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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228384, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023291

RESUMEN

In the field of psychopathy, there is an ongoing debate about the core traits that define the disorder, and that therefore must be present to some extent in all psychopaths. The main controversy of this debate concerns criminal behaviour, as some researchers consider it a defining trait, while others disagree. Using a representative sample of 204 Spanish convicted inmates incarcerated at the Pereiro de Aguiar Penitentiary in Ourense, Spain, we tested two competing models, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), which includes criminal behaviour items, versus the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), which does not. We used two different PCL-R models, one that includes criminal items and another that does not. PCL-R factors, facets, and testlets from both models and CAPP dimensions were correlated and compared. Two different PCL-R cut-off scores, 25 or more and 30 or more, were used for the analysis. Overall, a strong correlation was found between PCL-R and CAPP scores in the whole sample, but as scores increased and inmates became more psychopathic, the correlations weakened. All these data indicate that psychopathy, understood to mean having high scores on the PCL-R and CAPP, is a multidimensional entity, and inmates can develop the disorder and then receive the diagnosis through different dimensions. The CAPP domains showed better correlations when compared with the PCL-R factors from both models, showing that an instrument for the assessment of psychopathy without a criminal dimension is valuable for clinical assessment and research purposes.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisioneros/psicología , Psicometría/métodos , Psicopatología/métodos , Adulto , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Lista de Verificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Psicológicos , España
2.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 55(1): 97-107, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005369

RESUMEN

The release of a quality study by the Institute of Medicine in 2001 challenged health care providers to deliver safe, quality care. Research has focused on 2 primary categories of nursing characteristics: demographic data and emotional intelligence and personality traits. The research has shown a correlation between nursing characteristics and quality care and patient outcomes. Factors not considered in this article include hospital teaching status, type of unit, unit skill mix, hospital safety culture, and total nursing hours per patient day. These factors may contribute to quality of care and patient outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Competencia Clínica , Atención de Enfermería/psicología , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Determinación de la Personalidad , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227799, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951627

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Perceived rejection plays an important role for mental health and social integration. This study investigated the impact of rejection intensity and rejection sensitivity on social approach behavior. METHOD: 121 female participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions differing in the degree of induced rejection (inclusion, medium rejection, severe rejection). Thereafter they were asked to interact with an unknown person during a touch-based cooperative task. RESULTS: Participants high in rejection sensitivity sought significantly less physical contact than participants low in rejection sensitivity. Individuals in the medium rejection condition touched their partners more often than those in the included condition, while no difference between included and severely rejected participants could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the intensity of rejection matters with regard to coping. While participants in the medium intensity rejection condition aimed to 'repair' their social self by seeking increased contact with others, severely rejected participants did not adapt their behavior compared to included participants. Implications for therapy are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Rechazo en Psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Determinación de la Personalidad , Conducta Social , Distancia Social , Adulto Joven
6.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 57-65, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560664

RESUMEN

Research objective - justification of efficiency of the comprehensive program with use of projective techniques in prevention auto-destructive behavior of students. Psychodiagnostic testing of individual and psychological features of the personality and an emotional condition of students before holding preventive actions are conducted. 40 students of medical college at the age of 17-20 with signs of disadaptation participated in a research. In work psychodiagnostic tests "the Questionnaire of EPQ", HADS, the questionnaire "SAN", "Hans Schmischek's Questionnaire", M. Zuckerman's technique "A scale of search of thrills" are used. Criterion of efficiency of preventive actions with use of projective techniques was increase in number of examinees with normal indicators of an emotional state due to decrease in number of examinees with manifestations of uneasiness and depressiveness. The last in turn influence indicators of health, activity and mood of students.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Personalidad , Técnicas Proyectivas , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adolescente , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
7.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 309-316, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304872

RESUMEN

Background: The aim of this study was to describe personality traits in psychiatric patients and to investigate whether these traits are stable over 13 years. Methods: A total of 95 individuals who were patients at a psychiatric outpatients' clinic in 2003 completed the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Scores from 2003 were compared with SSP scores from 2016. Based on the current score on the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale - self rating for affective disorders (CPRS-S-A), the participants were divided into two groups representing 'good' and 'poor' current mental states, to investigate the effect of current mental state on reports of personality traits. Results: Out of 13 personality traits, 11 showed a significant change in mean T-score over the study interval. The group with lower CPRS-S-A scores showed a significant change in T-score for 10 traits, whereas in the group with higher CPRS-S-A scores only 3 traits showed a significant change. Conclusions: The findings support the theory that personality is changeable over the course of life, also in psychiatric patients. We do not know if persisting psychiatric symptoms halter change or if deviant personality traits cause psychiatric symptoms to continue.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Determinación de la Personalidad , Personalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Suecia , Universidades , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217630, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194760

RESUMEN

This paper explores how personality factors affect substance use disorders (SUDs) using explanatory item response modeling (EIRM). A total of 606 Chinese illicit drug users participated in our study. After removing the cases with missing values on the covariate measures, a final sample of 573 participants was used for data analysis. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was used to measure the illicit drug users' SUD level. Four personality factors-anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, sensation seeking and hopelessness-along with gender and alcohol use were included in EIRM as person covariates. The results indicated that gender, alcohol use, and their interaction significantly predicted the SUD level. The only personality factor that strongly predicted the SUD level was sensation seeking. In addition, the interaction between gender and hopelessness was also found to be a significant predictor of the SUD level, indicating that the negative effect of hopelessness on SUD is stronger for women than for men. The findings suggest that sensation seeking plays an important role in influencing SUDs, and thus, it should be considered when designing intervention or screening procedures for potential illicit drug users. In addition, several DSM-5 SUD symptoms were found to exhibit differential effects by gender, alcohol use, and personality factors. The possible explanations were discussed.


Asunto(s)
Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Modelos Teóricos , Determinación de la Personalidad , Personalidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Adulto Joven
9.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 540-551, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169382

RESUMEN

An extensive empirical and theoretical literature has characterized anticipatory/expectancy processes as integral to motivation, including motivation to consume alcohol. To examine whether these processes could be probed on a moment to moment basis as they activate to motivate near term drinking, we sampled future-oriented expectancy verbal associates (i.e., self-generated words) using an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) paradigm every 3 hr on 3 days of the week (2 days of likely drinking and 1 of low drinking likelihood). Expectancy associates were chosen because cognitive psychologists consider verbal items collected in this manner a part-way approach to measurement of automatic/implicit processes. Consistent with predictions, more positively valenced alcohol expectancies activated within a few hours preceding increased alcohol consumption, and this activation could be statistically distinguished from the influence of a wide array of other variables known to predict consumption, including autocorrelation. As previously observed, more positively valenced alcohol expectancies were activated in alcohol-related environments. These findings provide further evidence that anticipatory information processing is engaged for the direction of future behavior, and that probing expectancies in real-time can be useful for predicting near-term alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Cultura , Motivación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticipación Psicológica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinación de la Personalidad , Factores de Riesgo , Medio Social , Pruebas de Asociación de Palabras , Adulto Joven
10.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 38: 66-71, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176911

RESUMEN

Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within the other person's frame of reference. Many studies have shown that enhancement of nurses' empathy capability can promote a good nurse-patient relationship. However, little research investigates the strategies to improve nurses' empathy abilities. This study investigated the characteristics of nurses' personality trait and empathy and explore the correlation between nurses' empathy and personality. A total of 471 nurses participated in this study. This study found that empathy was positively associated with conscientiousness and agreeableness, negatively associated with neuroticism. The personality traits were able to explain 37.5% of the overall variation in empathy capability, while agreeableness and conscientiousness tendency were significantly associated with empathy capability in nurses. Big five personality trait theory is a pretty good model to predict the empathy level of nurses, which could also play a positive role in improving the empathy ability, managing the satisfaction of patients and provision of quality and safe care customized to patients' needs and preferences. In addition, training programs emphasizing emotions, psychology and healthy personality should be strengthened to promote nurses' empathy.


Asunto(s)
Empatía , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Determinación de la Personalidad , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 19(2): 217-227, jun. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183858

RESUMEN

The study explore television influence as one of the most powerful translators of the mankind socio-cultural needs of a personality, in a sample of 1030 participants aged 18 to 35 years. Within the framework of the study five TV programs blocks, which have been allocated according to the audience's interest criterion. Clarification of the differences in the emotional orientation of the defined segments allowed to characterize the peculiarities of their motivating needs. It was determined that the segment of the entertaining television programs block is characterized by the desire to feel bodily-emotional comfort, accumulation of material wealth and lack of the desire for communication; the segment of the contemplative block is very similar to the first one, but they are different with their latent desire for self-realization in communication; the segment of the activity-related block does not want to experience any emotions; the cognitive segment, conversely, wants to experience emotions of all kinds, except for hedonistic and acquisition; for the segment of the informational block the acquisition emotions are the most desirable, knowledge or information accumulation are unwanted. The results of this study can be used to correct the viewing content and to develop new television projects with a view to their positive impact on the personality formation


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Motivación , Determinación de la Personalidad , Psicometría/métodos , Evaluación de Necesidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Emociones , Ucrania
12.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(2): 181-189, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095166

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in people with suicidal behavior. The knowledge of its risk factors should help to design preventive strategies. AIM: To describe suicidal behavior and risk factors for attempted suicide in people with major depressive disorders (MDD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 12-month follow-up study was conducted in 112 outpatients at three psychiatric care centers of Ñuble, Chile, with baseline and quarterly assessments. Demographic, psychosocial and clinical factors as potential risk factors of suicide attempts, were assessed. A clinical interview with DSM-IV diagnostic criteria checklist, Hamilton Depression Scale and the List of Threatening Experiences and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were applied. RESULTS: Sixty seven percent of participants had suicidal ideation and 43.8% had attempted suicide. Suicide risk was significantly higher in participants with a single major depressive episode (odds ratio [OR] = 3.98; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1,29-12,32 p = 0.02) and those with previous suicide attempts (OR = 13.15; 95% CI = 3,87-44.7 p < 0.01). Young age, not having a partner, being unemployed, having a severe major depressive episode, having psychotic symptoms, having a personality disorder and being devoid of medical illness increased the risk of suicide attempts, but they did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Significant risk factors should be specially considered when designing suicide preventive strategies in patients with MDD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Atención Secundaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Chile , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estado Civil/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/clasificación , Adulto Joven
13.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 214-224, mayo 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-181691

RESUMEN

La relación entre el sexting y la personalidad en los adolescentes ha sido escasamente investigada. Además, es notoria la escasez de estudios longitudinales que aborden los predictores y consecuencias del sexting. Este estudio analiza los datos de 624 adolescentes que fueron evaluados en dos ocasiones (T1 y T2) distanciadas por un período de un año, y a los que se administraron cuestionarios para medir el sexting, los rasgos de personalidad del modelo de cinco factores (MCF), y posibles consecuencias psicosociales del sexting (acoso/ciberacoso, bienestar emocional). Los resultados indican que mayor extraversión y menor amabilidad y responsabilidad (T1) se relacionan con sexting (T2). El estudio permite también identificar qué facetas específicas de personalidad (T1) se asocian con el sexting registrado en T2. Además, los análisis de regresión muestran que la extraversión predice aumentos en sexting entre T1 y T2. En cuanto a las consecuencias, una alta implicación en sexting T1 predice descensos en la victimización y en las emociones positivas experimentadas entre T1 y T2. Por tanto, este estudio muestra que la personalidad permite predecir los cambios en sexting a lo largo de la adolescencia; el sexting, a su vez, parece asociarse a consecuencias psicosociales relevantes en este período del desarrollo


The relationships between personality and sexting have been scarcely studied. In addition, the scarcity of longitudinal studies about predictors and consequences of sexting is notorious. This study analyzed the longitudinal data from 624 adolescents who were evaluated on two occasions (T1 and T2) separated by a period of one year, and to whom questionnaires were administered to measure sexting, the personality traits of the five factor model (FFM), as well as possible psychosocial consequences of sexting. The results indicate that high extraversion and low agreeableness and conscientiousness (T1) are related to sexting (T2). In addition, the study also allows us to identify which specific facets of personality (T1) are associated with sexting registered in T2. On the other hand, regression analyses indicate that extraversion predicts increases in sexting between T1 and T2. As for the outcomes of sexting, a high involvement in sexting T1 predicts decreases in victimization and in the positive emotions experienced between T1 and T2. Therefore, this study shows that personality allows for prediction of changes in sexting throughout adolescence; sexting, in turn, seems to be associated with relevant psychosocial consequences in this developmental period


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Acoso Sexual/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Difusión por la Web como Asunto , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Peligrosa
14.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 280-289, mayo 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-181698

RESUMEN

This study analyses the relationship between the perfectionism dimensions, i.e. Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Critical (SOP-C) and Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Striving (SOP-S), and affect and the Big Five traits of personality in a sample of 804 Spanish students aged 8 to 11 (M = 9.57; DE = 1.12). Student’s t test, Cohen’s d index and logistic regression analysis were used. The high SOP-C group scored significantly higher than their peers having low SOP-C on Negative Affect and Neuroticism, and lower on Positive Affect, Agreeableness, Consciousness and Openness to Experience. To the contrary, students with high SOP-S scored significantly higher on all adaptive dimensions (i.e. Positive Affect, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Consciousness and Openness to Experience), and lower on Negative Affect and Neuroticism. Effect sizes were small for most of statistically significant differences. These findings were also supported by regression analysis. Results are discussed in light of the debate on the adaptive or maladaptive nature of Self-Oriented Perfectionism


Este estudio analiza la relación entre las dimensiones del perfeccionismo, es decir, el perfeccionismo auto-orientado-críticas (SOP-C) y el perfeccionismo auto-orientado-esfuerzo (SOP-S), y el afecto y los rasgos de personalidad del Big Five en una muestra de 804 españoles entre 8 y 11 años (M = 9.57; DT = 1.12). Se utilizaron la prueba t de Student, el índice d de Cohen y el análisis de regresión logística. El grupo con alto SOP-C obtuvo una puntuación significativamente mayor que la de sus compañeros con bajo SOP-C en Afecto Negativo y Neuroticismo, así como significativamente menor en Afecto Positivo, Amabilidad, Conciencia y Apertura a la Experiencia. Por el contrario, los estudiantes con alto SOP-S obtuvieron puntuaciones significativamente más altas en todas las dimensiones adaptativas (es decir, Afecto Positivo, Extraversión, Amabilidad, Conciencia y Apertura a la Experiencia), y más bajas en Afecto Negativo y Neuroticismo. Los tamaños del efecto fueron pequeños para la mayoría de las diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Estos hallazgos también fueron apoyados por el análisis de regresión. Los resultados se discuten a la luz del debate sobre la naturaleza adaptativa o desadaptativa del perfeccionismo auto-orientado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Perfeccionismo , Autoimagen , Afecto , Deseabilidad Social , Determinación de la Personalidad , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Pruebas de Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/métodos
15.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 290-299, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-181699

RESUMEN

Creativity and actions aimed at fostering it became a matter of interest in higher education. Since creativity is a multidimensional phenomenon, its diverse dimensions must be assessed. Among them, personality arises as the most relevant one. Therefore, the local adaptation of Gough’s Creative Personality Scale to be used in college students is proposed. This scale is composed of adjectives to be responded according to the examinees’ identification with each one of them. Two independent samples (n= 150 each) were employed to develop an exploratory factor analysis and an internal consistency analysis, on the one hand, and a confirmatory factor analysis and a convergent validity study. The exploratory procedure retained eight items and a 1-dimension structure with a good internal consistency (ordinal alpha= .853). This model was empirically verified by the confirmatory analysis which showed good fit indices, as well as an adequate internal consistency coefficient. Moreover, adequate convergent validity evidences were obtained. Findings are discussed taking into account the theoretical model and the study weaknesses along with practical and theoretical outcomes. Further research lines are proposed


La creatividad y las prácticas ligadas a fomentarla en el ámbito universitario constituyen en la actualidad un tema de interés. La creatividad en tanto fenómeno multidimensional requiere ser evaluada en sus distintas facetas, siendo la personalidad una de las que mayor relevancia reviste. Se propone así, adaptar localmente la Escala de Personalidad Creativa (EPC) de Gough para ser aplicada en el ámbito universitario. El instrumento se compone de 30 adjetivos a ser respondidos por los evaluados según se identifiquen o no con cada uno de ellos. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio y de consistencia interna (n = 150) y otro confirmatorio y de validez convergente (n = 150) a partir de dos muestras independientes. El procedimiento exploratorio conservó ocho ítems y una estructura factorial unidimensional con una óptima consistencia interna (alfa ordinal = .853). Este modelo se verificó empíricamente mediante el análisis confirmatorio que arrojó óptimos índices de ajuste y un apropiado índice de consistencia interna. Adicionalmente se obtuvieron adecuadas evidencias de validez convergente del instrumento en relación a otros constructos teóricamente afines. Los resultados se discuten a la luz de la teoría y las limitaciones del diseño, destacando los alcances del estudio y las futuras líneas de investigación


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas de Personalidad , Creatividad , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Psicometría/instrumentación , Argentina/epidemiología , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Estudiantes/psicología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 275: 332-337, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954843

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to investigate the moderating roles of the current self-reported psychological maladjustment and gender in the relationship between perceived parental rejection in childhood and negative symptoms of schizophrenia patients. The study sample consisted of 52 outpatients (20 females and 32 males between the ages of 19 and 61), diagnosed with schizophrenia at Ankara University and Ege University Faculty of Medicine Department of Psychiatry in Turkey. Participants' negative symptoms, recollections of parental rejection, and psychological maladjustment were assessed by Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Adult Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, and Personality Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. The findings revealed that negative symptoms were not directly linked to maternal and paternal rejection. However, negative symptoms significantly associated with psychological maladjustment. Three-way interaction (moderated moderation) analyses showed that the effects of perceived maternal and paternal rejection in childhood on negative symptoms were significantly moderated by the current self-reported psychological maladjustment for female patients with schizophrenia, but not for males. The study highlighted the importance of applying trauma or attachment-focused interventions and a gender-specific psychiatric treatment in schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Negativismo , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Factores Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuerdo Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Padres/psicología , Determinación de la Personalidad , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia , Adulto Joven
17.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(2): 67-74, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985831

RESUMEN

Several studies focused on mothers' psychopathological and environmental risk factors linked to filicide, to understand the genesis of this violent act. Considering the transition to motherhood a critical period for any woman, requiring the activation of deep personality resources, the aim of this study was to detect, in a sample of 16 filicide women hospitalized in Italian Forensic Psychiatric Hospitals, the recurrent characteristics with a specific focus on personality traits. Women were assessed using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Big Five Inventory (BFI) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The BFI and TCI profiles seem to overlap showing a personality profile characterized by a rigid control of aggressive impulses, the avoiding of unconscious fears and the masking of feelings of negativity. Examining the mother's mental state with respect to personality traits, could help clinicians to detect specific temperament patterns that may carry out impulsive violent behaviors, if correlated with other psychopathological and environmental factors.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio/psicología , Madres/psicología , Determinación de la Personalidad , Personalidad , Adulto , Agresión , Niño , Preescolar , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Infanticidio/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Negativismo , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(1): 142-165, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945903

RESUMEN

Grandiose narcissism and prosociality are important topics in personality and social psychology, but research on their interplay is lacking. We present a first large-scale, systematic, and multimethod investigation linking the two. In 2 studies (N1 = 688, N2 = 336), we assessed grandiose narcissism comprehensively (i.e., agentic and communal narcissism) and examined its relations with instantiations of prosociality, namely, objective prosociality (actual behavior in Study 1; round-robin informant-reports in a real-life setting in Study 2) and subjective prosociality (self-perceptions in Studies 1 and 2). We obtained a consistent set of results. Agentic narcissism was related to lower objective prosociality and lower subjective prosociality. Communal narcissism, by contrast, was unrelated to objective prosociality, but was related to higher subjective prosociality. Additionally, we tested for prosociality self-enhancement among agentic and communal narcissists. Agentic narcissists evinced the same (and modest) level of prosociality self-enhancement as their non-narcissistic counterparts. Communal narcissists, by contrast, evinced substantial levels of prosociality self-enhancement, whereas their non-narcissistic counterparts did not enhance their prosociality at all. We discuss implications of the findings for the literature on narcissism and antisociality, and for the concept of prosocial personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Narcisismo , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Conducta Social , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 78, 2019 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Type D personality is associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, there is no valid Type D Scale in Russian language. The purpose of the study was to examine the factor structure of a new Russian version of 14-item Type D Scale (DS14-RU), and to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of the DS14-RU in clinical research. METHODS: The study included 929 participants, 496 (53.4%) of which had coronary artery disease, 195 (21.0%) congestive heart failure, 84 (9.0%) arterial hypertension and 154 (16.6%) were relatively healthy volunteers. The mean age was 57.5 years, 565 (60.8%) participants were males. The respondents filled out an extended Russian version of the Type D scale and new DS14-RU, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Reeder Stress Inventory, and State-Trait Personality Inventory. RESULTS: The new Russian version of DS14-RU was internally consistent with Cronbach's α = .80 for both the negative affectivity and social inhibition subscales. The prevalence of Type D personality, as measured with the DS14-RU, was 21.4% among patients with CVD, and 20.0% among relatively healthy participants. The mean scores for anxiety, depression, psychosocial stress and anger were significantly higher in patients with Type D personality and they had significantly lower levels of social support and curiosity. CONCLUSIONS: The new DS14-RU is consistent with the original DS14 in terms of reliability, factor structure and construct validity. The DS14-RU can be used for the reliable assessment of Type D in Russian-speaking respondents.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Determinación de la Personalidad , Personalidad Tipo D , Adulto , Afecto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ira , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etnología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Conducta Exploratoria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Federación de Rusia , Conducta Social , Apoyo Social , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215726, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002696

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Type D personality was hypothesized to influence clinical and patient-centered outcomes patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between negative affectivity and social inhibition components of Type D personality and cardiac readmission in patients with heart failure. METHODS: A prospective observational study design was used. A total of 222 patients with heart failure were recruited from the department of cardiology in two regional hospitals in Taiwan. The 14-item Type D Scale-Taiwanese version was used to assess negative affectivity and social inhibition of the patients. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of both Z-score transformed and dichotomized negative affectivity and social inhibition with 6-month and 18-month cardiac readmissions. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients (24.8%) and 89 patients (40.1%) had cardiac readmissions within 6 months and 18 months, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses of Z-score transformed negative affectivity and social inhibition were significantly associated with (1) 6-month cardiac readmission with odds ratios of 1.62 (P = 0.003) and 1.48 (P = 0.014), respectively and (2) 18-month cardiac readmission with odds ratios of 1.45 (P = 0.013) and 1.38 (P = 0.031), respectively. Similar findings were obtained when negative affectivity and social inhibition were analyzed as dichotomized scores. CONCLUSIONS: Negative affectivity and social inhibition components of the Type D personality were significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiac readmission in both 6 months and 18 months after the initial hospitalization in patients with heart failure.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/psicología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Personalidad , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/psicología , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/etnología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Taiwán
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