing practices in the past 30 days, and severe food insecurity (i.e., proxy of socioeconomic status) were self-reported. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analysis with random effects based on country-wise estimates were conducted to assess associations. Adolescents (n = 209,584) aged 12-15 years [mean (SD) age 13.8 (1.0) years; 50.9% boys] were included in the analysis. Overall, the prevalence of hand-washing practices were as follows: never/rarely washing hands before eating (6.4%), after using toilet (5.6%), or with soap (8.8%). The prevalence of never/rarely washing hands after using the toilet (10.8%) or with soap (14.3%) was particularly high in low-income countries. Severe food insecurity was associated with 1.34 (95%CI = 1.25-1.43), 1.61 (95%CI = 1.50-1.73), and 1.44 (95%CI = 1.35-1.53) times higher odds for never/rarely washing hands before eating, after using the toilet, and with soap, respectively. A high prevalence of inadequate hand washing practices was reported, particularly in low-income countries and those with severe food insecurity. In light of the present COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid expansion being observed in low- and middle-income locations, interventions that disseminate good hand-washing practices are urgently required. Such interventions may also have cross-over benefits in relation to other poor sanitation-related diseases.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Desinfección de las Manos , Pandemias , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242961, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351819

RESUMEN

Presurgical hand asepsis is part of the daily routine in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, basic knowledge seems to be low, even among specialised veterinary surgeons. The major objectives of our study were to assess current habits for presurgical hand preparation (phase 1) among personnel in a veterinary hospital and their effectiveness in reducing bacteria from hands in comparison to a standardised protocol (phase 2). Assessment of individual habits focused on time for hand washing and disinfection, the amount of disinfectant used, and the usage of brushes. The standardised protocol defined hand washing for 1 min with liquid neutral soap without brushing and disinfection for 3 min. All participants (2 surgeons, 8 clinic members, 32 students) used Sterillium®. Total bacterial counts were determined before and after hand washing, after disinfection, and after surgery. Hands were immersed in 100 ml sterile sampling fluid for 1 min and samples were inoculated onto Columbia sheep blood agar using the spread-plate method. Bacterial colonies were manually counted. Glove perforation test was carried out at the end of the surgical procedure. Differences in the reduction of relative bacterial numbers between current habits and the standardised protocol were investigated using Mann-Whitney-Test. The relative increase in bacterial numbers as a function of operation time (≤60 min, >60 min) and glove perforation as well as the interaction of both was investigated by using ANOVA. Forty-six and 41 preparations were carried out during phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. Individual habits differed distinctly with regard to time (up to 8 min) and amount of disinfectant (up to 48 ml) used both between participants and between various applications of a respective participant. Comparison of current habits and the standardised protocol revealed that the duration of hand washing had no significant effect on reducing bacteria. Contrary, the reduction in bacterial numbers after disinfection by the standardised protocol was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to routine every-day practice. With regard to disinfection efficacy, the standardised protocol completely eliminated individual effects. The mean reduction in phase 1 was 90.72% (LR = 3.23; right hand) and 89.97% (LR = 3.28; left hand) compared to 98.85% (LR = 3.29; right hand) and 98.92% (LR = 3.47; left hand) in phase 2. Eight participants (19%) carried MRSA (spa type t011, CC398) which is well established as a nosocomial pathogen in veterinary clinics. The isolates could further be assigned to a subpopulation which is particularly associated with equine clinics (mainly t011, ST398, gentamicin-resistant). Glove perforation occurred in 54% (surgeons) and 17% (assistants) of gloves, respectively, with a higher number in long-term invasive procedures. Overall, bacterial numbers on hands mainly increased over time, especially when glove perforation occurred. This was most distinct for glove perforations on the left hand and with longer operating times. Our results demonstrate that standardised protocols highly improve the efficacy of hand asepsis measures. Hence, guiding standardised protocols should be prerequisite to ensure state-of-the-art techniques which is essential for a successful infection control intervention.


Asunto(s)
Mano , Caballos , Hospitales Veterinarios/normas , Control de Infecciones/normas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Guantes Quirúrgicos , Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Estándares de Referencia
15.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 11 05.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331733

RESUMEN

Because of COVID-19 outbreak people wash more often their hands and use more often and longer disposable gloves. The natural skin barrier function is damaged by washing hand or using disinfectants, because of this allergic and irritative hand eczema develops. Allergic hand eczema can be caused by materials which people work with, and by ingredients of creme and soap, but also by wearing gloves. To prevent hand eczema, good protection of the hands is essential. It is very important to have knowledge about different gloves to inform (health) worker about wearing gloves in the proper way.


Asunto(s)
Eccema , Guantes Protectores , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Desinfectantes para las Manos/efectos adversos , Prevención Primaria/métodos , Jabones/efectos adversos , /epidemiología , Eccema/etiología , Eccema/prevención & control , Guantes Protectores/efectos adversos , Guantes Protectores/clasificación , Mano , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 585302, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363083

RESUMEN

Background: Emerged in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the largest pandemics ever. During the early phase, little was known about public knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) relating to coronavirus disease. This study was designed to determine KAP of Iranians toward COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out in Iran from February 25 to April 25 using a self-administered questionnaire on 1,480 people. COVID-19-related KAP questions were adapted from other internationally validated questionnaires specific for infectious diseases. Results: All participants were aware of COVID-19. When asked unprompted, 80% of respondents could correctly cite fever, difficulty in breathing, and cough as signs/symptoms of COVID-19. Most of our sample population knew that staying at home and isolated (95.3%) as well as constant handwashing and using disinfectants (92.5%) could prevent COVID-19. However, there were also widespread misconceptions such as the belief that COVID-19 can be transmitted by wild animals (58%) and by air (48.3%). Unprompted, self-reported actions taken to avoid COVID-19 infection included handwashing with soap and water (95.4%), avoiding crowded places (93%), cleansing hands with other disinfectants (80.), and covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing (76.1%). The Internet and social media (94.5%) were the main coronavirus information sources. However, the most trusted information sources on coronavirus were health and medical professionals (79.3%). The majority of participants (77.0%) wanted more information about coronavirus to be available. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that people's knowledge and attitude toward COVID-19 at the time of its outbreak was at a high level.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Trials ; 21(1): 1025, 2020 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323130

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Entertainment-education (E-E) media can improve behavioral intent toward health-related practices. In the era of COVID-19, millions of people can be reached by E-E media without requiring any physical contact. We have designed a short, wordless, animated video about preventive COVID-19 behaviors that can be rapidly distributed through social media channels to a global audience. The E-E video's effectiveness, however, remains unclear. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multi-site, parallel group, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of an E-E video on COVID-19 against (i) an attention placebo control (APC) video and (ii) no video. For our primary outcomes, we will measure knowledge about preventive COVID-19 behaviors. We will also use a list randomization approach to measure behavioral intent toward preventative COVID-19 behaviors. In each trial arm, participants will be randomized to a control list or a control list plus an item about social distancing, washing hands, cleaning household surfaces, sharing of eating utensils, and the stockpiling of essential goods. Using an online platform, we will recruit 17,010 participants (aged 18-59 years) from the USA, the UK, Germany, Spain, France, and Mexico. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register #DRKS00021582 . Registered on May 12, 2020. DISCUSSION: This trial will utilize several randomization procedures, list experimentation methods, and state-of-the-art online technology to demonstrate the effectiveness of an E-E video to improve knowledge of, and behavioral intent toward, the prevention of COVID-19. Our results will inform future E-E video campaigns for COVID-19 and similar public health intervention needs.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Educación en Salud/métodos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Películas Cinematográficas , /transmisión , Desinfección , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243946, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms are among the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Ethiopia. Although pre-school aged children pay a high morbidity toll associated with STH infections, evidence on prevalence, intensity and intervention status is lacking in Ethiopia. This study, therefore, aimed to address these gaps to inform decision made on STH. METHODS: We did a community-based cross-sectional study in five districts of Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia; in January 2019. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire, and the Kato-Katz technique was used to diagnose parasites eggs in stool. Then, collected data were edited and entered into EpiData 4.4.2, and exported to SPSS software (IBM, version 25) for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2462 PSAC participated in this study. Overall, the prevalence of STH was 23.5% (578/2462) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.8%-25.2%). As caris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (18.6%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (9.2%), and hookworms (3.1%). Of the total, 7.4% PSAC were infected with two STH species. Most of the positive cases with STH showed low infection intensities, while 15.1% ascariasis cases showed moderate infection intensities. The study found that 68.7% of PSAC were treated with albendazole. Also, household's level data showed that 39.4% used water from hand-dug well; 52.5% need to travel ≥30 minutes to collect water; 77.5% did not treat water, and 48.9% had no hand washing facility. In addition, almost 93% care givers achieved less than the mean knowledge and practice score (≤5) on STH prevention. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that significant proportions of pre-school aged children are suffering from STH infections despite preventive chemotherapy exist at the study area. Also, gaps in the interventions against STH were highlighted. Thus, a call for action is demanding to eliminate STH among PSAC in Ethiopia by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adolescente , Anciano , Ancylostomatoidea/patogenicidad , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/patología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris/patogenicidad
20.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(6): 785-787, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341217

RESUMEN

The world has changed dramatically since the COVID-19 pandemic began. In addition to our social, occupational, and personal lives, the new coronavirus also poses novel challenges for all physicians, including dermatologists. Several skin conditions have emerged, mainly as a result of prolonged contact with personal protective equipment and excessive personal hygiene. Pressure injury, contact dermatitis, itch, pressure urticaria, and exacerbation of preexisting skin diseases, including seborrheic dermatitis and acne, have been described. We have focused on the dermatologic aspects of the COVID-19 infection so that dermatologists are aware of the skin complications and preventive measures can be taken in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Dermatología/organización & administración , Equipo de Protección Personal/efectos adversos , Enfermedades de la Piel/etiología , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Enfermedades de la Piel/prevención & control
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