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1.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(2): 155-159, 2020 Feb 23.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135652

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of lung cancer screening in urban areas of Henan province by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) from 2013 to 2017. Methods: A cluster sampling method was used to select the residents of 40-74 years old in Henan province to investigate the risk factors and conduct lung cancer risk assessment. Subjects with high risk of lung cancer received LDCT for screening. Results: A total of 179 002 residents completed the lung cancer risk assessment, and 35 672 subjects were identified as high risk of lung cancer, with a high risk rate of 19.93%. A total of 13 383 subjects with high risk received LDCT, and the screening rate was 37.52%. There were 786 cases diagnosed as positive nodules, and the detection rate was 5.87%. Among them, 755 cases of solid/partial solid nodule were ≥5 mm, 23 cases of non-solid nodules were ≥8 mm, 8 cases were intratracheal nodules, and 115 cases were diagnosed as suspicious lung cancer. The detection rate in males was 6.74%, which was higher than 5.02% in females. The detection rate was positively related with age (P<0.05). Conclusions: The application of LDCT is a useful screening method which can elevate the early detection rate of positive nodules and other related diseases in lungs. In the future, males and older populations should be paid more attention to improve screening efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Población Urbana
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 306-313, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187937

RESUMEN

Objective: The existed economic evaluations of cancer screening in Chinese population are almost all single-cancer focused, evidence on parallel comparison among multiple cancers is lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was, from a priority setting perspective, to compare the cost-effectiveness of six common cancers(colorectal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer and stomach cancer) to facilitate policy making in future scaled-up screening in populations in China. Methods: Partially based on our previous single-cancer systematic reviews (colorectal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer), evidence of economic evaluations of cancer screening in populations in mainland China were systematically updated and integrated. The main updates include: 1) Stomach cancer and esophageal cancer were newly added to the current analysis. 2) The literature searching was extended to 8 literature databases, including PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP. 3) The period of publication year was updated to the recent 10 years: January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2018. 4) The study focused on populations in mainland China. Following the standard processes of literature searching, inclusion and exclusion from previous systematic reviews, the basic characteristics, evaluation indicators and main results of the included studies were extracted. All the costs were discounted to 2017 value using the by-year consumer price index of medical and health care residents in China and presented in the Chinese Yuan (CNY). The ratios of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to China's per capita GDP in 2017 were calculated (<1 means very cost-effective, 1-3 means cost-effective, >3 means not cost-effective). Given a specific indicator, the median value among all reported screening strategies for each cancer was calculated, based on which priority ranking was then conducted among all cancers when data available. Results: A total of 45 studies were included, 22 for breast cancer, 12 for colorectal cancer, 6 for stomach cancer, 4 for esophageal cancer (all conducted in high-risk areas), 1 for liver cancer and none for lung cancer (was not then considered for next ranking due to limited numbers of studies). When based on the indicator, the median ratio of cost per life-year saved to China's per capita GDP (reported in 12 studies), the lowest ratio (-0.015) was observed in esophageal cancer among 16 strategies of 2 studies (N=2, n=16), followed by 0.297 for colorectal cancer (N=3, n=12), 0.356 for stomach cancer (N=1, n=4) and 0.896 for breast cancer (N=6, n=52, P(75)=3.602). When based on another commonly used ICER indicator, the median ratio of cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained to China's per capita GDP (reported in 13 studies), the least cost was found in stomach cancer (0.495, N=3, n=8, P(75)=3.126), followed by esophageal cancer (0.960, N=1, n=4, P(75)=1.762) and breast cancer (2.056, N=9, n=64, P(75)=4.217). Data was not found for colorectal cancer. In addition, cost per cancer case detected was the most adopted indicator (32 studies). The median cost among all screening strategies for each cancer was 14 759 CNY for stomach cancer (N=5, n=7), 49 680 CNY for colorectal cancer (N=12, n=25) and 171 930 CNY for breast cancer (N=13, n=24), respectively. Data was not available for esophageal cancer and rare for precancer cases detected. Evidence related to cost per disability-adjusted life-year gained was not available. Conclusions: At China's national level and limited to the six cancers covered by the current study, the preliminary analysis suggests that stomach cancer and colorectal cancer were the most cost-effective target cancers and could be given priority in the future scaled-up screening in general populations. Esophageal cancer screening should be prioritized in high-risk areas. Breast cancer was also cost-effective in general but some of the intensive screening strategies were marginal. Data on liver cancer and lung cancer were too limited to conclude, and more well-designed studies and high-quality research evidence should be required. This priority ranking might be changed if other common cancers were involved analyses.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precóz del Cáncer/economía , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , China , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/economía , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 314-319, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187938

RESUMEN

Objective: To systematically evaluate the quality of gastric cancer screening guidelines/recommendations, and provide a reference for the update of gastric cancer screening guidelines/recommendations in China. Methods: "guidelines/consensus/specifications/standards" , "stomach/gastric tumors" , "screening/diagnosis" , "guideline/recommendation" , "gastric cancer/gastric tumor," "early detection of cancer/screening" were searched as keywords in PubMed, Embase, Web of knowledge, China Knowledge Network, Wanfang, China Biomedical Literature Database, and Cochrane Library, as well as the US Preventive Services Working Group, the American Cancer Society, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the Australia Cancer Council and the International Guide Collaboration Network at the end of July 2018. The inclusion criteria were independent guidelines/recommendation documents for gastric cancer screening. The exclusion criteria were guideline abstracts, interpretation and evaluation literature, duplicate publications, updated original guidelines, and clinical treatment or practice guidelines for gastric cancer. The language was limited to Chinese and English. The European Guide to Research and Evaluation Tools (AGREE Ⅱ) and Practice Guideline Reporting Standard (RIGHT) for Gastric Cancer Screening Guidelines/Recommendations were used to compare and evaluate the quality and reporting standard of gastric cancer screening guidelines/recommendations. Results: A total of five guides/recommendations were included. The results of the AGREE Ⅱ quality evaluation showed that the overall quality of five guides/recommendations was different, including one recommended for "A", one for "B", and three for "C". Each guide/recommendation scored higher in the scope and purpose, clarity, and scores were more significant in the areas of rigor and independence. In the participants, the application field scores were generally low. The RIGHT evaluation results showed that the quality of five guides/recommendations should be improved. The six items with poor report quality were background, evidence, recommendations, review and quality assurance, funding and conflict of interest statement and management, and other aspects. Conclusion: The quality of the included gastric cancer screening guidelines/recommendations is generally low, and the standardization should be strengthened.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precóz del Cáncer/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , China , Consenso , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Humanos , Estándares de Referencia
4.
Life Sci ; 248: 117473, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114007

RESUMEN

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of tiny molecules of 18-22 nucleotide long noncoding RNA that regulate the post-transcriptional gene expression through translational inhibition and/or mRNA destabilization. Because of their involvement in important developmental processes, it is highly likely that the altered expression of miRNAs could be associated with abnormal conditions like suboptimal growth or diseases. Thus, the expression of miRNAs can be used as biomarkers in pathophysiological conditions. Recently, a handful of miRNAs are detected in cell-free conditions including biofluids and cell culture media and they exhibit specific expression patterns that are associated with altered physiological conditions. Extracellular miRNAs are not only extremely stable outside cells in a variety of biofluids but also they are easy to acquire. These characteristics led to the idea of using extracellular miRNAs as a potential biomarker for the onset and prognosis of cancer. Although miRNAs have been proposed as a potential diagnostic tool for cancer detection, their application in the routine clinical investigation is yet to come. First, this review will provide an insight into the extracellular miRNAs, particularly, their release mechanisms and characteristics, and the potential of extracellular miRNAs as a biomarker in cancer detection. Finally, it will discuss the potential of using extracellular miRNAs in different cancer diagnoses and challenges associated with the clinical application of extracellular miRNAs as noninvasive biomarkers.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , MicroARN Circulante/genética , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , ARN Neoplásico/genética , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , MicroARN Circulante/sangre , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Exosomas/química , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/sangre , Neoplasias/patología , Especificidad de Órganos , Pronóstico , ARN Neoplásico/sangre
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921040, 2020 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200389

RESUMEN

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) describes the fragmented DNA released from tumor cells into the blood. The ctDNA may have the same genetic changes as the primary tumor. Currently, ctDNA has become a popular biomarker for diagnosis, treatment, real-time clinical response monitoring, and prognosis, for solid tumors. Detection of ctDNA is minimally invasive, and repeat sampling can easily be performed. However, due to its low quality and short DNA fragment length, ctDNA detection still faces challenges and requires highly sensitive analytical techniques. Recently, liquid biopsies for the analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor-derived exosomes have been studied, and nanotechnology techniques have rapidly developed. Compared to traditional analytical methods, these nanotechnology-based platforms have the advantages of sensitivity, multiplex detection, simplicity, miniaturization, and automation, which support their potential use in clinical practice. This review aims to discuss the recent nanotechnological strategies for ctDNA analysis and the design of reliable techniques for ctDNA detection and to identify the potential clinical applications.


Asunto(s)
ADN Tumoral Circulante/sangre , ADN de Neoplasias/genética , Nanotecnología/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , ADN Tumoral Circulante/genética , ADN de Neoplasias/sangre , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Humanos , Biopsia Líquida , Neoplasias/sangre , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19382, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176062

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use of tumor abnormal protein (TAP) in the diagnosis of different cancers.Totally 394 patients were divided into 4 groups, namely 100 healthy volunteers, 167 patients with cancer, 20 subjects with precancerous lesions, and 107 subjects with benign lesions. TAP was detected in 4 groups of research subjects using a TAP testing kit and examination system. We correlated TAP levels with a wide variety of clinical indicators as well as established cancer markers, including alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Besides, the changes of TAP level in 51 patients with liver cancer before and after surgery, and overall survival of patients with high or low TAP expression in pancreatic, gallbladder, bile duct, and liver cancers were analyzed.Statistically significant difference was observed in the TAP-positive ratio among subjects with cancer (79.6%) and precancerous lesions (45.0%) compared to the healthy volunteers (4.0%). TAP expression in different cancers was characterized by high sensitivity (79.64%), specificity (89.87%), positive and negative predictive value (85.25% and 85.71%), overall compliance rate (85.53%) but low omission and mistake diagnostic rate (20.36% and 10.13%), Youden index (0.6951). In addition, there was no significant difference among patients with different types of cancer (χ = 2.886, P = .410), and TAP expression was shown to be correlated with AFP in liver cancer (P = .034) but not with CA19-9 in pancreatic cancer (P = .241). Moreover, the overall survival of patients with low expression of TAP in pancreatic, gallbladder, bile duct, and liver cancers were significantly higher than of patients with high expression of TAP. Compared with the preoperative patients with cancer, TAP levels decreased dramatically among postoperative subjects (P < .001).In summary, TAP might hold promise in serving as universal indicator for the diagnosis of different cancers.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangre , Neoplasias del Sistema Digestivo/sangre , Neoplasias del Sistema Digestivo/cirugía , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Neoplasias del Sistema Digestivo/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referencia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
7.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 350-360, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007170

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Improved markers of prognosis are needed to stratify patients with early-stage colorectal cancer to refine selection of adjuvant therapy. The aim of the present study was to develop a biomarker of patient outcome after primary colorectal cancer resection by directly analysing scanned conventional haematoxylin and eosin stained sections using deep learning. METHODS: More than 12 000 000 image tiles from patients with a distinctly good or poor disease outcome from four cohorts were used to train a total of ten convolutional neural networks, purpose-built for classifying supersized heterogeneous images. A prognostic biomarker integrating the ten networks was determined using patients with a non-distinct outcome. The marker was tested on 920 patients with slides prepared in the UK, and then independently validated according to a predefined protocol in 1122 patients treated with single-agent capecitabine using slides prepared in Norway. All cohorts included only patients with resectable tumours, and a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour tissue block available for analysis. The primary outcome was cancer-specific survival. FINDINGS: 828 patients from four cohorts had a distinct outcome and were used as a training cohort to obtain clear ground truth. 1645 patients had a non-distinct outcome and were used for tuning. The biomarker provided a hazard ratio for poor versus good prognosis of 3·84 (95% CI 2·72-5·43; p<0·0001) in the primary analysis of the validation cohort, and 3·04 (2·07-4·47; p<0·0001) after adjusting for established prognostic markers significant in univariable analyses of the same cohort, which were pN stage, pT stage, lymphatic invasion, and venous vascular invasion. INTERPRETATION: A clinically useful prognostic marker was developed using deep learning allied to digital scanning of conventional haematoxylin and eosin stained tumour tissue sections. The assay has been extensively evaluated in large, independent patient populations, correlates with and outperforms established molecular and morphological prognostic markers, and gives consistent results across tumour and nodal stage. The biomarker stratified stage II and III patients into sufficiently distinct prognostic groups that potentially could be used to guide selection of adjuvant treatment by avoiding therapy in very low risk groups and identifying patients who would benefit from more intensive treatment regimes. FUNDING: The Research Council of Norway.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Aprendizaje Profundo , Anciano , Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Estudios de Cohortes , Neoplasias Colorrectales/mortalidad , Neoplasias Colorrectales/terapia , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Eosina Amarillenta-(YS)/metabolismo , Femenino , Hematoxilina/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19135, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028440

RESUMEN

This study is to evaluate the screening methods of cervical cancers for rural females in Kash bachu, Xinjiang, China.A total number of 3000 married females were surveyed, and subjected to the gynecological examination. In these subjects, 1993 females received the careHPV (human papillomavirus) test, while 1007 females underwent the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI). The subjects positive for careHPV detection were subjected to Cervista, Cobas 4800, and Aptima HPV detection, and Thinprep Cytologic Test (TCT). The subjects positive for 1 detection only received colposcopy cervical biopsy.A total of 569 subjects received the cervical biopsy, and the positive rate was 2.3% (69/3000), while the detection rate for CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) II and above levels was 1.13% (34/3000). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that, the area under the curve (AUC) value for the careHPV test was 0.671, which was higher than the VIA/VILI (0.619), suggesting higher diagnostic value for the careHPV test. For the Cervista, Cobas 4800, Aptima HPV detection, and TCT methods, the highest AUC value was observed for the TCT method, indicating that the TCT method is the most valuable for the cervical cancer screening.The diagnostic value of careHPV test is superior to the VIA/VILA detection method. The TCT method has the greatest value for the cervical cancer screening. The Cervista HPV detection method should be considered where the conditions are limited.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biopsia , Cuello del Útero/patología , China , Colposcopía , Femenino , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Población Rural , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología
10.
JAMA ; 323(8): 746-756, 2020 02 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096852

RESUMEN

Importance: Improved screening methods for women with dense breasts are needed because of their increased risk of breast cancer and of failed early diagnosis by screening mammography. Objective: To compare the screening performance of abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in women with dense breasts. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study with longitudinal follow-up at 48 academic, community hospital, and private practice sites in the United States and Germany, conducted between December 2016 and November 2017 among average-risk women aged 40 to 75 years with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts undergoing routine screening. Follow-up ascertainment of cancer diagnoses was complete through September 12, 2019. Exposures: All women underwent screening by both DBT and abbreviated breast MRI, performed in randomized order and read independently to avoid interpretation bias. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the invasive cancer detection rate. Secondary outcomes included sensitivity, specificity, additional imaging recommendation rate, and positive predictive value (PPV) of biopsy, using invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to define a positive reference standard. All outcomes are reported at the participant level. Pathology of core or surgical biopsy was the reference standard for cancer detection rate and PPV; interval cancers reported until the next annual screen were included in the reference standard for sensitivity and specificity. Results: Among 1516 enrolled women, 1444 (median age, 54 [range, 40-75] years) completed both examinations and were included in the analysis. The reference standard was positive for invasive cancer with or without DCIS in 17 women and for DCIS alone in another 6. No interval cancers were observed during follow-up. Abbreviated breast MRI detected all 17 women with invasive cancer and 5 of 6 women with DCIS. Digital breast tomosynthesis detected 7 of 17 women with invasive cancer and 2 of 6 women with DCIS. The invasive cancer detection rate was 11.8 (95% CI, 7.4-18.8) per 1000 women for abbreviated breast MRI vs 4.8 (95% CI, 2.4-10.0) per 1000 women for DBT, a difference of 7 (95% CI, 2.2-11.6) per 1000 women (exact McNemar P = .002). For detection of invasive cancer and DCIS, sensitivity was 95.7% (95% CI, 79.0%-99.2%) with abbreviated breast MRI vs 39.1% (95% CI, 22.2%-59.2%) with DBT (P = .001) and specificity was 86.7% (95% CI, 84.8%-88.4%) vs 97.4% (95% CI, 96.5%-98.1%), respectively (P < .001). The additional imaging recommendation rate was 7.5% (95% CI, 6.2%-9.0%) with abbreviated breast MRI vs 10.1% (95% CI, 8.7%-11.8%) with DBT (P = .02) and the PPV was 19.6% (95% CI, 13.2%-28.2%) vs 31.0% (95% CI, 17.0%-49.7%), respectively (P = .15). Conclusions and Relevance: Among women with dense breasts undergoing screening, abbreviated breast MRI, compared with DBT, was associated with a significantly higher rate of invasive breast cancer detection. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between screening methods and clinical outcome. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02933489.


Asunto(s)
Densidad de la Mama , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico por imagen , Carcinoma Intraductal no Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagen , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Mamografía , Invasividad Neoplásica/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Anciano , Mama/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Mamografía/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
12.
Lancet ; 395(10224): 575-590, 2020 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007141

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The WHO Director-General has issued a call for action to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem. To help inform global efforts, we modelled potential human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical screening scenarios in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) to examine the feasibility and timing of elimination at different thresholds, and to estimate the number of cervical cancer cases averted on the path to elimination. METHODS: The WHO Cervical Cancer Elimination Modelling Consortium (CCEMC), which consists of three independent transmission-dynamic models identified by WHO according to predefined criteria, projected reductions in cervical cancer incidence over time in 78 LMICs for three standardised base-case scenarios: girls-only vaccination; girls-only vaccination and once-lifetime screening; and girls-only vaccination and twice-lifetime screening. Girls were vaccinated at age 9 years (with a catch-up to age 14 years), assuming 90% coverage and 100% lifetime protection against HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. Cervical screening involved HPV testing once or twice per lifetime at ages 35 years and 45 years, with uptake increasing from 45% (2023) to 90% (2045 onwards). The elimination thresholds examined were an average age-standardised cervical cancer incidence of four or fewer cases per 100 000 women-years and ten or fewer cases per 100 000 women-years, and an 85% or greater reduction in incidence. Sensitivity analyses were done, varying vaccination and screening strategies and assumptions. We summarised results using the median (range) of model predictions. FINDINGS: Girls-only HPV vaccination was predicted to reduce the median age-standardised cervical cancer incidence in LMICs from 19·8 (range 19·4-19·8) to 2·1 (2·0-2·6) cases per 100 000 women-years over the next century (89·4% [86·2-90·1] reduction), and to avert 61·0 million (60·5-63·0) cases during this period. Adding twice-lifetime screening reduced the incidence to 0·7 (0·6-1·6) cases per 100 000 women-years (96·7% [91·3-96·7] reduction) and averted an extra 12·1 million (9·5-13·7) cases. Girls-only vaccination was predicted to result in elimination in 60% (58-65) of LMICs based on the threshold of four or fewer cases per 100 000 women-years, in 99% (89-100) of LMICs based on the threshold of ten or fewer cases per 100 000 women-years, and in 87% (37-99) of LMICs based on the 85% or greater reduction threshold. When adding twice-lifetime screening, 100% (71-100) of LMICs reached elimination for all three thresholds. In regions in which all countries can achieve cervical cancer elimination with girls-only vaccination, elimination could occur between 2059 and 2102, depending on the threshold and region. Introducing twice-lifetime screening accelerated elimination by 11-31 years. Long-term vaccine protection was required for elimination. INTERPRETATION: Predictions were consistent across our three models and suggest that high HPV vaccination coverage of girls can lead to cervical cancer elimination in most LMICs by the end of the century. Screening with high uptake will expedite reductions and will be necessary to eliminate cervical cancer in countries with the highest burden. FUNDING: WHO, UNDP, UN Population Fund, UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Canadian Institute of Health Research, Fonds de recherche du Québec-Santé, Compute Canada, National Health and Medical Research Council Australia Centre for Research Excellence in Cervical Cancer Control.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adulto , Países en Desarrollo , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Renta , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Vacunación
13.
Lancet ; 395(10224): 591-603, 2020 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007142

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: WHO is developing a global strategy towards eliminating cervical cancer as a public health problem, which proposes an elimination threshold of four cases per 100 000 women and includes 2030 triple-intervention coverage targets for scale-up of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to 90%, twice-lifetime cervical screening to 70%, and treatment of pre-invasive lesions and invasive cancer to 90%. We assessed the impact of achieving the 90-70-90 triple-intervention targets on cervical cancer mortality and deaths averted over the next century. We also assessed the potential for the elimination initiative to support target 3.4 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)-a one-third reduction in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases by 2030. METHODS: The WHO Cervical Cancer Elimination Modelling Consortium (CCEMC) involves three independent, dynamic models of HPV infection, cervical carcinogenesis, screening, and precancer and invasive cancer treatment. Reductions in age-standardised rates of cervical cancer mortality in 78 low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) were estimated for three core scenarios: girls-only vaccination at age 9 years with catch-up for girls aged 10-14 years; girls-only vaccination plus once-lifetime screening and cancer treatment scale-up; and girls-only vaccination plus twice-lifetime screening and cancer treatment scale-up. Vaccination was assumed to provide 100% lifetime protection against infections with HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, and to scale up to 90% coverage in 2020. Cervical screening involved HPV testing at age 35 years, or at ages 35 years and 45 years, with scale-up to 45% coverage by 2023, 70% by 2030, and 90% by 2045, and we assumed that 50% of women with invasive cervical cancer would receive appropriate surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy by 2023, which would increase to 90% by 2030. We summarised results using the median (range) of model predictions. FINDINGS: In 2020, the estimated cervical cancer mortality rate across all 78 LMICs was 13·2 (range 12·9-14·1) per 100 000 women. Compared to the status quo, by 2030, vaccination alone would have minimal impact on cervical cancer mortality, leading to a 0·1% (0·1-0·5) reduction, but additionally scaling up twice-lifetime screening and cancer treatment would reduce mortality by 34·2% (23·3-37·8), averting 300 000 (300 000-400 000) deaths by 2030 (with similar results for once-lifetime screening). By 2070, scaling up vaccination alone would reduce mortality by 61·7% (61·4-66·1), averting 4·8 million (4·1-4·8) deaths. By 2070, additionally scaling up screening and cancer treatment would reduce mortality by 88·9% (84·0-89·3), averting 13·3 million (13·1-13·6) deaths (with once-lifetime screening), or by 92·3% (88·4-93·0), averting 14·6 million (14·1-14·6) deaths (with twice-lifetime screening). By 2120, vaccination alone would reduce mortality by 89·5% (86·6-89·9), averting 45·8 million (44·7-46·4) deaths. By 2120, additionally scaling up screening and cancer treatment would reduce mortality by 97·9% (95·0-98·0), averting 60·8 million (60·2-61·2) deaths (with once-lifetime screening), or by 98·6% (96·5-98·6), averting 62·6 million (62·1-62·8) deaths (with twice-lifetime screening). With the WHO triple-intervention strategy, over the next 10 years, about half (48% [45-55]) of deaths averted would be in sub-Saharan Africa and almost a third (32% [29-34]) would be in South Asia; over the next 100 years, almost 90% of deaths averted would be in these regions. For premature deaths (age 30-69 years), the WHO triple-intervention strategy would result in rate reductions of 33·9% (24·4-37·9) by 2030, 96·2% (94·3-96·8) by 2070, and 98·6% (96·9-98·8) by 2120. INTERPRETATION: These findings emphasise the importance of acting immediately on three fronts to scale up vaccination, screening, and treatment for pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer. In the next 10 years, a one-third reduction in the rate of premature mortality from cervical cancer in LMICs is possible, contributing to the realisation of the 2030 UN SDGs. Over the next century, successful implementation of the WHO elimination strategy would reduce cervical cancer mortality by almost 99% and save more than 62 million women's lives. FUNDING: WHO, UNDP, UN Population Fund, UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Germany Federal Ministry of Health, National Health and Medical Research Council Australia, Centre for Research Excellence in Cervical Cancer Control, Canadian Institute of Health Research, Compute Canada, and Fonds de recherche du Québec-Santé.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Países en Desarrollo , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Biológicos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Vacunación/métodos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
14.
Life Sci ; 246: 117417, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044304

RESUMEN

Breast cancer is one of the genetic diseases causing a high mortality among women around the world. Despite the availability of advanced diagnostic tools and treatment strategies, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. This is due to the lack of accurate and reliable biomarkers whose deficiency creates difficulty in early breast cancer recognition, subtypes determination, and metastasis prophecy. Although biomarkers such as ER, PR, Her2, Ki-67, and other genetic platforms e.g. MammaPrint®, Oncotype DX®, Prosigna® or EndoPredict® are available for determination of breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, pertaining to heterogeneous nature, lack of sensitivity, and specificity of these markers, it is still incessant to overcome breast cancer burden. Therefore, a novel biomarker is urgently needed for therapeutic diagnosis and improving prognosis. Lately, it has become more evident that cell-free miRNAs might be useful as good non-invasive biomarkers that are associated with different events in carcinogenesis. For example, some known biomarkers such as miR-21, miR-23a, miR-34a are associated with molecular subtyping and different biomolecular aspects i.e. apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, and miR-1, miR-10b, miR-16 are associated with drug response. Cell-free miRNAs present in human body fluids have proven to be potential biomarkers with significant prognostic and predictive values. Numerous studies have found a distinct expression profile of circulating miRNAs in breast tumour versus non-tumour and in early and advanced-stage, thus implicating its clinical relevance. This review article will highlight the importance of different cell-free miRNAs as a biomarker for early breast cancer detection, subtype classification, and metastasis forecast.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , MicroARNs/sangre , ARN Neoplásico/sangre , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/sangre , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Femenino , Humanos , MicroARNs/genética , Pronóstico , ARN Neoplásico/genética
15.
Bull Cancer ; 107(3): 322-327, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061377

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer screening is considered one of the most significant public health interventions that can reduce not only the incidence, but also the mortality of the disease. One of the most important factors for screening effectiveness is coverage defined as the number of women tested within a recommended interval. In the first years of the cervical screening, the participation rate in National Screening Program in Romania was 14.2% with slight difference in different region of the country. In the northeastern part of the country, in the first four years of the program, the rate was 16.9% with an alarmingly continuous decrease. Thus, increasing the rate of uptake of cervical screening is essential. The policy-makers should take new measures to increase women's participation in this screening program. The objective of this paper was to review situation of the screening program and to identify gaps and needs in the system and to bring or suggest solution.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Participación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/tendencias , Femenino , Educación en Salud/métodos , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo/tendencias , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Participación del Paciente/tendencias , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Rumanía/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología
18.
Cancer Invest ; 38(2): 102-112, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977287

RESUMEN

Background: Patient survival is not optimal for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, recurrence rate is high, and hence, early detection is crucial to increase the patient's survival. Gene-cancer mapping intends to discover associated genes with cancers and due to advances in high-throughput genotyping, screening for disease loci on a genome-wide scale is now possible. DNA copy numbers can potentially be used to identify cancer from normal cells in early detection of cancer.Methods: We use a nonlinear clustering method, so-called kernel K-means to separate cancer from normal samples. Kernel K-means is applied to the copy numbers obtained for each chromosome to cluster 63 paired cancer-blood samples (total of 126 samples) into two groups. Clustering performance is evaluated using true and false-positive rates, true and false-negative rates, and a nonlinear criterion, normalized mutual information (NMI).Results: Copy numbers of paired cancer-blood samples for 63 NSCLC patients are used in this study. Kernel K-means was applied to cluster 126 samples in two groups using copy numbers on each chromosome separately. The clustering results for 22 chromosomes are evaluated and discriminant power of them in identifying cancer is computed. We identified the top five and bottom five chromosomes based on their discriminant power.Conclusions: The results reveal high discriminant power of chromosomes 8, 5, 1, 3, and 19 for identifying cancer with the highest sensitivity of 75% yielded by chromosome 5. Bottom 5 chromosomes 9, 6, 4, 13, and 21 show low discriminant power with the accuracy of below 54% where true cancer and normal samples are grouped into substantially overlapping groups using copy numbers. This indicates the similarities of copy numbers obtained for cancer and normal samples on these chromosomes.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/genética , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/sangre , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/diagnóstico , Análisis por Conglomerados , Análisis Discriminante , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangre , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
19.
N Engl J Med ; 382(6): 503-513, 2020 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995683

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are limited data from randomized trials regarding whether volume-based, low-dose computed tomographic (CT) screening can reduce lung-cancer mortality among male former and current smokers. METHODS: A total of 13,195 men (primary analysis) and 2594 women (subgroup analyses) between the ages of 50 and 74 were randomly assigned to undergo CT screening at T0 (baseline), year 1, year 3, and year 5.5 or no screening. We obtained data on cancer diagnosis and the date and cause of death through linkages with national registries in the Netherlands and Belgium, and a review committee confirmed lung cancer as the cause of death when possible. A minimum follow-up of 10 years until December 31, 2015, was completed for all participants. RESULTS: Among men, the average adherence to CT screening was 90.0%. On average, 9.2% of the screened participants underwent at least one additional CT scan (initially indeterminate). The overall referral rate for suspicious nodules was 2.1%. At 10 years of follow-up, the incidence of lung cancer was 5.58 cases per 1000 person-years in the screening group and 4.91 cases per 1000 person-years in the control group; lung-cancer mortality was 2.50 deaths per 1000 person-years and 3.30 deaths per 1000 person-years, respectively. The cumulative rate ratio for death from lung cancer at 10 years was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61 to 0.94; P = 0.01) in the screening group as compared with the control group, similar to the values at years 8 and 9. Among women, the rate ratio was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.38 to 1.14) at 10 years of follow-up, with values of 0.41 to 0.52 in years 7 through 9. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving high-risk persons, lung-cancer mortality was significantly lower among those who underwent volume CT screening than among those who underwent no screening. There were low rates of follow-up procedures for results suggestive of lung cancer. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization of Health Research and Development and others; NELSON Netherlands Trial Register number, NL580.).


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Anciano , Bélgica/epidemiología , Reacciones Falso Positivas , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Masculino , Uso Excesivo de los Servicios de Salud , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/epidemiología
20.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(1): 184-196, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902414

RESUMEN

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer and second leading cause of mortality from cancer in the United States. As the population ages, decisions regarding the initiation and cessation of screening and surveillance for CRC are of increasing importance. In elderly patients, the risks of CRC and the presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those in younger patients. Screening and ongoing surveillance should be considered in patients who have a life expectancy of 10 years or more. Life expectancy estimates can be calculated using online calculators. If screening is deemed appropriate, the choice of which test to use first is unclear. Currently, there are a number of modalities available to screen for CRC, including both invasive modalities (eg, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, capsule colonoscopy, and computed tomographic colonography) and noninvasive modalities (fecal immunochemical test, stool DNA testing, and blood testing). Colonoscopy and other invasive testing options are considered safe, but the risks of complications of the bowel preparation, the procedure, and sedation medications are all increased in older patients. In contrast, noninvasive testing provides a safe initial test; however, it is important to consider the increased false-positive rates in the elderly, and a positive test result will usually necessitate colonoscopy to establish the diagnosis. Ongoing screening and surveillance should be a shared decision-making process with the patient based on multiple factors including the patient's morbidity and mortality risk from CRC and his or her underlying comorbidities, the patient's functional status, and the patient's preferences for screening. Ultimately, the decision to initiate or discontinue screening for CRC in older patients should be done based on a case-by-case individualized discussion.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Detección Precóz del Cáncer , Anciano , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/normas , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
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