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1.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(2): 142-145, 2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793439

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Ophthalmologists and patients have an inherent increased risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The human ocular surface expresses receptors and enzymes facilitating transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Personal protective equipment alone provides incomplete protection. Adjunctive topical ocular, nasal, and oral antisepsis with povidone iodine bolsters personal protective equipment in prevention of provider-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ophthalmology.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Desinfección/métodos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Profesional a Paciente/prevención & control , Povidona Yodada/uso terapéutico , Administración Oftálmica , Humanos , Soluciones Oftálmicas , Equipo de Protección Personal , Examen Físico
2.
Appl Opt ; 60(7): 1821-1826, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690269

RESUMEN

During the present Sars-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been an increase in the development of UVC disinfection systems. Researchers and members of the lighting community shifted their interests to this new field to help develop systems for disinfecting facemasks and other small equipment. In this paper we show that it is possible to use DIALux to simulate the irradiance distribution provided by a lamp emitting in the UVC range. We will compare the results provided by DIALux with those obtained from Zemax OpticStudio in three different scenarios. We compared the minimum, maximum, and mean irradiance at the detection plane. The differences between the two software were less than 12%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. We also compared the contour maps of isoirradiance lines. We conclude that DIALux is well suited for UVC lighting design in the UVC range. We think that this finding will contribute to increasing the design and manufacturing of new UVC disinfection systems needed to fight against the Sars-CoV-2 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Desinfección/métodos , Máscaras/virología , Programas Informáticos , Rayos Ultravioleta , /transmisión , Simulación por Computador , Desinfección/instrumentación , Desinfección/estadística & datos numéricos , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Dispositivos Ópticos , Fenómenos Ópticos , Pandemias/prevención & control
3.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200146, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787720

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protocols on decontamination/reuse of N95 masks available in the literature in times of the Covid-19 pandemic. METHOD: Integrative literature review, in the period from 2010 to 2020, on the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, SAGE journals, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase and Wiley, with the descriptors Masks AND Respiratory protective devices; Mask OR N95 AND Covid-19; N95 AND Respirators; Decontamination AND N95 AND Coronavirus; Facemask OR Pandemic. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, of which 3 (30.0%) used ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and indicated mask deterioration between 2 and 10 cycles, 4 (40.0%) used hydrogen peroxide vapor, and seal loss varied from 5 to 20 cycles, 4 (33.3%) evaluated the structural integrity of the N95 mask through visual inspection and 6 (54.4%), its filtration efficiency. CONCLUSION: Reuse strategies to overcome a shortage of devices in the face of the pandemic challenge the current concept for good practices in health-product processing.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Descontaminación/métodos , Equipo Reutilizado , Pandemias , Antiinfecciosos Locales , Desinfectantes , Desinfección/métodos , Óxido de Etileno , Filtración/instrumentación , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Rayos Ultravioleta
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 510-516, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595464

RESUMEN

The instrumentation used in ophthalmic clinics can be a source of epidemics in health care set up. Contact tonometry with Schiotz or Applanation tonometer is associated with nosocomial epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreaks. Recently identified SARS-CoV-2 (COVID -19) spreads mainly via the respiratory route and fomites and can transmit through other body fluids, including tear film. Various ophthalmic instruments can become a common source of spreading cross infections. Chemical disinfection is one of the most common methods employed to decontaminate instruments and environmental surfaces and prevent transmission of infectious pathogens to patients through medical and surgical instruments. Various chemical disinfectants are available with a varied spectrum to work on a different group of organisms. In this article, we briefly cover commonly used chemical disinfectants in ophthalmic practice like Alcohol (Ethyl Alcohol, Isopropyl Alcohol), Chlorine-based solution (mainly Sodium Hypochlorite), Glutaraldehyde, Hydrogen Peroxide, Formaldehyde, Iodophors, and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Desinfección/métodos , Oftalmología , Pandemias , Humanos
5.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 33, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579343

RESUMEN

The global COVID-19 pandemic due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has challenged the availability of traditional surface disinfectants. It has also stimulated the production of ultraviolet-disinfection robots by companies and institutions. These robots are increasingly advocated as a simple solution for the immediate disinfection of rooms and spaces of all surfaces in one process and as such they seem attractive to hospital management, also because of automation and apparent cost savings by reducing cleaning staff. Yet, there true potential in the hospital setting needs to be carefully evaluated. Presently, disinfection robots do not replace routine (manual) cleaning but may complement it. Further design adjustments of hospitals and devices are needed to overcome the issue of shadowing and free the movement of robots in the hospital environment. They might in the future provide validated, reproducible and documented disinfection processes. Further technical developments and clinical trials in a variety of hospitals are warranted to overcome the current limitations and to find ways to integrate this novel technology in to the hospitals of to-day and the future.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Desinfección/instrumentación , Desinfección/métodos , Hospitales , Robótica/métodos , Rayos Ultravioleta , /virología , Desinfectantes , Humanos , Pandemias , /efectos de la radiación
6.
Cir Cir ; 89(1): 4-11, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498060

RESUMEN

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak have major implications in conventional surgical practice. As the number of patients with this diagnosis is rising, the infection risk for the surgical staff will be higher. Few publications have addressed the surgical management of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Objective: To assess recommendations for care of patients and surgical team during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (April 2020) were searched the key words "COVID-19", "PROTOCOL" and "SURGERY". Relevant recommendations, guidelines and cases series were checked for the most accurate information for apply to our center. Results: We found 379 papers that included the key words. A total of 25 papers were included in the manuscript based in the pertinence of the recommendations. Three major topics were selected: perioperative, intraoperative and postoperative. Conclusion: As an attempt to regulate the surgical team approach, we present recommendations to preserve patients and surgical staff safety with high quality standards of care through reproducible strategies applicable in most hospital centers.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Profesional a Paciente/prevención & control , Pandemias , Aerosoles , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Citas y Horarios , Desinfección/métodos , Contaminación de Equipos/prevención & control , Humanos , México , Exposición Profesional , Quirófanos , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Atención Perioperativa , Equipo de Protección Personal , Personal de Hospital , Sala de Recuperación , Esterilización/métodos , Equipo Quirúrgico
7.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 141(1): 135-142, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390440

RESUMEN

Environmental microorganisms can cause several infections in humans, especially in compromised hosts. Since there are many compromised hosts in a hospital setting, it is important to control environmental pathogens in such scenarios. To disinfect the environment, photocatalysts that produce reactive oxygen in response to light have attracted attention. In the present study, the effects of a visible-light-driven antimicrobial photocatalyst, silver (I) iodide and benzalkonium complex, on bacteria, viruses, and fungi were evaluated in vitro. In addition, uncoated panels and panels coated with the photocatalyst were set up at 11 points in a university campus for 6 months, and the adherent bacteria and fungi were measured. Bacteria, bacterial spores, viruses, and fungi were completely inactivated within 45 min on the photocatalyst-coated surface exposed to approximately 700-lux fluorescent light. In the university setting, there were fewer viable adherent bacteria and fungi on the coated plates. Our findings indicate that the silver (I) iodide and benzalkonium complex photocatalyst can decrease environmental bacteria in vitro and in actual environmental settings, and thus highlight its potential in controlling and disinfecting environmental pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Benzalconio , Desinfección/métodos , Microbiología Ambiental , Fluorescencia , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Yoduros , Luz , Compuestos de Plata , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Benzalconio/farmacología , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Yoduros/farmacología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/farmacología , Compuestos de Plata/farmacología , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de los fármacos
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2418, 2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510320

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is currently a global pandemic, and there are limited laboratory studies targeting pathogen resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of selected disinfection products and methods on the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory. We used quantitative suspension testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectant/method. Available chlorine of 250 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L required 20 min, 5 min, and 0.5 min to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, respectively. A 600-fold dilution of 17% concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (283 mg/L) and the same concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride required only 0.5 min to inactivate the virus efficiently. At 30% concentration for 1 min and 40% and above for 0.5 min, ethanol could efficiently inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Heat takes approximately 30 min at 56 °C, 10 min above 70 °C, or 5 min above 90 °C to inactivate the virus. The chlorinated disinfectants, Di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide/chloride, ethanol, and heat could effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory test. The response of SARS-CoV-2 to disinfectants is very similar to that of SARS-CoV.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/farmacología , Desinfección/métodos , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de los fármacos , /prevención & control , Cloro/química , Cloro/farmacología , Desinfectantes/química , Etanol/química , Etanol/farmacología , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/química , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/farmacología
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111912, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493727

RESUMEN

The reuse of the sewage is an effective way to solve the shortage of water resources, but disinfection by-products (DBPs) caused by chlorination may bring potential ecological and health risks to the supplied water. In this study, the occurrence and potential ecological risk of DBPs in SH River in Beijing were evaluated. Four kinds of DBPs were detected in 84 samples by GC-MS, including THM, CH, CTC and TCAN, whose detection rates were 100%, 100%, 100% and 2.38%, respectively. Combining with the relevant standard limitation and corresponding threshold values in China, and the reported concentration in domestic and foreign literatures, the results showed that the number of samples which [THM], [CTC] and [CH] exceeded the threshold values in relevant standard for 23.81%, 100.00% and 89.29%, respectively. CTC showed the highest excess times than the threshold value with [CTC]max was 356.46 µg/L. In addition, the temporal and spatial characteristics of identified DBPs were studied. [THM], [CTC] and [CH] all exhibited the highest concentration in Aug., which was as the same as the variation trend of air and water temperature. With the increase of sampling distance, [THM] and [CTC] fluctuated greatly, and the background values in SH River were higher due to the supplement of the reclaimed water. [CH] and [TCAN] gradually decreased, which may be due to that they were more prone to volatilize in the channel and be degraded by aquatic microorganisms. In addition, the occurrence situation in S2 and S7, were in the order of CTC > CH > THM. Hence, the rank of the occurrence situation of identified DBPs was CTC > CH > THM > TCAN. Multivariate analysis showed that THM was significantly positively correlated with CTC and their sources were similar. Moreover, they were all affected by solution pH and DO. Potential ecological risk assessment indicated that the rank of identified DBPs ecological risk was CTC > THM > CH > TCAN. Among them, the risk level of CTC and THM were high in both daily and extreme situations. Therefore, the potential ecological risk caused by DBPs should be fully considered in the process of reclaimed water supplying landscape water, such as urban river. If a higher level of the ecological risk management is needed, THM, CTC and CH, especially CTC, should be considered firstly.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Beijing , China , Desinfectantes/química , Desinfección/métodos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Halogenación , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Abastecimiento de Agua
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 180, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420069

RESUMEN

The highly reactive nature of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the basis for widespread use in environmental and health-related fields. Conventionally, there are only two kinds of catalysts used for ROS generation: photocatalysts and piezocatalysts. However, their usage has been limited due to various environmental and physical factors. To address this problem, herein, we report thermoelectric materials, such as Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, and PbTe, as thermocatalysts which can produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under a small surrounding temperature difference. Being the most prevalent environmental factors in daily life, temperature and related thermal effects have tremendous potential for practical applications. To increase the practicality in everyday life, bismuth telluride nanoplates (Bi2Te3 NPs), serving as an efficient thermocatalyst, are coated on a carbon fiber fabric (Bi2Te3@CFF) to develop a thermocatalytic filter with antibacterial function. Temperature difference induced H2O2 generation by thermocatalysts results in the oxidative damage of bacteria, which makes thermocatalysts highly promising for disinfection applications. Antibacterial activity as high as 95% is achieved only by the treatment of low-temperature difference cycles. The current work highlights the horizon-shifting impacts of thermoelectric materials for real-time purification and antibacterial applications.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bismuto/farmacología , Desinfección/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Nanotecnología/métodos , Telurio/farmacología , Filtros de Aire , Antibacterianos/química , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bismuto/química , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Telurio/química , Temperatura , Textiles , Difracción de Rayos X
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 206-210, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399524

RESUMEN

The extremely rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 has already resulted in more than 1 million reported deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ability of infectious particles to persist on environmental surfaces is potentially considered a factor for viral spreading. Therefore, limiting viral diffusion in public environments should be achieved with correct disinfection of objects, tissues, and clothes. This study proves how two widespread disinfection systems, short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C) and ozone (O3), are active in vitro on different commonly used materials. The development of devices equipped with UV-C, or ozone generators, may prevent the virus from spreading in public places.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Desinfección/métodos , Ozono/farmacología , Rayos Ultravioleta , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de los fármacos , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , /aislamiento & purificación , /efectos de la radiación
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 2245-2255, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416320

RESUMEN

Self-disinfecting textile materials employing combined photodynamic/photothermal effects enable the prevention of microbial infections, a property that has great potential in healthcare applications. However, smart textiles with stimulus responses to ambient temperature are marvelous materials for enhancing their photothermal applications with additional functions. It is still challenging to realize vivid and contrasting color changes as temperature indicators. Herein, through the in situ growth of PCN-224 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the electrospraying of a Ti3C2 MXene colloid, and the screen printing of a thermochromic dye, a smart photothermochromic self-disinfecting textile has been fabricated. An antibacterial inactivation study revealed 99.9999% inactivation toward gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 8099) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) bacteria in 30 min. A mechanism study revealed that light-driven singlet oxygen and heat are the main reasons for bacterial inactivation. Interestingly, the fabrics presented photothermal effects not only under a handheld 780 nm NIR laser but also under visible Xe lamp (λ ≥ 420 nm) illumination. The color of the fabrics (S-CF@PCN0.08) changed completely from dark green to dark red when the temperature exceeded 45 °C under Xe lamp illumination. Furthermore, the photothermochromic effect occurred in just 1 s under a 780 nm laser. Taken together, this smart photothermochromic self-disinfecting textile permits a new way to feedback the timely signal of temperature by color change and provides novel insights into the development of self-disinfecting textiles.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/química , Colorantes/química , Desinfección/métodos , Estructuras Metalorgánicas/química , Textiles/microbiología , Titanio/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Colorantes/farmacología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/efectos de la radiación , Calor , Humanos , Luz , Estructuras Metalorgánicas/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de la radiación , Temperatura , Titanio/farmacología
14.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 11, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436105

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In intensive care units (ICUs) treating patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) invasive ventilation poses a high risk for aerosol and droplet formation. Surface contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or bacteria can result in nosocomial transmission. METHODS: Two tertiary care COVID-19 intensive care units treating 53 patients for 870 patient days were sampled after terminal cleaning and preparation for regular use to treat non-COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A total of 176 swabs were sampled of defined locations covering both ICUs. No SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) was detected. Gram-negative bacterial contamination was mainly linked to sinks and siphons. Skin flora was isolated from most swabbed areas and Enterococcus faecium was detected on two keyboards. CONCLUSIONS: After basic cleaning with standard disinfection measures no remaining SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected. Bacterial contamination was low and mainly localised in sinks and siphons.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Desinfección/métodos , Contaminación de Equipos/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Aerosoles/análisis , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Infección Hospitalaria/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , /aislamiento & purificación , Atención Terciaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 33: 102184, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of 222 nm ultraviolet (UV) C light for disinfecting surfaces contaminated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intermittent irradiation of 222 nm UVC on SARS-CoV-2 and the fluence-dependent effect of 222 nm UVC irradiation on SARS-CoV-2 inactivation. METHODS: We experimented with 5 min continuous and intermittent irradiation for 0.1, 0.05, 0.013, and 0.003 mW/cm2 of 222 nm UVC to evaluate the differences in the effect of the continuous and intermittent irradiation of 222 nm UVC on SARS-CoV-2 inactivation. For intermittent irradiation, we followed the on-off irradiation cycles with every 10-s irradiation followed by a 380-s interval. Thereafter, we evaluated the effects of 0.1, 0.013, and 0.003 mW/cm2 222 nm UVC irradiation on SARS-CoV-2 contamination at UV fluences of 1, 2, and 3 mJ/cm2 at each irradiance. RESULTS: At each irradiance, no significant difference was observed in the log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 between continuous and intermittent irradiation. At each UV fluence, no significant difference was observed in the log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 among the three different irradiance levels. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between continuous and intermittent irradiation with 222 nm UVC with regards to SARS-CoV-2 inactivation. Moreover, 222 nm UVC inactivates SARS-CoV-2 in a fluence-dependent manner. The efficacy of 222-nm UVC irradiation in reducing the contamination of SARS-CoV-2 needs to be further evaluated in a real-world setting.


Asunto(s)
Desinfección/métodos , Rayos Ultravioleta , Humanos , Inactivación de Virus
16.
Health Phys ; 120(2): 123-130, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369969

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Healthcare-associated infections are a major public health concern for both patients and medical personnel. This has taken on greater urgency during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Radiation Personal Protective Equipment (RPPE) may contribute to risks of microbial contamination. This possibility was tested in 61 personal or shared-use lead aprons and thyroid collars at Columbia Presbyterian Irving Medical Center. Fifty percent tested positive for either bacterial or fungal contamination, mostly around the neckline of lead vests and thyroid collars. Repeated testing of garments some weeks to months later confirmed continued presence of microbial contamination. The possibility that hospital-approved disinfection agents could degrade the radio-protective features of these garments was also examined. Samples of identical construction to garments in regular use were subjected to either daily or weekly wipes with hypochlorite or alcohol-based hospital-approved cleaning agents for 6 mo. A third group of samples was maintained in contact with the cleaning agents for 6 mo. All samples were fluoroscoped four times during the study. None demonstrated any degradation in radioprotection. All samples were photographed monthly. Physical degradation of the outer plastic covering by concentrated hypochlorite and limited mechanical damage around stitched seams of the samples cleaned daily with alcohol was noted. Based on the high prevalence of microbial contamination, regular cleaning and disinfection protocols should be implemented. Regular cleaning with medical-facility-approved cleaning and disinfecting agents is likely to be effective at reducing the microbial load and unlikely to result in significant reduction in radioprotective properties of these garments.


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Desinfección/métodos , Ropa de Protección/microbiología , Protección Radiológica , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal , Riesgo
17.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1845-1852, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317763

RESUMEN

Pharmacies have been practicing innovative infection control measures during COVID-19. This article seeks to explore the current activities undertaken across various community pharmacy settings in relation to the safety of the workplace environment for staff and patients. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Australia during the COVID-19 outbreak from 1st to 30th April 2020, addressing community pharmacist's awareness and response to infection and sanitation control. RESULTS: A total of 137 pharmacists took part in the survey. Regular cleaning took place in the pharmacy, but the use of gloves while cleaning was not regularly practice (48.18%). In addition, only 46.72% of respondents reported observing script baskets being cleaned and disinfected. About one-third (37.96%) of pharmacists were aware of the two-step cleaning and disinfecting process, with only 18.98% of pharmacist practicing such cleaning procedures. More than half of surveyed pharmacists reported having difficulty keeping up with pharmacy practice and infection control guidelines during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the majority of pharmacists are not fully aware of the proper infection control measures needed in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacists must play a bigger role in infection control measures to ensure staff and public health safety.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/organización & administración , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Australia , Estudios Transversales , Desinfección/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Rol Profesional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127954, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854008

RESUMEN

Chlorine disinfection is required to inactivate pathogens in drinking water, but it inevitably generates potentially toxic halogenated disinfection byproducts (halo-DBPs). A previous study has reported that the addition of ascorbate to tap water before boiling could significantly decrease the concentration of overall halo-DBPs in the boiled water. Since the fruit lemon is rich in vitamin C (i.e., ascorbic acid), adding it to tap water followed by heating and boiling in an effort to decrease levels of halo-DBPs was investigated in this study. We examined three approaches that produce lemon water: (i) adding lemon to tap water at room temperature, termed "Lemon"; (ii) adding lemon to boiled tap water (at 100 °C) and then cooling to room temperature, termed "Boiling + Lemon"; and (iii) adding lemon to tap water then boiling and cooling to room temperature, termed "Lemon + Boiling". The concentrations of total and individual halo-DBPs in the resultant water samples were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the cytotoxicity of DBP mixtures extracted from the water samples was evaluated using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells. Our results show that the "Lemon + Boiling" approach substantially decreased the concentrations of halo-DBPs and the cytotoxicity of tap water. This strategy could be applied to control halo-DBPs, as well as to lower the adverse health effects of halo-DBPs on humans through tap water ingestion.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Desinfección/métodos , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Células CACO-2 , Cloro/análisis , Desinfectantes/química , Agua Potable/química , Halogenación , Humanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Purificación del Agua/métodos
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2220: 219-231, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975778

RESUMEN

Biofilm-forming ability may vary significantly among different Listeria (L.) monocytogenes strains. This interstrain variation is also observed in L. monocytogenes biofilm resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used in the food-processing environment. The screening of a large set of L. monocytogenes strains with specific characteristics, such as serotype, MLST type, and other genetic characteristics under various environmental conditions, may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the establishment of the pathogen on food contact surfaces. In this chapter, traditional methods for L. monocytogenes strains characterization with regard to biofilm formation and novel biofilm control methods will be described.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas , Manipulación de Alimentos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiología , Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Desinfección/métodos , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Listeriosis/microbiología , Microscopía Fluorescente/métodos , Propiedades de Superficie
20.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(4): e970, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144515

RESUMEN

Introducción: El estetoscopio se ha descrito como un fómite capaz de transmitir patemas de tipo infeccioso a los trabajadores de la salud Objetivo: Caracterizar la presencia de contaminación microbiana en estetoscopios utilizados por proveedores de salud. Métodos: Estudio transversal en 50 muestras microbiológicas obtenidas de estetoscopios pertenecientes a proveedores de salud que laboran en el Hospital Pediátrico Cerro, de junio-octubre de 2019. Se aplicó una encuesta para evaluar variables demográficas y epidemiológicas de sus titulares relacionadas con la aplicación de medidas descontaminantes. Se examinaron los resultados mediante el análisis porcentual y prueba de Ji-cuadrada para buscar asociación significativa (p≤0,05) con los hábitos higiénicos. Resultados: El 100 por ciento de los estetoscopios están contaminados. Los aislamientos más frecuentes fueron: Staphylococcus alba 40,3 por ciento, Staphylococcus aureus 32,6 por ciento y Klebsiella pneumoniae 3,8 por ciento. Las áreas de mayor contagio fueron las de misceláneas (44,2 por ciento) y de respiratorio (36,5 por ciento). El personal con notable contaminación en sus equipos fueron los alumnos (81,4 por ciento) y los especialistas (14,8 por ciento). Las causas que determinaron no practicar la desinfección en los alumnos fue la falta de enseñanza (45,4 por ciento); en los especialistas, la carencia de hábitos (33,3 por ciento) y la falta de desinfectante (66,3 por ciento). Las bacterias gramnegativas fueron sensibles en su mayoría a los aminoglucósidos y Staphylococcus aureus a la clindamicina, vancomicina, ciprofloxacino y cloranfenicol. Conclusiones: Existe alta frecuencia de contaminación en los estetoscopios utilizados por los proveedores de salud motivado por la falta de hábito de desinfección en médicos y su desconocimiento en alumnos(AU)


Introduction: Stethoscopes has been described as a fomite which is able to transmit infectious agents to health care workers. Objective: To describe the presence of microbial contamination in stethoscopes used by health care providers. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 50 microbiological samples obtained from stethoscopes belonging to health care providers whom worked in Cerro Pediatric Hospital from June to October, 2019. It was applied a survey to evaluate demographic and epidemiologic variables of the owners related with the implementation of disinfection measures. The results were examined through percentage analysis and the Ji-square test to look for significative relation (p≤0,05) with hygene habits. Results: 100 percent of the stethoscopes were contamined. The most frequent isolated agents were: Staphylococcus alba 40.3 percent, Staphylococcus aureus 32.6 percent and Klebsiella pneumoniae 3.8 percent. The hospital areas with more contagion were: Miscellany (44.2 percent) and Respiratory (36.5 percent). The personnel with more contamination in their equipments were: students (81.4 percent) and specialists (14.8 percent). The cause of not doing the disinfection processes in the students was the lack of knowledge (45.4 percent); and in the specialists was the lack of hygene habits and the lack of disinfectant solutions (66.3 percent). Negative Gran bacteria were mostly sensitive to aminoglycosides and Staphylococcus aureus to clindamycin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and cloramphenicol. Conclusions: There is high frequency of contamination in the stethoscopes used by health care providers, mainly motived by the lack of disinfection habits in physicians and lack of knowledge on it in the students(AU)


Asunto(s)
Desinfección/métodos , Estetoscopios/microbiología , Fómites/microbiología , Estudios Transversales , Contaminación Biológica/prevención & control
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