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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 510, 2021 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628538

RESUMEN

Investigations in the Brazilian semi-arid region evaluating the performance and carcass traits of sheep of indigenous breeds and their crossings have been performed; however, these studies use exotic breeds which produce precocious lambs with heavier carcasses, but not adapted to climatic conditions and the extensive production system, jeopardizing the sustainability of the sheep production system. We crossed between three indigenous breeds: Morada Nova (MN - maternal breed); Rabo Largo (RL - paternal breed), and Santa Inês (SI - paternal breed) with the objective of evaluating the effect of genotype and sex on the performance and carcass traits of purebred and crossbred animals. A total of 30 lambs, males and females, reared in a semi-intensive system were evaluated. Birth and weaning weights were 2.26 ± 0.53 and 7.31 ± 1.85, respectively. All lambs were slaughtered at 10 months of age. A completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme (three genotypes and two sexes) was used. Multivariate techniques were also performed to reduce group and discriminate variables. Birth and weaning weight were similar (P > 0.05) among genetic groups and sexes. The weight gain, carcass and morphometric trait characteristics, and the main commercial cuts were higher in crossbred lambs (P < 0.05). All indicators have discriminatory power between genotypes and sexes, but the carcass traits have a higher discriminatory power (P < 0.001). All genotypes, regardless of sex, have particular characteristics, i.e. MN × SI was characterized by greater forelimb and ham perimeters (P < 0.001), and the MN × RL by higher hot carcass weight and finish (P = 0.001). The cluster analysis and the heatmap plot revealed associations between SI and the size of cuts and RL with the cut commercial yield and the reduction in weight loss due to cooling. Our findings confirm the hypothesis that crossing between indigenous breeds represents an adequate alternative in sheep meat production systems in semi-arid regions. Finally, we encourage the use of indigenous breeds for sheep meat production with breed identity in order to favor the conservation of genetic resources and the sustainability of the production system.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Carne , Animales , Femenino , Genotipo , Masculino , Ovinos/genética , Oveja Doméstica/genética , Destete
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 515, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647184

RESUMEN

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of varying crude protein (CP) levels on intake, growth performances and nutrient digestibility of Dorper lambs at pre- and post-weaning period. Twenty lambs at 7 days old with an initial body weight of 2.91 kg were individually penned and randomly assigned into four (4) dietary groups using a randomised complete block design. In Trial I, pre-weaning lambs were fed with creep feeding (CF) diet containing 14% crude protein (CP) as a control diet (CON14), 16% (CF16), 18% (CF18) and 20% (CF20) of CP for 84 days. Following Trial 1, the animals were fed with a growing ration (GR) diet for 96-day feeding trial. The diets consisted of 11% CP as a control diet (CON11), 14% (GR14), 16% (GR16) and 18% (GR18) of CP. The water was available ad libitum and the feed intake was measured daily by the difference of feed offered and refused. The increase of CP level resulted in a linear increase of dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient intake and average daily gain (ADG) in pre- and post-weaning lambs. The DMI (g/day) of lambs fed with CF20 (1059.92) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than CON14 (605.30), but it did not differ significantly with CF16 (866.80) and CF18 (680.40). Besides, the DMI (g/day) of lambs fed GR18 was found significantly higher than CON11 and GR16. In pre- and post-weaning lambs, there was a quadratic effect of increased CP level on the ADG. The ADG (g/day) of pre-weaning lambs fed with CF18 (247.86) and CF20 (251.28) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) compared to those fed with CF16 (217.95). For post-weaning lambs, GR16 had significantly higher ADG than CON11 (43.14), but it was no difference with GR14 (72.94) and GR18 (69.41). However, increased CP level resulted in linear increase of DM, ash, organic matter (OM) and CP digestibility. The present finding suggested that the optimum CP level for pre- and post-weaning Dorper lambs in Malaysia was 16% and 14%, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Ingestión de Alimentos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Nutrientes , Ovinos , Destete
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 63, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706039

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe feeding practices and the risk factors for the mixed breastfeeding and early weaning in the neonatal period. METHODS: Cohort study, which we collected socioeconomic, demographic, health care and feeding data from 415 mother/child binomials born in four public maternity hospitals in Natal/Brazil. They were followed-up at 48 hours, 7 and 28 days after birth. The association was established using Pearson's Chi-square test and Poisson's regression, after adjusting it to other variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of mixed breastfeeding in the first 2 days was 47,2% and early weaning in 7 and 28 days was 8,4% and 16,2% in that order. The main reasons for mixed breastfeeding and early weaning were: colostrum deficiency (33.8%), difficulty in latching/sucking (23.5%) and "little milk" (70.0%). The use of formula/milk/porridge remained associated with maternal age ≤ 20 years (RR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.86), age 20-29 years (RR = 0,70; 95%CI: 0,57-0,87), primiparity (RR = 1.37; 95%CI: 1.11-1.60) and cesarean delivery (RR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) at 2 days; absence of paternal support (RR = 4.98; 95%CI: 2.54-9.79) and pacifier use (RR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.63-6.32) at 7 days; and only pacifier use (RR = 2.48; 95%CI: 1.53-4.02) at 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: Early weaning was associated with maternal and health care factors, thus suggesting the need to readjust good practices and educational actions to achieve the exclusive offer to the maternal breast in the neonatal period.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Edad Materna , Embarazo , Destete , Adulto Joven
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(12): 12496-12507, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593232

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the effects of incremental tributyrin supplementation in pasteurized waste milk on growth performance, health, and blood metabolism of dairy calves before and after weaning. Forty-eight newborn female Holstein dairy calves (39.6 ± 2.75 kg; mean ± standard deviation) were blocked by age and randomly assigned to 3 treatments: pasteurized waste milk (1) without supplementation, (2) with 1 g/L of tributyrin products (unprotected solid powder; containing 35% tributyrin), or (3) with 2 g/L of tributyrin products. The calves were weaned on d 56 and were raised until d 77. Data were analyzed for the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The results showed that starter intake and hay intake were not different among treatments in any period of the trial, but the crude protein intake tended to increase linearly with tributyrin supplementation during the overall period. Although tributyrin supplementation had no effects on body weight during preweaning and overall periods, body weight increased linearly with tributyrin supplementation postweaning. The average daily gain tended to increase linearly during postweaning and overall periods. No effects were observed on feed efficiency in any period. A positive linear relationship between body length and tributyrin supplementation was observed during the postweaning period, but no differences were found for the other body structural measurements in any period. The results of diarrhea showed that tributyrin concentration had a negative linear relationship with diarrhea frequency during preweaning and overall periods. The rectal temperature did not differ among treatments in any period, but a treatment × week effect for rectal body temperature was observed. For blood metabolism, tributyrin supplementation had no effects on insulin, growth hormone, total protein, albumin, or globulin. No differences were found in serum amyloid A concentration in any of the periods, yet haptoglobin concentration decreased linearly with increasing tributyrin concentration during postweaning and overall periods. Endothelin concentration showed a tendency to decrease linearly during preweaning and postweaning periods and decreased linearly with tributyrin supplementation during the overall period. An increasing tributyrin concentration was associated with a negative linear relationship with IL-1ß concentration during the preweaning period, and no differences were found in the other periods. The concentration of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α were not different among treatments in any of the periods. These data suggest that increasing the concentration of tributyrin in pasteurized waste milk could increase growth performance and health of dairy calves, and incremental tributyrin supplementation could linearly reduce haptoglobin, endothelin, and IL-1ß concentrations, indicating a positive effect of tributyrin on alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory status of dairy calves. Calves fed pasteurized waste milk supplemented with tributyrin products (containing 35% tributyrin) at 2 g/L compared with 1 g/L of milk had more improved growth and health.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Leche , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Triglicéridos , Destete
5.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 133, 2021 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666827

RESUMEN

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen responsible for economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. There is no effective commercial vaccine against S. suis. The use of autogenous ("bacterin") vaccines to control S. suis outbreaks is a frequent preventive measure in the field, although scientific data on immunogenicity and reduction in mortality and morbidity are scarce. The goal of our study is to experimentally evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy against homologous challenge in weaned piglets of a S. suis serotype 2 bacterin-based vaccine formulated with six different commercial adjuvants (Alhydrogel®, Emulsigen®-D, Quil-A®, Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, Montanide™ ISA 61 VG, and Montanide™ ISA 201 VG). The vaccine formulated with Montanide™ ISA 61 VG induced a significant increase in anti-S. suis antibodies, including both IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses, protected against mortality and significantly reduced morbidity and severity of clinical signs. Vaccines formulated with Montanide ISA 206 VG or Montanide ISA 201 VG also induced a significant increase in anti-S. suis antibodies and showed partial protection and reduction of clinical signs severity. Vaccines formulated with Alhydrogel®, Emulsigen®-D, or Quil-A® induced a low and IgG1-shifted antibody response and failed to protect vaccinated piglets against a homologous challenge. In conclusion, the type of adjuvant used in the vaccine formulation significantly influenced the immune response and efficacy of the vaccine against a homologous challenge.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Vacunas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/veterinaria , Streptococcus suis/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/inmunología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Destete
6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684350

RESUMEN

The significant increase in chronic non-communicable diseases has changed the global epidemiological landscape. Among these, obesity is the most relevant in the pediatric field. This has pushed the world of research towards a new paradigm: preventive and predictive medicine. Therefore, the window of extreme plasticity that characterizes the first stage of development cannot be underestimated. In this context, nutrition certainly plays a primary role, being one of the most important epigenetic modulators known to date. Weaning, therefore, has a crucial role that must be analyzed far beyond the simple achievement of nutritional needs. Furthermore, the taste experience and the family context are fundamental for future food choices and can no longer be underestimated. The use of metabolomics allows, through the recognition of early disease markers and food-specific metabolites, the planning of an individualized and precise diet. In addition, the possibility of identifying particular groups of subjects at risk and the careful monitoring of adherence to dietary therapy may represent the basis for this change.


Asunto(s)
Epigénesis Genética , Metabolómica , Gusto/genética , Destete , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
7.
Trials ; 22(1): 687, 2021 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627344

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The traditional spoon-feeding approach to introduction of solid foods during the complementary feeding period is supported by consensus in the scientific literature. However, a method called Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) has been proposed as an alternative, allowing infants to self-feed with no adult interference. To date, there have been no trials in the Brazilian population to evaluate the effectiveness of BLISS in comparison to the traditional approach. METHODS/DESIGN: To evaluate and compare three different complementary feeding methods. Data on 144 mother-child pairs will be randomized into intervention groups by methods: (A) strict Parent-Led Weaning; (B) strict Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS; and (C) a mixed method. Prospective participants from Porto Alegre, Brazil, and nearby cities will be recruited through the Internet. The interventions will be performed by nutritionists and speech therapists, at 5.5 months of age of the child, at a private nutrition office equipped with a test kitchen where meals will be prepared according to the randomized method. The pairs will be followed up at 7, 9, and 12 months of age. Data will be collected through questionnaires designed especially for this study, which will include a 24h child food recall, questionnaires on the child's and parents' eating behavior, oral habits, eating difficulties, and choking prevalence. At 12 months of age, children will undergo blood collection to measure hemoglobin, ferritin, and C-reactive protein, saliva collection for analysis of genetic polymorphisms, and oral examination. Anthropometric parameters (child and maternal) will be measured at the baseline intervention, at a 9 month home visit, and at the end-of-study visit at the hospital. The primary outcome will be child growth and nutritional status z-scores at 12 months; secondary outcomes will include iron status, feeding behavior, acceptability of the methods, dietary variety, choking, eating behaviors, food preferences, acceptance of bitter and sweet flavors, suction, oral habits, oral hygiene behavior, dental caries, gingival health status, and functional constipation. DISCUSSION: The trial intends to ascertain whether there are potential advantages to the BLISS complementary feeding method in this specific population, generating data to support families and healthcare providers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC): RBR- 229scm number U1111-1226-9516 . Registered on September 24, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Destete
8.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673954

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of combined supplementation of sodium humate (HNa) and glutamine (Gln) on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, serum parameters, intestinal microbiome, and metabolites of weaned calves. In Exp. 1, 40 calves were randomly assigned to four treatments: 1) NC (negative control, basal diet), 2) 1% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 1 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily), 3) 3% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 3 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily), and 4) 5% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 5 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily). The HNa and Gln were together mixed with 100 mL of milk replacer (51 to 58 d of age) or water (59 to 72 d of age) and orally administrated to each calf from a bottle before morning feeding. In a 21-d trial, calves on the 5% HNa+1% Gln group had higher (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea incidence than those in the control group. In Exp. 2, 20 calves were randomly assigned to two treatments fed with a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 100 mL of 5% HNa+1% Gln. In a 21-d trial, calves supplemented with HNa and Gln had higher (P < 0.05) ADG, IgG concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities in the serum, but lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea incidence, as well as serum diamine oxidase (DAO), D-isomer of lactic acid (D-lac), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations compared with control group. Results of intestinal microbiota indicated that supplementation with HNa and Gln significantly increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of intestinal beneficial microbiota. Moreover, supplementation with HNa and Gln altered 18 metabolites and enriched 6 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways in weaned calves. In conclusion, combined supplementation with HNa and Gln could decrease diarrhea incidence of weaned calves via altering intestinal microbial ecology and metabolism profile.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glutamina , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Diarrea/prevención & control , Diarrea/veterinaria , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Incidencia , Sodio , Destete
9.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679178

RESUMEN

This study examined the effect of a water acidifier containing free and buffered short-chain fatty acids (SCFA-WA) on growth performance and microbiota of weaned piglets. In total, 192 male piglets, approximately 4 wk of age, were allocated to 24 pens (12 per treatment) with 8 piglets per pen. The piglets received either regular drinking water (negative control) or drinking water with the acidifier supplied at 2 L/1,000 L. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly on pen level. During the first 2 wk, daily visual assessment and scoring of the feces was conducted. Fecal samples of three piglets per pen were collected on days 14 and 42 for high-throughput sequencing analysis of the microbiota. Piglets offered SCFA-WA had significantly improved feed efficiency in the third week (P = 0.025) and over the whole study period (days 0 to 42, P = 0.042) compared with piglets in the negative control group, with a strong tendency observed during the first feeding phase (days 0 to 21, P = 0.055). Furthermore, the water acidifier group had a higher water intake than piglets provided with control water during the second feeding phase (days 21 to 42, P = 0.028) and over the whole study period (days 0 to 42, P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in body weight, average daily gain, or average daily feed intake (days 0 to 21, 21 to 42, 0 to 42). Furthermore, there was no overall significant difference in fecal scoring between the treatments. In terms of the fecal microbiota response, piglets offered the water acidifier showed a significantly higher relative abundance (RA) of genus Clostridium sensu stricto 1 and a lower RA of genus Streptococcus compared to the control. Furthermore, the redundancy analysis showed a positive association between improved feed efficiency and daily weight gain and RA of Butyricicoccus and Faecalibacterium. In conclusion, consumption of the water acidifier containing free and buffered SCFA modulated the microbiota and improved feed efficiency in piglets.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Microbiota , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Heces , Masculino , Porcinos , Agua , Destete
10.
Theriogenology ; 176: 122-127, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601236

RESUMEN

High-quality follicles result in larger corpora lutea (CL), producing more progesterone, and having a fundamental role in pregnancy maintenance. For some sows, follicular growth takes place during lactation, and follicle selection occurs under a catabolic environment. As altrenogest inhibits follicular development, this study aimed to evaluate follicular growth, CL size, estrus expression, and subsequent reproductive performance of sows treated with altrenogest during the last seven days of a three-week lactation. A total of 81 primiparous and 319 multiparous sows were allocated to two treatments: CONT (control group) and ALT (20 mg of altrenogest/day during the last seven days of lactation). Subsamples of 20 primiparous sows and 97 multiparous were randomly selected to evaluate follicular growth and 26 multiparous sows for serum progesterone analysis at day 21 of gestation. On day 21 of pregnancy, CL measurement was performed by ultrasound. Once in estrus, sows were post-cervically inseminated with pooled semen doses with 1.5 × 109 sperm cells at estrus onset and every 24 h during the standing reflex period. Sows not showing estrus until 10 days after weaning were considered in anestrus. The variables weaning-to-estrus interval, CL size, litter size in the subsequent cycle, and piglet birth weight were evaluated using the GLIMMIX procedure and compared using the Tukey-Kramer test. Anestrus, pregnancy, farrowing, and adjusted farrowing rate were evaluated as binary responses using logistic regression. Follicular size was analyzed as a repeated measure during treatment and after weaning. Treatment was considered as a fixed effect. During the treatment period, follicular size was smaller in ALT sows than CONT sows (3.29 vs. 3.52 mm; P < 0.001). However, after treatment, ALT sows showed a larger follicular size than CONT sows (5.30 vs. 5.03 mm; P ≤ 0.01). There were less ALT sows showing estrus than CONT sows on days three (1.03 vs. 4.57%) and four (55.38 vs. 68.02%) after weaning (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. At 21 days after insemination, ALT sows showed larger CL size and lower CL size variation (P < 0.01) than CONT sows. Anestrus rate, pregnancy rate, farrowing rate, adjusted farrowing rate, litter size in the subsequent cycle, piglet birth weight, litter birth weight, and birth weight variation did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.14). In conclusion, altrenogest treatment during the last week of lactation concentrated estrus expression on day five after weaning, larger follicle and CL sizes; however, with no improvement in reproductive performance.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Acetato de Trembolona , Animales , Femenino , Tamaño de la Camada , Paridad , Embarazo , Reproducción , Porcinos , Acetato de Trembolona/análogos & derivados , Acetato de Trembolona/farmacología , Destete
11.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(281): 6270-6279, out.-2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1343956

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Descrever as principais dificuldades encontradas por primíparas diante do processo de amamentação. Método: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, prospectivo e com abordagem qualitativa, realizado na Unidade Básica de Saúde da Sacramenta, em Belém no estado do Pará, nos meses de julho e agosto de 2019. Participaram primíparas lactantes, independente se amamentam de forma exclusiva ou não, sem contraindicações na amamentação, acompanhadas de seu recém-nascido (RN), único, nascido a termo, sem malformações. Resultados: As principais dificuldades apontadas pelas participantes relacionadas a amamentação neste estudo foram: Presença de fissura mamilar, pouco produção de leite e má pega. Conclusão: O auxílio à primípara lactante no processo de amamentação, pode evitar as intercorrências mamárias, bem como poderá auxiliar a resolvêlas quando estas já estiverem instaladas. É indispensável que o enfermeiro seja agente de mudanças, que saiba ofertar o suporte necessário para a continuidade da amamentação(AU)


Objective: To describe the main difficulties encountered by primiparas in the breastfeeding process. Method: This is a descriptive, prospective study with a qualitative approach, carried out at the Sacramenta Basic Health Unit, in Belém, Pará, in the months of July and August 2019. Breastfeeding primiparous women participated, regardless of whether they breastfed exclusively or not, without contraindications to breastfeeding, accompanied by her newborn (NB), single, born at term, without malformations. Results: The main difficulties mentioned by the participants related to breastfeeding in this study were: Presence of cracked nipples, little milk production and poor attachment. Conclusion: Helping primipara lactating in the breastfeeding process can prevent breast complications, as well as help to resolve them when they are already installed. It is essential that nurses are agents of change, that they know how to offer the necessary support for the continuity of breastfeeding.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir las principales dificultades que encuentran las primíparas en el proceso de lactancia. Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo con abordaje cualitativo, realizado en la Unidad Básica de Salud Sacramenta, en Belém, Pará, en los meses de julio y agosto de 2019. Exclusivo o no, sin contraindicaciones para la lactancia materna, acompañada de su recién nacido. (NB), soltero, nacido a término, sin malformaciones. Resultados: Las principales dificultades mencionadas por las participantes relacionadas con la lactancia materna en este estudio fueron: Presencia de pezones agrietados, poca producción de leche y mal agarre. Conclusión: Ayudar a primipara lactando en el proceso de lactancia puede prevenir complicaciones mamarias, así como ayudar a resolverlas cuando ya están instaladas. Es fundamental que las enfermeras sean agentes de cambio, que sepan ofrecer el apoyo necesario para la continuidad de la lactancia materna.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Destete , Lactancia Materna , Salud Materno-Infantil , Enfermería Maternoinfantil , Investigación Cualitativa
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575829

RESUMEN

Bisphenol A (BPA) is largely used as a monomer in some types of plastics. It accumulates in tissues and fluids and is able to bypass the placental barrier, affecting various organs and systems. Due to huge developmental processes, children, foetuses, and neonates could be more sensitive to BPA-induced toxicity. To investigate the multi-systemic effects of chronic exposure to a low BPA dose (100 µg/L), pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to BPA in drinking water during gestation and lactation. At weaning, newborn rats received the same treatments as dams until sex maturation. Free and conjugated BPA levels were measured in plasma and adipose tissue; the size of cerebral ventricles was analysed in the brain; morpho-functional and molecular analyses were carried out in the liver with a focus on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1). Higher BPA levels were found in plasma and adipose tissue from BPA treated pups (17 PND) but not in weaned animals. Lateral cerebral ventricles were significantly enlarged in lactating and weaned BPA-exposed animals. In addition, apart from microvesicular steatosis, liver morphology did not exhibit any statistically significant difference for morphological signs of inflammation, hypertrophy, or macrovesicular steatosis, but the expression of inflammatory cytokines, Sirt1, its natural antisense long non-coding RNA (Sirt1-AS LncRNA) and histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1) were affected in exposed animals. In conclusion, chronic exposure to a low BPA dose could increase the risk for disease in adult life as a consequence of higher BPA circulating levels and accumulation in adipose tissue during the neonatal period.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo/efectos adversos , Agua Potable/química , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Fenoles/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/efectos adversos , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Agua Potable/análisis , Femenino , Inmunohistoquímica , Inflamación/etiología , Inflamación/metabolismo , Inflamación/patología , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , NAD/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Embarazo , Ratas , Sirtuina 1/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/administración & dosificación , Destete
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558614

RESUMEN

For swine breeding programs, testing and selection programs are usually within purebred (PB) populations located in nucleus units that are generally managed differently and tend to have a higher health level than the commercial herds in which the crossbred (CB) descendants of these nucleus animals are expected to perform. This approach assumes that PB animals selected in the nucleus herd will have CB progeny that have superior performance at the commercial level. There is clear evidence that this may not be the case for all traits of economic importance and, thus, including data collected at the commercial herd level may increase the accuracy of selection for commercial CB performance at the nucleus level. The goal for this study was to estimate genetic parameters for five maternal reproductive traits between two PB maternal nucleus populations (Landrace and Yorkshire) and their CB offspring: Total Number Born (TNB), Number Born Alive (NBA), Number Born Alive > 1 kg (NBA > 1 kg), Total Number Weaned (TNW), and Litter Weight at Weaning (LWW). Estimates were based on single-step GBLUP by analyzing any two combinations of a PB and the CB population, and by analyzing all three populations jointly. The genomic relationship matrix between the three populations was generated by using within-population allele frequencies for relationships within a population, and across-population allele frequencies for relationships of the CB with the PB animals. Utilization of metafounders for the two PB populations had no effect on parameter estimates, so the two PB populations were assumed to be genetically unrelated. Joint analysis of two (one PB plus CB) vs. three (both PB and CB) populations did not impact estimates of heritability, additive genetic variance, and genetic correlations. Heritabilities were generally similar between the PB and CB populations, except for LWW and TNW, for which PB populations had about four times larger estimates than CB. Purebred-crossbred genetic correlations (rpc) were larger for Landrace than for Yorkshire, except for NBA > 1 kg. These estimates of rpc indicate that there is potential to improve selection of PB animals for CB performance by including CB information for all traits in the Yorkshire population, but that noticeable additional gains may only occur for NBA > 1 kg and TNW in the Landrace population.


Asunto(s)
Genoma , Reproducción , Animales , Genómica , Modelos Genéticos , Fenotipo , Reproducción/genética , Porcinos/genética , Destete
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558617

RESUMEN

The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of substituting corn with ground brown rice on growth performance, immune status, and gut microbiota in weanling pigs. Seventy-two weanling pigs (28 d old with 6.78 ± 0.94 kg body weight [BW]) were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments with six pens and six pigs (three barrows and gilts) per pen within a randomized complete block design. The control pigs were fed a typical diet for weanling pigs based on corn and soybean meal diet (control diet: CON), and the other pigs were fed a formulated diet with 100% replacement of corn with ground brown rice for 35d (treatment diet: GBR). Growth performance, immune status, and gut microbiota of weanling pigs were measured. The substitution of corn with GBR did not affect growth performance or diarrhea frequency. Additionally, there were no differences in white blood cell number, hematocrit, cortisol, C-reactive protein, and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels between pigs fed CON or GBR for the first 2 wk after weaning. However, weanling pigs fed GBR had lower (P < 0.05) serum transforming growth factor-beta 1 level than those fed CON. Furthermore, weanling pigs fed GBR had increased (P < 0.05) relative abundance of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus and Streptococcus and decreased (P < 0.05) relative abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes and genus Clostridium and Prevotella in the gut microbiota compared with those fed CON. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in growth performance when corn was replaced with ground brown rice in diets for weanling pigs. Furthermore, the substitution of corn with ground brown rice in weaning diet modulated immune status and gut microbiota of pigs by increasing beneficial microbial communities and reducing harmful microbial communities. Overall, ground brown rice-based diet is a potential alternative to corn-based diet without negative effects on growth performance, immune status, and gut microbiota changes of weanling pigs.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Oryza , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Distribución Aleatoria , Soja , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Destete
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 457, 2021 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537883

RESUMEN

The information of birth (10,017 records), weaning (9439 records), 6 months (7669 records), 9 months (4536 records), and yearling weights (417 records) collected from 1989 to 2016 by the Lori Bakhtiari (Sholi) sheep breeding station located in Shahrekord were used to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic parameters of growth traits of Lori Bakhtiari sheep. The components of variance and genetic parameters were estimated by the Bayesian statistical method based on the Gibbs sampling technique due to the high accuracy of this method. Factors including birth year, lamb sex, birth type, and maternal age at lambing have significant effects on all of these traits (P < 0.01) and were considered fixed effects in the statistical model for estimation of genetic parameters. Lamb weight at weaning was used as a covariate in the model. Based on the models with the lowest Akaike information criterion, direct heritability for birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month, and yearling weights were 0.36, 0.18, 0.21, 0.27, and 0.32, respectively. The moderate heritability obtained for the studied traits pointed up the effectiveness of selection in genetic improvement, but the environmental conditions should be improved for better performance of weight traits.


Asunto(s)
Oveja Doméstica , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Peso al Nacer/genética , Peso Corporal , Fenotipo , Ovinos/genética , Oveja Doméstica/genética , Destete
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 459, 2021 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542733

RESUMEN

This study investigated the effects of dietary phytobiotic mixture on growth performance, blood profiles, immune response, and fecal microorganisms in weaned piglets. Twenty four weaned crossbred piglets were equally divided into four groups in a completely randomized design. The animals in 4 groups were fed a basal diet added with (1) no antibiotics and phytobiotics (CON), (2) bacitracin (0.5 g/kg; AB), (3) a blend of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Trachyspermum copticum essential oils (0.3 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg, respectively; EO), and (4) plant extracts (PEO) of Mikania micrantha and Garcinia lanceifolia (2.8 g/kg and 1.4 g/kg, respectively) and C. zeylanicum and T. copticum essential oils (0.3 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg, respectively). Inclusion of AB, EO, and PEO did not affect final body weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, and nutrient digestibility. Compared with the CON, serum protein profiles were not affected, but a few lipid profiles were improved, particularly cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein in the EO and PEO groups. Lymphocyte proliferation index and concentrations of IgG and IgA and TNF-α were not affected by any treatments. The concentrations of IgM increased (P = 0.04) at 28 days and tended to increase (P = 0.10) at 56 days in the EO group. Serum IL-1ß levels decreased on days 28 and 56 in the EO and PEO groups. Fecal Lactobacilli population generally increased (P < 0.01) in the AB, EO, and PEO groups compared with the CON. Fecal enterobacterial numbers were always greater for AB than for CON, EO, or PEO, but enterobacterial populations were sometimes lower in the EO group than the CON group. In conclusion, dietary EO or PEO has no effect on the growth performance, but it may improve a few lipid profiles, immune responses, and fecal microbial populations in piglets.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Suplementos Dietéticos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Nutrientes , Porcinos , Destete
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 467, 2021 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546458

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate growth performance, and mammary gland parenchyma (PAR) development in Holstein female calves fed whole milk combined with milk replacer for 15% total solids (15TS) or only milk (11% TS; 11TS). The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and an estrogenic implant (EI) on growth performance, serum metabolites, and PAR development in post-weaning calves (63-90 days of age) fed 15TS or 11TS were also investigated. In the first phase, 78 calves were randomly divided into two groups (n = 39/group), 15TS, or 11TS (5 to 8 L/day; starter ad libitum). After weaning, calves were randomly assigned to four treatments, no EI, EI, ZH, and ZH-EI. In phase 1, 15TS calves had greater (P < 0.01) average body weight at weaning than 11TS calves (82.0 ± 5.8 vs. 74.1 ± 5.7 kg). Pre-weaning average daily gain (718 ± 67 vs. 576 ± 64 g/day) was higher (P < 0.01) for 15TS calves than 11TS calves. Feed/gain (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 1.8 ± 0.3 kg of DMI/kg of gain) was lower (P < 0.01) for 15TS calves than 11TS calves. PAR area (8.8 ± 3.3 vs. 5.0 ± 1.6 cm2) was greater (P < 0.01) for 15TS calves than 11TS calves. No differences (P > 0.10) in average daily gain (986 ± 79 g/day across treatments) were observed in calves receiving ZH, EI, or ZH-EI fed 15TS or 11TS diets previously. However, the PAR area of 15TS calves administered ZH-EI was 2.2 times greater (P < 0.01) than 11TS calves with no ZH and CI. This study demonstrated the benefits of supplying milk with 15% TS for enhancing overall animal growth and PAR development. Further use of ZH and EI during the post-weaning period did improve mammary PAR growth.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Leche , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Destete
18.
Animal ; 15(10): 100346, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547549

RESUMEN

Forages can contribute to the nutrient supply for sows but the extent to which they can replace concentrate feeding is not well known. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of level of feed restriction and type of forage on the performance and activity of gestating sows under outdoor conditions. A total of 45 sows were distributed among three treatments, with five replicates of three sows/treatment, from week 5 of gestation until farrowing. Treatments differed in the daily level of concentrate feed provided and the type of forage offered during gestation: 90% of metabolisable energy (ME) requirements provided by concentrates and free access to a pasture (P90); 40% of ME requirements provided by concentrates and free access to a pasture (P40); and 40% of ME requirements provided by concentrates and free access to a bare paddock with hay ad libitum (H40). From farrowing to weaning (5 weeks), concentrate feed was offered to all sows ad libitum. Body weight and backfat thickness (BF) were measured seven times during gestation and lactation. Postures of sows and time spent in the pasture were assessed at the beginning, middle and end of gestation. Forage intake was estimated with a method based on sow performance using the InraPorc® model. At farrowing, P90 sows were heavier and had greater BF than P40 and H40 sows. At weaning, P90 sows maintained a higher BW and tended to have greater BF than H40 sows, but no longer differed from P40 sows. Treatments did not influence litter size, but piglets from P40 sows were lighter at birth than those from P90 sows (1.44 vs. 1.69 kg, P = 0.004). In late gestation, P90 sows spent less time standing over 24 h and less time in the pasture during daytime than P40 sows, suggesting less foraging behaviour. Sows fed concentrates to meet 40% of ME requirements during gestation did not consume enough forage to maintain the same body condition as sows fed at 90% of ME requirements. Despite their inability to fully compensate for concentrate restriction during gestation by consuming more forage, P40 sows reached a similar body condition to P90 sows at weaning. In conclusion, forage intake for outdoor gestating sows can compensate a concentrate feed reduction of 10% and possibly more, but not as much as 60%.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Dieta , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Lactancia , Tamaño de la Camada , Paridad , Embarazo , Porcinos , Destete
19.
Behav Processes ; 192: 104491, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478805

RESUMEN

Social behavior is influenced by a host of factors, including the immune system; for example, song quality in male starlings predicts immunocompetence suggesting the development of the immune system is interconnected with aspects social development (Duffy and Ball, 2002). Treating birds with antibiotics during the perinatal period may alter this development, and thereby, social behaviors beyond song. We asked if antibiotic exposure during the perinatal period effected parenting and offspring social behavior (e.g. aggressive and affiliative behaviors) in zebra finches? We treated the drinking water of zebra finch parents and hatchlings from post-hatch day 5-14 with azithromycin or a vehicle control and monitored parenting/social behavior. After weaning, we transferred offspring from the breeding cage to group housing and monitored social behavior and integration into the colony by measuring aggressive and affiliative behaviors. For all treatments we saw a reduction in the number of songs performed by fathers, however, specifically for antibiotic treated offspring there was a reduction in affiliative behaviors relative to vehicle treated controls suggesting the immune system, perhaps via the guts microbiome, influences certain aspects of social behaviors in birds.


Asunto(s)
Pinzones , Agresión , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Masculino , Conducta Social , Destete
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468748

RESUMEN

This experiment was conducted to evaluate potential replacements for pharmacological levels of Zn (provided by Zn oxide), such as diet acidification (sodium diformate) and low dietary crude protein (CP: 21 vs 18%) on nursery pig performance and fecal dry matter (DM). A total of 360 weaned pigs (Line 200 × 400, DNA, Columbus, NE; initially 5.90 ± 0.014 kg) were used in a 42-d growth study. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and randomly assigned to pens (five pigs per pen). Pens were then allotted to one of eight dietary treatments with nine pens per treatment. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: phase 1 from weaning to day 7 and phase 2 from days 7 to 21, with all pigs fed the same common diet from days 21 to 42. The eight treatment diets were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of Zn (110 mg/kg from days 0 to 21 or 3,000 mg/kg from days 0 to 7, and 2,000 mg/kg from days 7 to 21), diet acidification, (without or with 1.2% sodium diformate), and dietary CP (21% or 18%, 1.40% and 1.35% in phases 1 and 2 vs. 1.20% standardized ileal digestible Lys, respectively). Fecal samples were collected weekly from the same three pigs per pen to determine DM content. No 2- or 3-way interactions (P > 0.05) were observed throughout the 42-d study for growth performance; however, there was a Zn × acidifier × CP interaction (P < 0.05) for fecal DM on day 7 and for the overall average of the six collection periods. Reducing CP without acidification or pharmacological levels of Zn increased fecal DM, but CP had little effect when ZnO was present in the diet. From days 0 to 21, significant (P < 0.05) main effects were observed where average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) increased for pigs fed pharmacological levels of Zn, sodium diformate, or 21% CP (P < 0.065). In the subsequent period (days 21 to 42) after the experimental diets were fed, there was no evidence of difference in growth performance among treatments. Overall (days 0 to 42), main effect tendencies were observed (P < 0.066) for pigs fed added Zn or sodium diformate from days 0 to 21, whereas pigs fed 21% CP had greater G:F than those fed 18% CP. Pig weight on day 42 was increased by adding Zn (P < 0.05) or acidifier (P < 0.06) but not CP. In summary, none of the feed additives had a major influence on fecal DM, but dietary addition of pharmacological levels of Zn or sodium diformate independently improved nursery pig performance.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Zinc , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Porcinos , Destete
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