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1.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807081

RESUMEN

The emergent human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its high infectivity rate has highlighted the strong need for new disinfection systems. Evidence has proven that airborne transmission is an important route of spreading for this virus. Therefore, this short communication introduces CLODOS Technology®, a novel strategy to disinfect contaminated surfaces. It is a product based on stable and 99% pure chlorine dioxide, already certified as a bactericide, fungicide and virucide against different pathogens. In this study, CLODOS Technology®, by direct contact or thermonebulization, showed virucidal activity against the human coronavirus HCoV-229E at non-cytotoxic doses. Different conditions such as nebulization, exposure time and product concentration have been tested to standardize and optimize this new feasible method for disinfection.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus Humano 229E/efectos de los fármacos , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Desinfección/métodos , Línea Celular , Compuestos de Cloro/análisis , Compuestos de Cloro/farmacología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfección/instrumentación , Humanos , Nebulizadores y Vaporizadores , Óxidos/análisis , Óxidos/farmacología
2.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804814

RESUMEN

The disinfection of surfaces in medical facilities is an important element of infection control, including the control of viral infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Preparations used for surface disinfection are typically characterized via their activity against test organisms (i.e., viruses, bacteria and fungi) in the laboratory. Typically, these methods use a suspension of the test organism to assess the bactericidal, fungicidal or virucidal activity of a given preparation. However, such suspension methods do not fully imitate real-life conditions. To address this issue, carrier methods have been developed, in which microorganisms are applied to the surface of a carrier (e.g., stainless steel, glass and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) and then dried. Such methods more accurately reflect the applications in real-life clinical practice. This article summarizes the available methods for assessing the virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants for use in medical facilities based on the current European standards, including the activity against coronaviruses.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Desinfectantes/farmacología , /efectos de los fármacos , Antivirales/normas , /virología , Desinfectantes/normas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , /crecimiento & desarrollo
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(3): 418-423, 2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730838

RESUMEN

Haloacetaldehydes (HALs), as emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water, are the third largest group by weight of identified disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. The formation of HALs is associated with the level of natural organic matter and halide in the source water, the treatment process of drinking water and the type of disinfectant. Recent studies have shown that HALs are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than regulated trihalomethanes and halo-acetic acids in drinking water. Currently, only a few countries and regions have set limit values for trichloroacetaldehyde with high detection rate in drinking water. However, there is growing evidence that unregulated HALs have a higher potential risk to human health compared to regulated HALs. This paper reviews the current research progress on the formation and transformation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of HALs in drinking water, and looks forward to the problems that should be paid attention in the future toxicological research of HALs in order to support the development of scientific drinking water standards.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Agua Potable/análisis , Humanos , Trihalometanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1939-1945, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742829

RESUMEN

In order to study the effects of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) disinfection on the super antibiotic resistance genes (SARGs), the final effluents before and after chlorine dioxide were sampled throughout one year in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The bacteria and extracellular nucleic acid were collected using microporous membrane filtration and nucleic acid adsorption particles, respectively. A total of 9 SARGs was detected through a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results revealed that both intracellular and extracellular NDM-1, MCR-1, and MEC-A could be positively detected in the samples. Overall, ClO2 disinfection enhanced the relative abundance of the iSARGs (P<0.05), exhibiting a seasonal pattern, and increasing in the spring, summer, and autumn. In spring, it improved the most, up to twice the abundance. No SARGs were detected positive in the winter, either intracellularly or extracellularly. There was no significant variation in the concentrations of eSARGs before and after ClO2 disinfection. Therefore, ClO2 disinfection cannot effectively remove iSARGs and eSARGs in the final effluent from the WWTP.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Cloro , Desinfectantes , Purificación del Agua , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cloro , Compuestos de Cloro/farmacología , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Desinfección , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Óxidos/farmacología
6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 418: 115501, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771551

RESUMEN

With the rapid increase in application of disinfectants worldwide as a method to block the spread of coronavirus, many new products are being introduced into the market without thorough verification of their impacts on human health and the environment. In the present study, we aimed to propose a screening marker for materials that can induce fibrotic lung disease using disinfectants, which had been demonstrated as causative materials of chronic inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. We first calculated the corresponding LC50 level based on results from cell viability test and exposed the LC50 level of disinfectants to human bronchial epithelial cells for 24 h. Formation of lamellar body-like structures, cleavage of the nuclear matrix, structural damage of mitochondria were found in the cytosol of the treated cells. We also dosed disinfectants by pharyngeal aspiration to mice to determine the LD0 level. The mice were sacrificed on Day 14 after a single dosing, and lamellar body-like structures were observed in the lung tissue of mice. Herein, we hypothesize that DNA damage and metabolic disturbance may play central roles in disinfectant-induced adverse health effects. Additionally, we propose that formation of lamellar bodies can be a screening marker for interstitial fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Epiteliales/patología , Líquido Intracelular/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/patología , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/fisiología , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Líquido Intracelular/metabolismo , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Fibrosis Pulmonar/inducido químicamente , Fibrosis Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrosis Pulmonar/patología
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670033

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the awareness and performance of Qom citizens towards using disinfectants and compared its relationship with geographical distribution of COVID-19 outbreak in Qom, Iran. The study was conducted by a researcher-made questionnaire during April and May, 2020. COVID-19 incidence data for each district of city was obtained from health department of Qom province. Data were analyzed using Excel, SPSS and ArcView (GIS) softwares. It was found that the highest level of citizens' awareness (52%) was in the weak range while their performance (56%) was in the good range. According to Spearman's correlation analysis, there was a strong correlation (rho 0.95) between the total mean of awareness and performance (p < 0.01). The highest incidence rate of COVID-19 was in district 7 which had the lowest mean score in both awareness and performance. In addition, the results of ANOVA (LSD-least significant difference) showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between district 7-with lower mean scores in awareness and performance-and other districts. Overall, it is concluded that citizens' awareness level was lower than that of their performance. This conclusion not only calls for more training programs to be implemented in public places, schools, universities and governmental offices, but it also necessitates maintaining a proper and timely training about using disinfectants.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Desinfectantes , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Water Res ; 196: 117027, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744659

RESUMEN

Cyanobacteria blooms threaten water supply and are potential sources for disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formation. In this study, the underlying mechanisms for effective removal of A. spiroides and the following depression on the formation of DBPs were disclosed. Highly efficient inactivation (more than 99.99%) of A. spiroides was realized by the plasma treatment within 12 min, and 93.4% of Anatoxin-a was also removed within 12 min, with no signals of resurrection after 7 days' re-cultivation. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that the expressions of the genes related to cell walls and peripherals, thylakoid membranes, photosynthetic membranes, and detoxification of toxins were distinctly altered. The generated reactive oxidative species (ROS), including ·OH, O2·-, and 1O2, attacked A. spiroides and resulted in membrane damage and algae organic matter (AOM) release. EEM-PARAFAC analysis illustrated that the AOM compositions were subsequently decomposed by the ROS. As a result, the formation potentials of the C-DBPs and N-DBPs were significantly inhibited, due to the effectively removal of AOM and Anatoxin-a. This study disclosed the underneath mechanisms for the effective inactivation of A. spiroides and inhibition of the following formation of the DBPs, and supplied a prospective technique for integrated pollutant control of cyanobacterial containing drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfección , Halogenación , Plasma/química , Estudios Prospectivos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25285, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787613

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Surface treatment of medical devices may be a way of avoiding the need for replacement of these devices and the comorbidities associated with infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pre- and postcontamination washing of 2 prostheses with different textures can decrease bacterial contamination.The following microorganisms were evaluated: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis. Silicone and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prostheses were used and divided into 3 groups: prostheses contaminated; prostheses contaminated and treated before contamination; and prostheses contaminated and treated after contamination. Treatments were performed with antibiotic solution, chlorhexidine and lidocaine. After one week of incubation, the prostheses were sown in culture medium, which was incubated for 48 hours. The area of colony formation was evaluated by fractal dimension, an image analysis tool.The antibiotic solution inhibited the growth of S epidermidis and chlorhexidine decrease in 53% the colonization density for S aureus in for both prostheses in the pre-washing. In postcontamination washing, the antibiotic solution inhibited the growth of all bacteria evaluated; there was a 60% decrease in the colonization density of S aureus and absence of colonization for E faecalis with chlorhexidine; and lidocaine inhibited the growth of S aureus in both prostheses.Antibiotic solution showed the highest efficiency in inhibiting bacterial growth, especially for S epidermidis, in both washings. Lidocaine was able to reduce colonization by S aureus in post-contamination washing, showing that it can be used as an alternative adjuvant treatment in these cases.


Asunto(s)
Prótesis Vascular/microbiología , Descontaminación/métodos , Desinfectantes/administración & dosificación , Infecciones Relacionadas con Prótesis/prevención & control , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Enterococcus faecalis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Lidocaína/administración & dosificación , Politetrafluoroetileno , Diseño de Prótesis , Infecciones Relacionadas con Prótesis/microbiología , Proteus mirabilis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Siliconas , Staphylococcus aureus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crecimiento & desarrollo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144885, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736131

RESUMEN

Dissolved nitrogenous organic matter in water can contain precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), especially nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs). Amino acids are ubiquitous as dissolved nitrogenous organic matter in source water and can pass through drinking water treatment processes to react with disinfectants in finished water and in the distribution system. Phenylalanine (Phe) was selected as a model amino acid precursor to investigate its derived DBPs and their variations during a chlorination regime that simulated water distribution with residue chlorine. The 7-day DBPs formation potential (DBPsFP) test with chlorine revealed chlorination by-products of phenylalanine including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and halonitromethanes (HNMs), but not trichloronitromethane (TCNM) which was a significant N-DBP detected during the first 48 h of chlorine contact. The formation of most carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs) increased with chlorination time; however N-DBPs and non-chlorinated byproducts of phenylacetonitrile and phenylacetaldehyde reached their highest concentration after 2 h of reaction, and then gradually decreased until below detection after 7 days. The chlorination influencing factors indicated that light enhanced the peak yield of DBPs; the pH value showed different influences associated with corresponding DBPs; and the presence of bromide ions (Br-) generated a variety of bromine-containing DBPs. The DBPsFP test with chloramine reduced C-DBPs generation to about 1/3 of the level observed for chlorine disinfection and caused an increase in dichloroacetonitrile. Surveillance of DBPs during drinking water distribution to consumers should consider the varying contact times with disinfectants to accurately profile the types and concentrations of C-DBPs and N-DBPs present in drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Cloro , Desinfección , Halogenación , Fenilalanina , Trihalometanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144767, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736400

RESUMEN

Ozone is a strong oxidant commonly used in drinking water treatment, but its role in the transformation/formation of organic matters (OMs) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the drinking water treatment chain had not been systematically studied. In this work the occurrence and building up of OMs, DBPs of trihalomethanes (THMs) and nitrosamines (NAs) during water purification steps under different pre-ozonation dosages have been studied through lab-scale and pilot-scale studies. Results indicated that 0-0.4 mg/L of pre-ozonation dosage could reduce organic load of following-up process steps but insufficient to control DBPs. Seasonal performances of a pilot plant indicated that the accumulation of DBPs was much less in summer than in winter. Furthermore the formation potential of NAs was higher in winter than summer when 0.4 mg/L pre-ozonation was dosed while the maximum removal efficiency of organic matter was found at a pre-ozonation dosage of 0.8 mg/L in summer. Finally a seasonal trade-off control strategy for both OMs and DBPs was proposed with an elucidated role of pre-ozonation in the drinking water treatment chain. This study provided working principles on optimizing pre-ozonation dosage and a seasonal control strategy for trade-off control of both OMs and DBPs in drinking water treatment plants.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Ozono , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfección , Halogenación , Trihalometanos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145356, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736415

RESUMEN

This Discussion argues that municipal water utilities may need to consider the health risks of both opportunistic pathogens (OPs) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) while selecting disinfectant residual dosages or levels in engineered water systems. OPs are natural inhabitants in municipal water systems and the leading cause of drinking-water-related disease outbreaks threatening public health. DBPs in water systems are genotoxic/carcinogenic and also significantly affect public health. Disinfectant residuals (such as free chlorine and chloramine residuals) dictate OP (re)growth and DBP formation in engineered water systems. Therefore, regulating the dosages or levels of disinfectant residuals is effective in controlling OP (re)growth and DBP formation. Existing effects assessing optimal disinfectant residual dosages focus solely on minimizing OP (re)growth or solely on DBP formation. However, selecting disinfectant residual dosages aiming to solely limit the formation of DBPs might compromise OP (re)growth control, and vice versa. An optimal disinfectant residual level for DBP formation control or OP (re)growth control might not be optimal for minimizing the overall or combined health effects of OPs and DBPs in drinking water. To better protect public health, water authorities may need to update the current residual disinfection practice and maintain disinfectant residuals in engineered water systems at an optimal level to minimize the overall health risks of OPs and DBPs.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Cloro , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfección , Agua Potable/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
14.
Water Res ; 194: 116964, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652228

RESUMEN

Drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) produce filter backwash water (FBW) and sedimentation sludge water (SSW) that may be partially recycled to the head of DWTPs. The impacts of key disinfection conditions, water quality parameters (e.g., disinfection times, disinfectant types and doses, and pH values), and bromide concentration on controlling the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloacetamides (HAMs) during disinfection of FBW and SSW were investigated. Concentrations of most disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and associated calculated toxicity increased with extended chlorination for both FBW and SSW. During chlorination of both FBW and SSW, elevated chlorine doses significantly increased THM yields per unit dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but decreased HAN and HAM yields, with minimum effect on HAA yields. Chloramine disinfection effectively inhibited C-DBP formation but promoted N-DBPs yields, which increased with chloramine dose. Calculated toxicities after chloramination increased with chloramine dose, which was opposite to the trend found after free chlorine addition. An examination of pH effects demonstrated that C-DBPs were more readily generated at alkaline pH (pH=8), while acidic conditions (pH=6) favored N-DBP formation. Total DBP concentrations increased at higher pH levels, but calculated DBP toxicity deceased due to lower HAN and HAM concentrations. Addition of bromide markedly increased bromo-THM and bromo-HAN formation, which are more cytotoxic than chlorinated analogues, but had little impact on the formation of HAAs and HAMs. Bromide incorporation factors (BIFs) for THMs and HANs from both water samples all significantly increased as bromide concentrations increased. Overall, high bromide concentrations increased the calculated toxicity values in FBW and SSW after chlorination. Therefore, while currently challenging, technologies capable of removing bromide should be explored as part of a strategy towards controlling cumulative toxicity burden (i.e., hazard) while simultaneously lowering individual DBP concentrations (i.e., exposure) to manage DBP risks in drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Cloro , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfección , Halogenación , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Trihalometanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
15.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672561

RESUMEN

In the face of new emerging respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV2, vaccines and drug therapies are not immediately available to curb the spread of infection. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as mask-wearing and social distance, can slow the transmission. However, both mask and social distance have not prevented the spread of respiratory viruses SARS-CoV2 within the US. There is an urgent need to develop an intervention that could reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. The key to preventing transmission is to eliminate the emission of SARS-CoV2 from an infected person and stop the virus from propagating in the human population. Rhamnolipids are environmentally friendly surfactants that are less toxic than the synthetic surfactants. In this study, rhamnolipid products, 222B, were investigated as disinfectants against enveloped viruses, such as bovine coronavirus and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The 222B at 0.009% and 0.0045% completely inactivated 6 and 4 log PFU/mL of HSV-1 in 5-10 min, respectively. 222B at or below 0.005% is also biologically safe. Moreover, 50 µL of 222B at 0.005% on ~1 cm2 mask fabrics or plastic surface can inactivate ~103 PFU HSV-1 in 3-5 min. These results suggest that 222B coated on masks or plastic surface can reduce the emission of SARS-CoV2 from an infected person and stop the spread of SARS-CoV2.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus Bovino/efectos de los fármacos , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Glucolípidos/farmacología , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efectos de los fármacos , Tensoactivos/farmacología , /prevención & control , Humanos
16.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200146, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787720

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protocols on decontamination/reuse of N95 masks available in the literature in times of the Covid-19 pandemic. METHOD: Integrative literature review, in the period from 2010 to 2020, on the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, SAGE journals, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase and Wiley, with the descriptors Masks AND Respiratory protective devices; Mask OR N95 AND Covid-19; N95 AND Respirators; Decontamination AND N95 AND Coronavirus; Facemask OR Pandemic. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, of which 3 (30.0%) used ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and indicated mask deterioration between 2 and 10 cycles, 4 (40.0%) used hydrogen peroxide vapor, and seal loss varied from 5 to 20 cycles, 4 (33.3%) evaluated the structural integrity of the N95 mask through visual inspection and 6 (54.4%), its filtration efficiency. CONCLUSION: Reuse strategies to overcome a shortage of devices in the face of the pandemic challenge the current concept for good practices in health-product processing.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Descontaminación/métodos , Equipo Reutilizado , Pandemias , Antiinfecciosos Locales , Desinfectantes , Desinfección/métodos , Óxido de Etileno , Filtración/instrumentación , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Rayos Ultravioleta
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109150, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735782

RESUMEN

Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a monoglycerol ester of the fatty lauric acids, which has a wide-spectrum antimicrobial capacity, but fails to inactivate Gram-negative bacteria, especial Salmonella. To enhance the population reduction rate of GML for Salmonella, this reagent was combined with three disinfectants: lactic acid (LA), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and trisodium phosphate (TSP), which can present acid, neutral, and alkaline in solution, respectively. The results showed that the 1% GML and a complex disinfectant (0.5% GML-0.025% LA) could powerfully inactivate Salmonella. Their population reduction rates respectively were able to achieve 99.92% and 98.29% with the vortex treatment, indicating that the vortex treatment could improve GML to destruct the outer membrane of Salmonella. During the simulation test of the soaking and rinse processing of chicken, for a short time (0 h), the effect of 0.5% GML-0.025% LA compound was better and more suitable for instantaneous inactivation than others, while for a long time (4 h), 1% GML exhibited a better bactericidal effect, which indicated it to be more suitable for long-term bacteriostasis. The characterization of color and texture for chicken samples were determined using Colormeter Ci7600, TA.XT Plus and Hyper-spectral Imager, which demonstrated that all samples treated by these complex disinfectants were not significantly different from untreated group. In conclusion, GML is a potential and superior disinfectant for the chicken process.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/farmacología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Lauratos/farmacología , Monoglicéridos/farmacología , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cetilpiridinio/farmacología , Pollos/microbiología , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/farmacología , Fosfatos/farmacología
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668252

RESUMEN

The tourism sector in general and the hotel sector in particular face the challenge of managing appropriate security measures to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. In this sense, it is useful to know which measures are most demanded by the clientele. This research, through non-parametric statistics tests, concluded that women are more demanding than men in relation to the security measures to be taken in hotels. More specifically, this research concludes that women are more demanding than men in relation to a set of measures including ensuring good hygiene conditions, the use of disinfectants, the existence of health and information checks, adapting the establishment to WHO recommendations, obtaining quality certification, measuring temperature, the need to provide information on protocols and measures, and the elimination of physical contact between people. This, as a practical application, makes it possible to know more accurately about the safety requirements of sex-segmented customers in the face of future health crises, allowing tourist managers to offer safer destinations and the hotel sector better health conditions for their clients.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Pandemias , /prevención & control , Desinfectantes , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Higiene , Industrias , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Turismo , Viaje
19.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(4): 877-885, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617494

RESUMEN

Attachment and separation of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm on stainless steel (SS) in simulated cooling water with and without different sterilization treatments was investigated by calculation of surface energy, theoretical work of adhesion and analysis of Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. Two types of biocides, glutaraldehyde and Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), and electromagnetic treatment were used in this paper. The results show that PHMG had the best bactericidal performance, followed by glutaraldehyde, and electromagnetic treatment was the lowest one. The theoretical work of adhesion was used to quantitatively evaluate the adhesion of biofilm on the surface of the metal. Theoretical work of adhesion between biofilm and SS in simulated cooling water increased with time. The theoretical adhesion work and adhesive capacity of biofilm to SS surface increased after treating with glutaraldehyde while decreasing after treating with PHMG and electromagnetic field. As the theoretical adhesion work decreased, the biofilm was gradually removed from the stainless steel surface. On the contrary, the biofilm adhered more firmly. The results of SEM were also consistent with the calculation results of theoretical adhesion work. The results obtained indicated that electromagnetic treatment had the lowest effect in sterilization but the best in biofilm separation.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Acero Inoxidable , Adhesión Bacteriana , Biopelículas , Desinfección , Propiedades de Superficie
20.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 33, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579343

RESUMEN

The global COVID-19 pandemic due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has challenged the availability of traditional surface disinfectants. It has also stimulated the production of ultraviolet-disinfection robots by companies and institutions. These robots are increasingly advocated as a simple solution for the immediate disinfection of rooms and spaces of all surfaces in one process and as such they seem attractive to hospital management, also because of automation and apparent cost savings by reducing cleaning staff. Yet, there true potential in the hospital setting needs to be carefully evaluated. Presently, disinfection robots do not replace routine (manual) cleaning but may complement it. Further design adjustments of hospitals and devices are needed to overcome the issue of shadowing and free the movement of robots in the hospital environment. They might in the future provide validated, reproducible and documented disinfection processes. Further technical developments and clinical trials in a variety of hospitals are warranted to overcome the current limitations and to find ways to integrate this novel technology in to the hospitals of to-day and the future.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Desinfección/instrumentación , Desinfección/métodos , Hospitales , Robótica/métodos , Rayos Ultravioleta , /virología , Desinfectantes , Humanos , Pandemias , /efectos de la radiación
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