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1.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799842

RESUMEN

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in an increased need for technologies capable of efficiently disinfecting public spaces as well as personal protective equipment. UV light disinfection is a well-established method for inactivating respiratory viruses. Here, we have determined that broad-spectrum, pulsed UV light is effective at inactivating SARS-CoV-2 on multiple surfaces in vitro. For hard, non-porous surfaces, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 was inactivated to undetectable levels on plastic and glass with a UV dose of 34.9 mJ/cm2 and stainless steel with a dose of 52.5 mJ/cm2. We also observed that broad-spectrum, pulsed UV light is effective at reducing SARS-CoV-2 on N95 respirator material to undetectable levels with a dose of 103 mJ/cm2. We included UV dosimeter cards that provide a colorimetric readout of UV dose and demonstrated their utility as a means to confirm desired levels of exposure were reached. Together, the results presented here demonstrate that broad-spectrum, pulsed UV light is an effective technology for the in vitro inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on multiple surfaces.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Desinfección/métodos , Máscaras/virología , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de la radiación , /prevención & control , Desinfección/instrumentación , Humanos , Rayos Ultravioleta
2.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807081

RESUMEN

The emergent human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its high infectivity rate has highlighted the strong need for new disinfection systems. Evidence has proven that airborne transmission is an important route of spreading for this virus. Therefore, this short communication introduces CLODOS Technology®, a novel strategy to disinfect contaminated surfaces. It is a product based on stable and 99% pure chlorine dioxide, already certified as a bactericide, fungicide and virucide against different pathogens. In this study, CLODOS Technology®, by direct contact or thermonebulization, showed virucidal activity against the human coronavirus HCoV-229E at non-cytotoxic doses. Different conditions such as nebulization, exposure time and product concentration have been tested to standardize and optimize this new feasible method for disinfection.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus Humano 229E/efectos de los fármacos , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Desinfección/métodos , Línea Celular , Compuestos de Cloro/análisis , Compuestos de Cloro/farmacología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfección/instrumentación , Humanos , Nebulizadores y Vaporizadores , Óxidos/análisis , Óxidos/farmacología
3.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807521

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to establish the persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on inanimate surfaces such as plastic, stainless steel, and glass during UV-C irradiation which is a physical means commonly utilized in sanitization procedures. The viral inactivation rate, virus half-life, and percentage of titer reduction after UV-C irradiation were assessed. Infectivity was maintained on plastic and glass until 120 h and on stainless steel until 72 h. The virus half-life was 5.3, 4.4, and 4.2 h on plastic, stainless steel, and glass, respectively. In all cases, titer decay was >99% after drop drying. UV-C irradiation efficiently reduced virus titer (99.99%), with doses ranging from 10.25 to 23.71 mJ/cm2. Plastic and stainless steel needed higher doses to achieve target reduction. The total inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on glass was obtained with the lower dose applied. SARS-CoV-2 survival can be long lasting on inanimate surfaces. It is worth recommending efficient disinfection protocols as a measure of prevention of viral spread. UV-C can provide rapid, efficient and sustainable sanitization procedures of different materials and surfaces. The dosages and mode of irradiation are important parameters to consider in their implementation as an important means to fight the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Desinfección/métodos , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de la radiación , /prevención & control , Desinfección/instrumentación , Vidrio/análisis , Humanos , /fisiología , Acero Inoxidable/análisis , Rayos Ultravioleta , Carga Viral/efectos de la radiación
4.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(2): 142-145, 2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793439

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Ophthalmologists and patients have an inherent increased risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The human ocular surface expresses receptors and enzymes facilitating transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Personal protective equipment alone provides incomplete protection. Adjunctive topical ocular, nasal, and oral antisepsis with povidone iodine bolsters personal protective equipment in prevention of provider-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ophthalmology.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Desinfección/métodos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Profesional a Paciente/prevención & control , Povidona Yodada/uso terapéutico , Administración Oftálmica , Humanos , Soluciones Oftálmicas , Equipo de Protección Personal , Examen Físico
5.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(2): 167-171, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825376

RESUMEN

Focusing on the requirements of visual traceability for reprocessing of reused medical devices under the background of deep integration of intelligent medical treatment, a quality and safety traceability system for disinfection of reused medical devices is developed. The multi-dimensional data of the reprocessing chain of reusable medical devices are acquired in real time by the RFID mobile terminal handset and stored temporarily. The data package is formatted based on LoRa protocol and uploaded to the management and control platform in multi-threaded transmission mode for in-depth analysis and traceability. The corresponding prototype system is developed. The first-line operation and maintenance test results show that the prototype system has strong cooperation, strong operation robustness, and obvious advantages in the identification rate and other layers of sterile equipment package.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivo de Identificación por Radiofrecuencia , Desinfección , Tecnología
6.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807470

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted from person to person by close contact, small aerosol respiratory droplets, and potentially via contact with contaminated surfaces. Herein, we investigated the effectiveness of commercial UVC-LED disinfection boxes in inactivating SARS-CoV-2-contaminated surfaces of personal items. We contaminated glass, metal, and plastic samples representing the surfaces of personal items such as smartphones, coins, or credit cards with SARS-CoV-2 formulated in an organic matrix mimicking human respiratory secretions. For disinfection, the samples were placed at different distances from UVC emitting LEDs inside commercial UVC-LED disinfection boxes and irradiated for different time periods (up to 10 min). High viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 were effectively inactivated on all surfaces after 3 min of irradiation. Even 10 s of UVC-exposure strongly reduced viral loads. Thus, UVC-LED boxes proved to be an effective method for disinfecting SARS-CoV-2-contaminated surfaces that are typically found on personal items.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Desinfección/métodos , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de la radiación , /prevención & control , Cosméticos , Desinfección/instrumentación , Humanos , /fisiología , Rayos Ultravioleta
7.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810401

RESUMEN

The risk posed by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) dictates that live-virus research is conducted in a biosafety level 3 (BSL3) facility. Working with SARS-CoV-2 at lower biosafety levels can expedite research yet requires the virus to be fully inactivated. In this study, we validated and compared two protocols for inactivating SARS-CoV-2: heat treatment and ultraviolet irradiation. The two methods were optimized to render the virus completely incapable of infection while limiting the destructive effects of inactivation. We observed that 15 min of incubation at 65 °C completely inactivates high titer viral stocks. Complete inactivation was also achieved with minimal amounts of UV power (70,000 µJ/cm2), which is 100-fold less power than comparable studies. Once validated, the two methods were then compared for viral RNA quantification, virion purification, and antibody detection assays. We observed that UV irradiation resulted in a 2-log reduction of detectable genomes compared to heat inactivation. Protein yield following virion enrichment was equivalent for all inactivation conditions, but the quality of resulting viral proteins and virions were differentially impacted depending on inactivation method and time. Here, we outline the strengths and weaknesses of each method so that investigators might choose the one which best meets their research goals.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Desinfección/métodos , Virión/efectos de la radiación , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de la radiación , Desinfección/instrumentación , Calor , Humanos , /genética , Rayos Ultravioleta , Proteínas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo , Virión/química , Virión/genética , Virión/fisiología
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(3): 418-423, 2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730838

RESUMEN

Haloacetaldehydes (HALs), as emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water, are the third largest group by weight of identified disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. The formation of HALs is associated with the level of natural organic matter and halide in the source water, the treatment process of drinking water and the type of disinfectant. Recent studies have shown that HALs are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than regulated trihalomethanes and halo-acetic acids in drinking water. Currently, only a few countries and regions have set limit values for trichloroacetaldehyde with high detection rate in drinking water. However, there is growing evidence that unregulated HALs have a higher potential risk to human health compared to regulated HALs. This paper reviews the current research progress on the formation and transformation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of HALs in drinking water, and looks forward to the problems that should be paid attention in the future toxicological research of HALs in order to support the development of scientific drinking water standards.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Agua Potable/análisis , Humanos , Trihalometanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
11.
Water Res ; 195: 116995, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721675

RESUMEN

Membrane fouling is a prominent problem that hinders the stable and efficient operation of the reverse osmosis (RO) system for wastewater reclamation. Previous studies showed that chlorine disinfection, which was commonly used in industrial RO systems as pretreatment, could lead to significant change in microbial community structure and resulted in serious biofouling. In order to prevent biofouling during wastewater reclamation, the effect of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection on RO membrane fouling was investigated and the mechanism was also revealed in this study. With the disinfection pretreatment by UV of 20, 40 and 80 mJ/cm2, the bacteria in the feed water were inactivated significantly with a log reduction of 1.11, 2.55 and 3.61-log, respectively. However, RO membrane fouling aggravated with higher UV dosage. Especially, in the group with the UV dosage of 80 mJ/cm2, the normalized RO membrane flux decreased by 15% compared with the control group after 19-day operation. The morphology of the fouled RO membranes indicated serious biofouling in all groups. The analysis on the microbial amount of the foulants showed that the heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and ATP content on the fouled RO membranes with and without UV disinfection were at the same level. However, the total organic carbon content of the foulants with the UV dosage of 40 and 80 mJ/cm2 was significantly higher than the control group, with higher content of proteins and polysaccharides as indicated by EEM and FTIR spectrum. Microbial community structure analysis showed that some typical UV-resistant bacteria were selected and remained on the RO membrane after disinfection with high UV dosage, including. These residual bacteria after disinfection with high UV dosage showed higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretion compared with those without UV disinfection, and thus aggravated RO membrane fouling. Thicker EPS could decrease the transmission of UV rays, and thus bacteria with higher EPS secretion might be selected after UV disinfection.


Asunto(s)
Incrustaciones Biológicas , Purificación del Agua , Desinfección , Membranas Artificiales , Ósmosis , Aguas Residuales
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 174, 2021 03 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731687

RESUMEN

This study examined prevalences of anxiety and depression and their correlations with daily routines among Hong Kong Chinese during the COVID-19 pandemic. Random digit dialing recruited two population-representative samples of 6029 residents during a period of low infection and limited intervention (survey 1: n = 4021) and high incidence and intensive measures (survey 2: n = 2008). Prevalence of anxiety for survey 1 and survey 2 were 14.9% and 14% and depression were 19.6% and 15.3%, respectively. Increased odds of anxiety and depression were associated with disrupted routines and lower socioeconomic status in both surveys, whereas depression was inversely related to the novel preventive routine of avoiding going to crowded places in survey 1. The prevalences of anxiety and depression were higher than preceding public health/social crises. A heavier burden of psychiatric conditions was evidenced amongst people experiencing disrupted daily routines across different phases of the pandemic and without novel preventive routines in the early phase.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Desinfección , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248495, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720979

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious viral infection, and it has negative effects on public health. The practice of preventive measures of the disease supports containment processes of the spread of coronavirus. However, the practice of preventive measures is affected by several associated risk factors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the associated factors that limit the youths' practice of preventive measures against COVID-19 in the study area. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. The study used a quantitative approach for collecting data from 384 youths using a survey method. Not practicing preventive measures was measured to determine whether or not youths applied hygiene practices, kept their distance, restricted their movements, and sought self-help or support in the past two months. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the distribution of study participants, and a binary regression model was executed to examine the association factors with inability to practice preventive measures with a p-value < 0.05 statistically significant. RESULTS: Male youths (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.16) were less likely to practice preventive measures. Older youth (AOR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.56), with higher education level (AOR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06), and who had higher income (AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.78) were more likely to practice preventive measures. Further, the belief in the body's immunity to resist the disease (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.67), lack of paying attention to the disease (AOR = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.73), ignorance of evidence to the disease (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.74), ease of restriction of movements (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.72), lack of sensitization to actions in the community (AOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.96), and substance use (AOR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.21) were other factors that were inversely related to practicing preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that more intervention efforts, by either communicating to or reaching out all groups, should be employed. All segments of the population should be equipped with the facts that effectively support them practice preventive measures against the disease. Finally, the results suggested that youths should abstain from substance use, keep their distance in their pastime and avoid crowdings.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , /patología , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Desinfección , Escolaridad , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Proyectos Piloto , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/patología , Adulto Joven
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1939-1945, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742829

RESUMEN

In order to study the effects of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) disinfection on the super antibiotic resistance genes (SARGs), the final effluents before and after chlorine dioxide were sampled throughout one year in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The bacteria and extracellular nucleic acid were collected using microporous membrane filtration and nucleic acid adsorption particles, respectively. A total of 9 SARGs was detected through a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results revealed that both intracellular and extracellular NDM-1, MCR-1, and MEC-A could be positively detected in the samples. Overall, ClO2 disinfection enhanced the relative abundance of the iSARGs (P<0.05), exhibiting a seasonal pattern, and increasing in the spring, summer, and autumn. In spring, it improved the most, up to twice the abundance. No SARGs were detected positive in the winter, either intracellularly or extracellularly. There was no significant variation in the concentrations of eSARGs before and after ClO2 disinfection. Therefore, ClO2 disinfection cannot effectively remove iSARGs and eSARGs in the final effluent from the WWTP.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Cloro , Desinfectantes , Purificación del Agua , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cloro , Compuestos de Cloro/farmacología , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Desinfección , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Óxidos/farmacología
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 860-866, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742880

RESUMEN

To study the effect of combined ultraviolet (UV) chloramine disinfection on viruses in a drinking water supply system, a full-scale experiment was conducted to analyze the distribution, variability, community structure, and hosts of viruses using metagenomics. The results showed that the combined UV chloramine process reduced the number of virus species (6.13%) and gene abundance (51.97%) but did not completely remove the viruses from the water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) report that virus removal efficiencies from water can reach 99%-99.99% based on culturing methods. However, in this study, metagenomic analysis indicated a total virus removal rate of only 93.46%. Therefore, the detection of viruses in water using culturing method cannot reliably detect viruses in drinking water. Caudovirales are the most abundant type of virus in water supply systems and are sensitive to chloramine disinfection. Lentivirus, as a virus that can infect humans and vertebrates, has strong resistance to UV and chloramine disinfection. The main virus hosts in the studied water supply system were bacteria (61.50%). The viruses in the raw water were mainly parasitic in Synechococcus. The dominant virus host was Pseudomonas in both the effluent water and pipe network water. The gene abundance of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa host in the pipe network increased by 342.62%, which requires further attention as a virus risk in pipe network systems. Overall, combined UV chloramine disinfection was more effective at the removal of virus hosts than single UV disinfection (51.97% compared to 0.79%).


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Virus , Purificación del Agua , Cloraminas/farmacología , Desinfección , Humanos , Rayos Ultravioleta , Estados Unidos , Abastecimiento de Agua
16.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 217: 112168, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714723

RESUMEN

Worldwide shortages of personal protective equipment during COVID-19 pandemic has forced the implementation of methods for decontaminating face piece respirators such as N95 respirators. The use of UV irradiation to reduce bioburden of used respirators attracts attention, making proper testing protocols of uttermost importance. Currently artificial saliva is used but its comparison to human saliva from the UV disinfection perspective is lacking. Here we characterize UV spectra of human and artificial saliva, both fresh and after settling, to test for possible interference for UV-based disinfection. ASTM 2720 artificial saliva recipe (with either porcine or bovine mucin) showed many discrepancies from average (N = 18) human saliva, with different mucins demonstrating very different UV absorbance spectra, resulting in very different UV transmittance at different wavelength. Reducing porcine mucin concentration from 3 to 1.7 g/L brought UVA254 in the artificial saliva to that of average human saliva (although not for other wavelengths), allowing 254 nm disinfection experiments. Phosphate saline and modified artificial saliva were spiked with 8.6 log CFU/ml B. subtilis spores (ATCC 6633) and irradiated at dose of up to 100 mJ/cm2, resulting in 5.9 log inactivation for a saline suspension, and 2.8 and 1.1 log inactivation for ASTM-no mucin and ASTM-1.7 g/L porcine mucin 2 µL dried droplets, respectively. UVC irradiation of spores dried in human saliva resulted in 2.3 and 1.5 log inactivation, depending on the size of the droplets (2 vs 10 µL, respectively) dried on a glass surface. Our results suggest that in the presence of the current standard dried artificial saliva it is unlikely that UVC can achieve 6 log inactivation of B. subtilis spores using a realistic UV dose (e.g. less than 2 J/cm2) and the ATSM saliva recipe should be revised for UV decontamination studies.


Asunto(s)
Desinfección/métodos , Saliva/química , Saliva/efectos de la radiación , Animales , Bacillus subtilis/efectos de la radiación , Canadá , Bovinos , Descontaminación/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Mucinas/química , Saliva/microbiología , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Esporas Bacterianas/efectos de la radiación , Rayos Ultravioleta
17.
Water Res ; 196: 117027, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744659

RESUMEN

Cyanobacteria blooms threaten water supply and are potential sources for disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formation. In this study, the underlying mechanisms for effective removal of A. spiroides and the following depression on the formation of DBPs were disclosed. Highly efficient inactivation (more than 99.99%) of A. spiroides was realized by the plasma treatment within 12 min, and 93.4% of Anatoxin-a was also removed within 12 min, with no signals of resurrection after 7 days' re-cultivation. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that the expressions of the genes related to cell walls and peripherals, thylakoid membranes, photosynthetic membranes, and detoxification of toxins were distinctly altered. The generated reactive oxidative species (ROS), including ·OH, O2·-, and 1O2, attacked A. spiroides and resulted in membrane damage and algae organic matter (AOM) release. EEM-PARAFAC analysis illustrated that the AOM compositions were subsequently decomposed by the ROS. As a result, the formation potentials of the C-DBPs and N-DBPs were significantly inhibited, due to the effectively removal of AOM and Anatoxin-a. This study disclosed the underneath mechanisms for the effective inactivation of A. spiroides and inhibition of the following formation of the DBPs, and supplied a prospective technique for integrated pollutant control of cyanobacterial containing drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfección , Halogenación , Plasma/química , Estudios Prospectivos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25207, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787602

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: To examine the knowledge level, behaviors, and psychological status of the Chinese population during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the differences between urban and rural areas.We carried out a cross-sectional survey of the knowledge, behaviors related to COVID-19, and mental health in a probability sample of 3001 community residents in 30 provinces or districts across China from February 16-23, 2020. Convenience sampling and a snowball sampling were adopted. We used General Anxiety Disorder (GAD), the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and knowledge and behaviors questionnaire of community residents regarding COVID-19 designed by us to investigate the psychological status, disease-related knowledge, and the behavior of Chinese urban and rural residents during the pandemic.The average score of anxiety and depression among urban residents was 9.15 and 11.25, respectively, while the figures in rural areas were 8.69 and 10.57, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the levels of anxiety (P < .01) and depression (P < .01). Urban participants reported significantly higher levels of knowledge regarding COVID-19 in all aspects (transmission, prevention measures, symptoms of infection, treatment, and prognosis) (P < .01), compared to their rural counterparts. While a majority of respondents in urban areas obtained knowledge through WeChat, other apps, and the Internet (P < .01), residents in rural areas accessed information through interactions with the community (P < .01). Urban residents fared well in exchanging knowledge about COVID-19 and advising others to take preventive measures (P < .01), but fared poorly in advising people to visit a hospital if they displayed symptoms of the disease, compared to rural residents (P < .01). Regression analysis with behavior showed that being female (OR = 2.106, 95%CI = 1.259-3.522), aged 18 ≤ age < 65 (OR = 4.059, 95%CI = 2.166-7.607), being satisfied with the precautions taken by the community (OR = 2.594, 95%CI = 1.485-4.530), disinfecting public facilities in the community (OR = 2.342, 95%CI = 1.206-4.547), having knowledge of transmission modes (OR = 3.987, 95%CI: 2.039, 7.798), symptoms (OR = 2.045, 95%CI = 1.054-4.003), and outcomes (OR = 2.740, 95%CI = 1.513-4.962) of COVID-19, and not having anxiety symptoms (OR = 2.578, 95%CI = 1.127-5.901) were positively associated with affirmative behavior in urban areas. Being married (OR = 4.960, 95%CI = 2.608-9.434), being satisfied with the precautions taken by the community (OR = 2.484, 95%CI = 1.315-4.691), screening to ensure face mask wearing before entering the community (OR = 8.809, 95%CI = 2.649-19.294), and having knowledge about precautions (OR = 4.886, 95%CI = 2.604-9.167) and outcomes (OR = 2.657, 95%CI = 1.309-5.391) were positively associated with acceptable conduct in rural areas.The status of anxiety and depression among urban residents was more severe compared to those living in rural areas. There was a difference in being positively associated with constructive behaviors between rural and urban areas.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Desinfección/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
19.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672940

RESUMEN

Pseudomonas is considered as the specific spoilage bacteria in meat and meat products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inactivation efficiency and mechanisms of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against Pseudomonas deceptionensis CM2, a strain isolated from spoiling chicken breast. SAEW caused time-dependent inactivation of P. deceptionensis CM2 cells. After exposure to SAEW (pH 5.9, oxidation-reduction potential of 945 mV, and 64 mg/L of available chlorine concentration) for 60 s, the bacterial populations were reduced by 5.14 log reduction from the initial load of 10.2 log10 CFU/mL. Morphological changes in P. deceptionensis CM2 cells were clearly observed through field emission-scanning electron microscopy as a consequence of SAEW treatment. SAEW treatment also resulted in significant increases in the extracellular proteins and nucleic acids, and the fluorescence intensities of propidium iodide and n-phenyl-1-napthylamine in P. deceptionensis CM2 cells, suggesting the disruption of cytoplasmic and outer membrane integrity. These findings show that SAEW is a promising antimicrobial agent.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos/farmacología , Membrana Celular/patología , Electrólisis , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Pseudomonas/efectos de los fármacos , Agua/farmacología , Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Celular/ultraestructura , Permeabilidad de la Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Citoplasma/efectos de los fármacos , Desinfección , Pseudomonas/citología , Pseudomonas/ultraestructura
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144885, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736131

RESUMEN

Dissolved nitrogenous organic matter in water can contain precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), especially nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs). Amino acids are ubiquitous as dissolved nitrogenous organic matter in source water and can pass through drinking water treatment processes to react with disinfectants in finished water and in the distribution system. Phenylalanine (Phe) was selected as a model amino acid precursor to investigate its derived DBPs and their variations during a chlorination regime that simulated water distribution with residue chlorine. The 7-day DBPs formation potential (DBPsFP) test with chlorine revealed chlorination by-products of phenylalanine including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and halonitromethanes (HNMs), but not trichloronitromethane (TCNM) which was a significant N-DBP detected during the first 48 h of chlorine contact. The formation of most carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs) increased with chlorination time; however N-DBPs and non-chlorinated byproducts of phenylacetonitrile and phenylacetaldehyde reached their highest concentration after 2 h of reaction, and then gradually decreased until below detection after 7 days. The chlorination influencing factors indicated that light enhanced the peak yield of DBPs; the pH value showed different influences associated with corresponding DBPs; and the presence of bromide ions (Br-) generated a variety of bromine-containing DBPs. The DBPsFP test with chloramine reduced C-DBPs generation to about 1/3 of the level observed for chlorine disinfection and caused an increase in dichloroacetonitrile. Surveillance of DBPs during drinking water distribution to consumers should consider the varying contact times with disinfectants to accurately profile the types and concentrations of C-DBPs and N-DBPs present in drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Cloro , Desinfección , Halogenación , Fenilalanina , Trihalometanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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