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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5906-5916, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830743

RESUMEN

Although >700 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have been identified, >50% of the total organic halogen (TOX) in drinking water chlorination is unknown, and the DBPs responsible for the chlorination-associated health risks remain largely unclear. Recent studies have revealed numerous aromatic halo-DBPs, which generally present substantially higher developmental toxicity than aliphatic halo-DBPs. This raises a fascinating and important question: how much of the TOX and developmental toxicity of chlorinated drinking water can be attributed to aromatic halo-DBPs? In this study, an effective approach with ultraperformance liquid chromatography was developed to separate the DBP mixture (from chlorination of bromide-rich raw water) into aliphatic and aromatic fractions, which were then characterized for their TOX and developmental toxicity. For chlorine contact times of 0.25-72 h, aromatic fractions accounted for 49-67% of the TOX in the obtained aliphatic and aromatic fractions, which were equivalent to 26-36% of the TOX in the original chlorinated water samples. Aromatic halo-DBP fractions were more developmentally toxic than the corresponding aliphatic fractions, and the overall developmental toxicity of chlorinated water samples was dominated by aromatic halo-DBP fractions. This might be explained by the considerably higher potentials of aromatic halo-DBPs to bioconcentrate and then generate reactive oxygen species in the organism.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Halogenación , Halógenos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806369

RESUMEN

Isothiazolinone (IT) biocides are potent antibacterial substances commonly used as preservatives or disinfectants, and 2-n-Octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT; octhilinone) is a common IT biocide that is present in leather products, glue, paints, and cleaning products. Although humans are exposed to OIT through personal and industrial use, the potentially deleterious effects of OIT on human health are still unknown. To investigate the effects of OIT on the vascular system, which is continuously exposed to xenobiotics through systemic circulation, we treated brain endothelial cells with OIT. OIT treatment significantly activated caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and reduced the bioenergetic function of mitochondria in a bEnd.3 cell-based in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Interestingly, OIT significantly altered the thiol redox status, as evidenced by reduced glutathione levels and protein S-nitrosylation. The endothelial barrier function of bEnd.3 cells was significantly impaired by OIT treatment. OIT affected mitochondrial dynamics through mitophagy and altered mitochondrial morphology in bEnd.3 cells. N-acetyl cysteine significantly reversed the effects of OIT on the metabolic capacity and endothelial function of bEnd.3 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that the alteration of the thiol redox status and mitochondrial damage contributed to OIT-induced BBB dysfunction, and we hope that our findings will improve our understanding of the potential hazardous health effects of IT biocides.


Asunto(s)
Barrera Hematoencefálica/efectos de los fármacos , Barrera Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Tiazoles/toxicidad , Acetilcisteína/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Barrera Hematoencefálica/patología , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patología , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Desinfectantes/antagonistas & inhibidores , Células Endoteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/patología , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Potencial de la Membrana Mitocondrial/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/patología , Proteolisis/efectos de los fármacos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/metabolismo , Tiazoles/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Uniones Estrechas/metabolismo
3.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 418: 115501, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771551

RESUMEN

With the rapid increase in application of disinfectants worldwide as a method to block the spread of coronavirus, many new products are being introduced into the market without thorough verification of their impacts on human health and the environment. In the present study, we aimed to propose a screening marker for materials that can induce fibrotic lung disease using disinfectants, which had been demonstrated as causative materials of chronic inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. We first calculated the corresponding LC50 level based on results from cell viability test and exposed the LC50 level of disinfectants to human bronchial epithelial cells for 24 h. Formation of lamellar body-like structures, cleavage of the nuclear matrix, structural damage of mitochondria were found in the cytosol of the treated cells. We also dosed disinfectants by pharyngeal aspiration to mice to determine the LD0 level. The mice were sacrificed on Day 14 after a single dosing, and lamellar body-like structures were observed in the lung tissue of mice. Herein, we hypothesize that DNA damage and metabolic disturbance may play central roles in disinfectant-induced adverse health effects. Additionally, we propose that formation of lamellar bodies can be a screening marker for interstitial fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Epiteliales/patología , Líquido Intracelular/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/patología , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/fisiología , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Líquido Intracelular/metabolismo , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Fibrosis Pulmonar/inducido químicamente , Fibrosis Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrosis Pulmonar/patología
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(3): 418-423, 2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730838

RESUMEN

Haloacetaldehydes (HALs), as emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water, are the third largest group by weight of identified disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. The formation of HALs is associated with the level of natural organic matter and halide in the source water, the treatment process of drinking water and the type of disinfectant. Recent studies have shown that HALs are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than regulated trihalomethanes and halo-acetic acids in drinking water. Currently, only a few countries and regions have set limit values for trichloroacetaldehyde with high detection rate in drinking water. However, there is growing evidence that unregulated HALs have a higher potential risk to human health compared to regulated HALs. This paper reviews the current research progress on the formation and transformation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of HALs in drinking water, and looks forward to the problems that should be paid attention in the future toxicological research of HALs in order to support the development of scientific drinking water standards.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Agua Potable/análisis , Humanos , Trihalometanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 2908-2918, 2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594894

RESUMEN

Swimming pools are commonly treated with chlorine, which reacts with the natural organic matter and organic matter introduced by swimmers and form disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that are associated with respiratory-related issues, including asthma, in avid swimmers. We investigated a complementary disinfectant to chlorine, copper-silver ionization (CSI), with the aim of lowering the amount of chlorine used in pools and limiting health risks from DBPs. We sampled an indoor and outdoor pool treated with CSI-chlorine during the swimming season in 2017-2018 and measured 71 DBPs, speciated total organic halogen, in vitro mammalian cell cytotoxicity, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) thiol reactivity as a cytotoxicity predictor. Controlled, simulated swimming pools were also investigated. Emerging DBP concentrations decreased by as much as 80% and cytotoxicity decreased as much as 70% in the indoor pool when a lower chlorine residual (1.0 mg/L) and CSI was used. Some DBPs were quantified for the first time in pools, including chloroacetaldehyde (up to 10.6 µg/L), the most cytotoxic haloacetaldehyde studied to date and a major driver of the measured cytotoxicity in this study. Three highly toxic iodinated haloacetic acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and chloroiodoacetic acid) were also quantified in pools for the first time. We also found that the NAC thiol reactivity was significantly correlated to cytotoxicity, which could be useful for predicting the cytotoxicity of swimming pool waters in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Piscinas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Cloro , Cobre/toxicidad , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Plata , Trihalometanos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(4): 560-567, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629148

RESUMEN

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), an alternative disinfectant to chlorine, has been widely applied in water and wastewater disinfection. This paper aims at presenting an overview of the inactivation kinetics and mechanisms of ClO2 with viruses. The inactivation efficiencies vary greatly among different virus species. The inactivation rates for different serotypes within a family of viruses can differ by over 284%. Generally, to achieve a 4-log removal, the exposure doses, also being referred to as Ct values (mutiplying the concentration of ClO2 and contact time) vary in the range of 0.06-10 mg L-1 min. Inactivation kinetics of viruses show two phases: an initial rapid inactivation phase followed by a tailing phase. Inactivation rates of viruses increase as pH or temperature increases, but show different trends with increasing concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Both damages in viral proteins and in the 5' noncoding region within the genome contribute to virus inactivation upon ClO2 disinfection.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Cloro , Desinfectantes , Purificación del Agua , Cloro , Compuestos de Cloro/toxicidad , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Cinética , Óxidos/toxicidad , Inactivación de Virus , Agua
7.
Chemosphere ; 270: 129432, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422997

RESUMEN

The ability to chemically modify ionic liquids (ILs) has led to an expansion in interest in their use in a diversity of applications, not least as antimicrobials and biocides. Relatively little is known about cytotoxicity mechanisms of ILs in comparison to other biocides currently in widespread use, as well as their practical significance for the ecological environment and human health. Using NCTC 2544 and HaCat human keratinocyte cells, this study aimed to characterize cytotoxicity rates and mechanisms of a range of ILs. Using both lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) based cytotoxicity assays, it was confirmed that at biocide-relevant concentrations, ILs with longer alkyl chains exhibited greater biocidal activity than those with shorter alkyl chains, with comparable activity to the commonly used biocides chlorhexidine, benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride, at relevant in-use biocide concentrations. Mode of cell death, measured using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and caspase 3/7 activity, determined necrosis to be the primary cytotoxic mechanism at higher concentrations of the biocides stated above, and with ILs [C14MIM]Cl and [C14quin]Br, with apoptosis observed at borderline necrotic concentrations. Perhaps most interestingly, modification of anion had a significant effect on cytotoxicity. The use of N[SO2CF3] as an anion to [C16MIM] attenuated cytotoxicity 10-fold in comparison to other anions, suggesting cytotoxicity may also be a tuneable property when using ILs as biocides.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Líquidos Iónicos , Aniones/farmacología , Apoptosis , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Humanos , Líquidos Iónicos/toxicidad , Queratinocitos
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 111970, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517086

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the toxicity of innovative antifouling nanostructured biocides DCOIT and silver associated to silica nanocapsules (SiNC) on the tropical microcrustacean Mysidopsis juniae. The toxicity of the tested compounds can be summarized as follows (acute tests): DCOIT > SiNC-Ag > SiNC-DCOIT > SiNC-DCOIT-Ag > SiNC > Ag; (chronic tests): SiNC-Ag > SiNC-DCOIT-Ag > DCOIT > Ag > SiNC, although it was not possible to determine the chronic toxicity of SiNC-DCOIT. In general, our data demonstrated that mysids were more sensitive than most temperate species, and it was possible to conclude that the combination SiNC-DCOIT-Ag showed less acute toxicity in comparison to the isolated active compounds, reinforcing data obtained for species from temperate environments on the potential use of nanomaterial to reduce toxicity to non-target species. However, despite representing less risk to the environment, the compound SiNC-DCOIT-Ag is still very toxic to the non-target tropical mysid.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Nanoestructuras , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Crustáceos , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Nanoestructuras/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145277, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515874

RESUMEN

Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are emerging unregulated drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that are more toxic than regulated DBPs. This study aimed to determine the distribution and formation of HBQs in drinking water from water treatment plants in China, compare their chronic cytotoxicity and their induction of chromosomal damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and analyze the correlation of HBQ toxicity with their physicochemical parameters. Two HBQs, 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ) and 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DBBQ), were detected in finished water and tap water in China. The concentrations were in the ranges of <2.6-19.70 ng/L for 2,6-DCBQ and <0.38-1.8 ng/L for 2,6-DBBQ. Chemical oxygen demand and residual chlorine were positively correlated with HBQ formation. The HBQ concentration was lower in a drinking water treatment plant using chlorine dioxide. High Ca2+ in tap water decreased the HBQ level. The rank order of HBQ by cytotoxicity was 2-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,3-diiodo-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,6-diiodo-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,5-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone > tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, and for their genotoxicity, 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,3-diiodo-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,6-diiodo-1,4-benzoquinone > tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,5-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone. The cytotoxicity of six dihalo-HBQs was negatively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (r = -0.971, P < 0.05), molar refractivity (r = -0.956, P < 0.05), energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO) (r = -0.943, P < 0.05), and polar surface area (r = -0.829, P < 0.05). The genotoxicity of these three pairs of dihalo-HBQ isomers followed the same order as their EHOMO values. This study reveals the occurrence and formation of HBQs in drinking water in China and systematically evaluates the chromosomal damage caused by nine HBQs in mammalian cells.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Animales , Células CHO , China , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Halogenación , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
10.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(1): 48-65, 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432313

RESUMEN

Drinking water consumption results in exposure to complex mixtures of organic chemicals, including natural and anthropogenic chemicals and compounds formed during drinking water treatment such as disinfection by-products. The complexity of drinking water contaminant mixtures has hindered efforts to assess associated health impacts. Existing approaches focus primarily on individual chemicals and/or the evaluation of mixtures, without providing information about the chemicals causing the toxic effect. Thus, there is a need for the development of novel strategies to evaluate chemical mixtures and provide insights into the species responsible for the observed toxic effects. This critical review introduces the application of a novel approach called Reactivity-Directed Analysis (RDA) to assess and identify organic electrophiles, the largest group of known environmental toxicants. In contrast to existing in vivo and in vitro approaches, RDA utilizes in chemico methodologies that investigate the reaction of organic electrophiles with nucleophilic biomolecules, including proteins and DNA. This review summarizes the existing knowledge about the presence of electrophiles in drinking water, with a particular focus on their formation in oxidative treatment systems with ozone, advanced oxidation processes, and UV light, as well as disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramines and chlorine dioxide. This summary is followed by an overview of existing RDA approaches and their application for the assessment of aqueous environmental matrices, with an emphasis on drinking water. RDA can be applied beyond drinking water, however, to evaluate source waters and wastewater for human and environmental health risks. Finally, future research demands for the detection and identification of electrophiles in drinking water via RDA are outlined.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Cloraminas/análisis , Cloro , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Humanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Abastecimiento de Agua
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 122: 105031, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412420

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the antibacterial activity against mono and multispecies bacterial models and the cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide and copper nanoparticles(ZnO-NPs/Cu-NPs) in cell cultures of human gingival fibroblasts(HGFs). DESIGN: The antibacterial activities of ZnO-NPs and Cu-NPs against 4 bacteria species were tested according to their minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs) and against mature multispecies anaerobic model by spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy. The viabilities and cytotoxic effects of ZnO-NPs and Cu-NPs to HGFs cell cultures were tested by MTT, LDH assays, production of ROS, and the activation of caspase-3. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey tests, considering p < 0.05 as statistically significant. RESULTS: For all strains, MICs of ZnO-NPs and Cu-NPs were in the range of 78.3 µg/mL-3906 µg/mL and 125 µg/mL-625 ug/mL, respectively. In a multispecies model, a significant decrease in the total biomass volume(µ3) was observed in response to exposure to 125 µg/mL of each NPs for which there was bactericidal activity. Significant differences were found between the volumes of viable and nonviable biomass exposed to nanostructures with Cu-NPs compared to ZnO-NPs. Both NPs induced mitochondrial dose-dependent cytotoxicity, ZnO-NPs increases LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Cu-NPs at a concentration of 50 µg/mL induced production of cleaved caspase-3, activating the apoptotic pathway early and at low doses. CONCLUSIONS: After 24 h, ZnO-NPs are biocompatible between 78-100 µg/mL and Cu-NPs below 50 µg/mL. Antibacterial activity in a monospecies model is strain dependent, and in a multispecies model was a lower doses after 10 min of exposure.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cobre/farmacología , Implantes Dentales , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología , Antibacterianos/toxicidad , Células Cultivadas , Cobre/toxicidad , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Fibroblastos/citología , Encía/citología , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nanopartículas/toxicidad , Óxido de Zinc/toxicidad
12.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128062, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297068

RESUMEN

Chlorination is important to the safeness of recouped water; though it shows concern about disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation and its toxic effects. DBPs generation mostly specified by category of disinfectant utilized and naturally occurring organic matter present in the water pre and post disinfection. Plants are exposed to diverse stresses of environment across their lifespan. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) perform significant roles in preserving ordinary plant growth and enhancing their tolerance towards stress. This study is focused on the generation and elimination of ROS in apical meristematic growth and responses in Vigna radiata towards DBPs exposure. Phytotoxic and genotoxic effect of selected DBPs, TCAA (trichloroacetic acid), TCM (trichloromethane), TBM (tribromomethane) revealed concentration-dependent root length inhibition, germination index, vigour index, tolerance index, root/shoot ratio with higher EC50 value for TCM (6000 mg/L, 50.26 mM) over TCAA and TBM (1850 mg/L, 11.32 mM; 4000 mg/L, 15.83 mM). DNA laddering assay demonstrated DBP induced DNA damage to be concentration-dependent too. The concentration-dependent increase in the lipid peroxidation, H2O2 generation for each DBPs examined with highest oxidative stress for TCAA over TBM and TCM at fixed concentration illustrates that possible mechanism behind observed toxicity may be via ROS. Its regulation by antioxidative defense enzymes activities can be attributed to observed decline in these enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase) activities with increasing concentration again where TCAA found more significantly affected than TBM and TCM over control. Results thus provide a useful understanding of the mechanism of DBP induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in V.radiata.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Vigna , Daño del ADN , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Estrés Oxidativo , Vigna/genética
13.
Water Res ; 188: 116549, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152588

RESUMEN

The UV/chlorine process is efficient for the abatement of micropollutants; yet, the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the toxicity can be altered during the treatment. This study investigated effluent organic matter characterization, DBP formation and toxicity alteration after the UV/chlorine treatment of wastewater; particularly, typical water matrix components in wastewater, namely, ammonia and bromide, were studied. The raw wastewater contained low levels of ammonia (3 µM) and bromide (0.5 µM). The UV/chlorine treatment efficiently eliminated 90 - 94% of fluorescent components. Compared with chlorination alone, a 20 min UV/chlorine treatment increased the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), chloral hydrate (CH), haloacetonitriles (HANs), trichloronitromethane (TCNM) and haloacetamides (HAcAms) by 90 - 508%. In post-chlorination after the UV/chlorine treatment, the formation of CH, HANs, TCNM and HAcAms increased by 77 - 274%, whereas the formation of both THMs and HAAs increased slightly by 11%. Meanwhile, the calculated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DBPs increased considerably after the UV/chlorine treatment and in post-chlorination, primarily due to the increased formation of HAAs and nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs). However, the acute toxicity of the wastewater to Vibrio fischeri and genotoxicity determined by the umu test decreased by 19% and 76%, respectively, after the 20 min UV/chlorine treatment. An additional 200 µM ammonia decreased the formation of all detected DBPs during the UV/chlorine treatment and 24 h post-chlorination, except that TCNM formation increased by 11% during post-chlorination. The acute toxicity of wastewater spiked with 200 µM ammonia was 32% lower than that of raw wastewater after the UV/chlorine treatment, but the genotoxicity was 58% higher. The addition of 1 mg/L bromide to the UV/chlorine process dramatically increased the formation of brominated DBPs and the overall calculated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DBPs. However, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the wastewater decreased by 7% and 100%, respectively, when bromide was added to the UV/chlorine treatment. This study illuminated that UV/chlorine treatment can decrease acute and geno- toxicities of wastewater efficiently.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Amoníaco , Bromuros , Cloro , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Halogenación , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
14.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1): 27-31, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059533

RESUMEN

An increased use of disinfectants during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase the number of adverse health effects among people who apply them or among those who are in the area being disinfected. For the 3-month period from January 1 to March 30, 2020, the number of calls about exposure to cleaners and disinfectants made to US poison centers in all states increased 20.4%, and the number of calls about exposure to disinfectants increased 16.4%. We examined calls about cleaners and disinfectants to the Michigan Poison Center (MiPC) since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared all calls related to exposure to cleaners or disinfectants, calls with symptoms, and calls in which a health care provider was seen during the first quarters of 2019 and 2020 and in relationship to key COVID-19 dates. From 2019 to 2020, the number of all disinfectant calls increased by 42.8%, the number of calls with symptoms increased by 57.3%, the average number of calls per day doubled after the first Michigan COVID-19 case, from 4.8 to 9.0, and the proportion of calls about disinfectants among all exposure calls to the MiPC increased from 3.5% to 5.0% (P < .001). Calls for exposure to cleaners did not increase significantly. Exposure occurred at home for 94.8%97.1% of calls, and ingestion was the exposure route for 59.7% of calls. Information about the adverse health effects of disinfectants and ways to minimize exposure should be included in COVID-19 pandemic educational materials.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Centros de Control de Intoxicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiología , Pandemias
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 144289, 2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321443

RESUMEN

Due to the wide range of viability on inanimate surfaces and fomite transmission of SARS-CoV-2, hydrogen peroxide (0.5%, HP) and hypochlorite-based (0.1%, HC) disinfectants (common biocides) are proposed by World Health Organization to mitigate the spread of this virus in healthcare settings. They can be adopted and applied to outdoor environments. However, many studies have shown that these two disinfectants are toxic to fishes and aquatic non-target organisms (primary producers and macroinvertebrates). The global market of these disinfectants will increase in coming years due to COVID-19. Therefore, it is urgent to highlight the toxicities of these disinfectants. The main findings of this article allow the community to develop a new strategy to protect the environment against the hazardous effects of disinfectants. Therefore, we use the "toxicity calculated ratio (TC ratio)" that refers to the fold increase or decrease in the toxicities reported in the literature (NOEC, LOEC, LC50 and EC50) relative to the WHO-recommended dose of HP and HC. The calculated TC ratios are valuable for policy makers to formulate the regulations to prevent disinfectant exposure in the environment. Our results were collected via PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis) guidelines and showed that the TC ratios are from the single digits to several thousand-fold lower than the HP and HC recommended dose, which means these disinfectants are potentially dangerous to non-target organisms. The results also showed that HP and HC are toxic to the growth and reproduction of non-target organisms. Therefore, we recommend policymakers formulate protocols for critical assessment and monitoring of the environment-especially on non-target organisms in water bodies located in and around disinfectant-exposed areas to safeguard the environment in the future.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno
16.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 71(3): 261-264, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074170

RESUMEN

All COVID-19 prevention strategies include regular use of surface disinfectants and hand sanitisers. As these measures took hold in Croatia, the Croatian Poison Control Centre started receiving phone calls from the general public and healthcare workers, which prompted us to investigate whether the risk of suspected/symptomatic poisonings with disinfectants and sanitisers really increased. To that end we compared their frequency and characteristics in the first half of 2019 and 2020. Cases of exposures to disinfectants doubled in the first half of 2020 (41 vs 21 cases in 2019), and exposure to sanitisers increased about nine times (46 vs 5 cases in 2019). In 2020, the most common ingredients of disinfectants and sanitisers involved in poisoning incidents were hypochlorite/glutaraldehyde, and ethanol/isopropyl alcohol, respectively. Exposures to disinfectants were recorded mostly in adults (56 %) as accidental (78 %) through ingestion or inhalation (86 %). Fortunately, most callers were asymptomatic (people called for advice because they were concerned), but nearly half reported mild gastrointestinal or respiratory irritation, and in one case severe symptoms were reported (gastrointestinal corrosive injury). Reports of exposure to hand sanitisers highlighted preschool children as the most vulnerable group. Accidental exposure through ingestion dominated, but, again, only mild symptoms (gastrointestinal or eye irritation) developed in one third of the cases. These preliminary findings, however limited, confirm that increased availability and use of disinfectants and sanitisers significantly increased the risk of poisoning, particularly in preschool children through accidental ingestion of hand sanitisers. We therefore believe that epidemiological recommendations for COVID-19 prevention should include warnings informing the general public of the risks of poisoning with surface and hand disinfectants in particular.


Asunto(s)
2-Propanol/toxicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Etanol/toxicidad , Glutaral/toxicidad , Desinfectantes para las Manos/toxicidad , Ácido Hipocloroso/toxicidad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Croacia/epidemiología , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111291, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956865

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity in aquatic organisms of one biocidal active substance and six metabolites derived from biocidal active substances and to assess the suitability of available QSAR models to predict the obtained values. We have reported the acute toxicity in sewage treatment plant (STP) microorganisms, in the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and in Daphnia magna following OECD test methods. We have also identified in silico models for acute toxicity of these trophic levels currently available in widely recognized platforms such as VEGA and the OECD QSAR ToolBox. A total of six, four and two models have been selected for Daphnia, algae and microorganisms, respectively. Finally, we have compared the in silico and in vivo data for the seven compounds plus two previously assayed biocidal substances. None of the compounds tested were toxic for Daphnia and STP microorganisms. For microalgae, CGA71019 (1,2,4 triazole) presented an ErC50 value of 38.3 mg/L. The selected in silico models have provided lower EC50 values and are therefore more conservative. Models from the OECD QSAR ToolBox predicted values for 7 out of 9 and for 4 out of 9 chemicals for Daphnia and P. subcapitata, respectively. No predictive models were identified in such platform for STP microorganism's acute effects. In terms of models's specificity, biocide-specific models, developed from curated datasets integrated by biocidal active substances and implemented in VEGA, perform better in the case of microalgae but for Daphnia an alternative, non biocide-specific has revealed a better performance. For STP microorganisms only biocide-specific models have been identified.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Modelos Biológicos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Chlorophyceae/efectos de los fármacos , Simulación por Computador , Daphnia/efectos de los fármacos , Desinfectantes/química , Desinfectantes/metabolismo , Agua Dulce/química , Microalgas/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Estructura-Actividad Cuantitativa , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
18.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126890, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957290

RESUMEN

Chlorine disinfection inactivates pathogens in drinking water, but meanwhile it causes the formation of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which may induce adverse health effects. Humans are unavoidably exposed to halogenated DBPs via tap water ingestion. Boiling of tap water has been found to significantly reduce the concentrations of halogenated DBPs. In this study, we found that compared with boiling only, adding ascorbate (vitamin C) or carbonate (baking soda) to tap water and then boiling the water further reduced the level of total organic halogen (a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs) by up to 36% or 28%, respectively. Adding ascorbate removed the chlorine residual in tap water and thus prevented the formation of more halogenated DBPs in the boiling process. Adding carbonate elevated pH of tap water and consequently enhanced the hydrolysis (dehalogenation) of halogenated DBPs or led to the formation of more trihalomethanes that might volatilize to air during the boiling process. The comparative developmental toxicity of the DBP mixtures in the water samples was also evaluated. The results showed that adding a tiny amount of sodium ascorbate or carbonate (2.5-5.0 mg/L) to tap water followed by boiling for 5 min reduced the developmental toxicity of tap water to a substantially lower level than boiling only. The addition of sodium ascorbate or carbonate to tap water in household could be realized by preparing them in tiny pills. This study suggests simple and effective methods to reduce the adverse effects of halogenated DBPs on humans through tap water ingestion.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Ácido Ascórbico , Carbonatos , Cloro , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfección/métodos , Agua Potable/química , Halogenación , Halógenos , Humanos , Trihalometanos/análisis , Volatilización , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Purificación del Agua/métodos
19.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115474, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889516

RESUMEN

Disinfection means the killing of pathogenic organisms (e.g. bacteria and its spores, viruses, protozoa and their cysts, worms, and larvae) present in water to make it potable for other domestic works. The substances used in the disinfection of water are known as disinfectants. At municipal level, chlorine (Cl2), chloramines (NH2Cl, NHCl2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiations, are the most commonly used disinfectants. Chlorination, because of its removal efficiency and cost effectiveness, has been widely used as method of disinfection of water. But, disinfection process may add several kinds of disinfection by-products (DBPs) (∼600-700 in numbers) in the treated water such as Trihalomethanes (THM), Haloacetic acids (HAA) etc. which are detrimental to the human beings in terms of cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. In water, THMs and HAAs were observed in the range from 0.138 to 458 µg/L and 0.16-136 µg/L, respectively. Thus, several regulations have been specified by world authorities like WHO, USEPA and Bureau of Indian Standard to protect human health. Some techniques have also been developed to remove the DBPs as well as their precursors from the water. The popular techniques of DBPs removals are adsorption, advance oxidation process, coagulation, membrane based filtration, combined approaches etc. The efficiency of adsorption technique was found up to 90% for DBP removal from the water.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Cloro , Desinfectantes/análisis , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Agua Potable/análisis , Halogenación , Trihalometanos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
20.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771064

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Etanol/farmacología , Metanol/farmacología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Desinfectantes/química , Desinfectantes/normas , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Composición de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Desinfección de las Manos/instrumentación , Humanos , Metanol/química , Metanol/toxicidad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Organización Mundial de la Salud
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