Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.373
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112055, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540202

RESUMEN

The rapid development of China's manufacturing industry since China's accession to WTO in 2001 has dramatically increased China's carbon emissions. To inform the carbon policy development of China's manufacturing industry, this study constructed a DEA-GS (data envelopment analysis and grid search) model from a cost perspective to understand the their emission reduction characteristics. Using a large sample of manufacturing firms from 2008 to 2011, the carbon pricing and reduction potential of China's manufacturing firms was explored by analyzing the firms' marginal abatement costs. The results showed that: (a) with increasing marginal abatement costs, the growth rates of both cumulative emission reduction activities and emission reduction of these firms gradually slowed down. When the marginal abatement cost exceeds 200 Yuan/ton, neither the number of reduction activities nor the amount of reduced emissions increase. (b) The impact of marginal abatement costs on the numbers of reduction activities and firms in each sub-sector is heterogeneous. (c) The emission reduction behaviors of manufacturting firms, determined by carbon pricing, are mostly concentrated in developed areas or around large cities. In contrast, areas with substantial emission reductions are more scattered. The results suggest that The emission reduction characteristics of sub-sectors should be fully considered when formulating carbon policies for China's manufacturing industry. The carbon price for the China's manufacturing industry should not exceed 200 Yuan/ton. Furthermore, the carbon policy of China's manufacturing industry should have broader coverage, rather than merely covering developed areas.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Industrias , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Comercio , Políticas
2.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112007, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549948

RESUMEN

This study examines the effects of income inequality and innovation on environmental quality, conditional on the level of each factor. We apply system generalized method of moments to a panel dataset of 91 countries from 1971 to 2015. The estimation results consistently reveal that although income inequality and innovation significantly contribute to better environmental quality, the effect of one factor largely depends on the evolution of the other. Specifically, the beneficial impact of income equality on environmental quality can only be achieved at a high level of innovation. In the same way, innovation is only an effective tool for a nation to reduce environmental degradation when income is fairly distributed among its citizens. This means that more equitable income distribution and higher innovative capacities are two interrelated prerequisites that must both be in place for a country to actualize their beneficial environmental impacts. Overall, our findings shed new light on the relationship between income inequality, innovation, and environmental quality, and they provide relevant implications for policymakers with regard to tackling the dual tasks of reducing inequality and pollution.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Renta , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 111999, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556829

RESUMEN

Greenhouse gasses have adverse effects on global warming and air pollution and need to be optimized by minimizing the contributing factors. This work analyzes the effects of economic growth and energy resources (renewable and nonrenewable) on the emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHG). A 2000-2016 panel data from 25 developing Asian countries is analyzed through a robust Random Effect (RE) approach and Hausman Taylor Regression (HTR). Findings show a positive correlation between economic growth and energy consumption, while a 1% increase in renewable energy consumption results in a 0.193% decrease in carbon emissions. Economic growth and renewable energy are positively correlated in both the short and long term, which implies a valid feedback hypothesis. The findings indicate the significant contribution of nonrenewable energy resources to greenhouse gas emissions and the positive impact of renewable resources on greenhouse gas emissions' control. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of developing Asian economies to preserve the environment through more robust regional environmental policies and renewable energy resources. In light of this study's findings, policymakers in Asian developing economies should develop policies on Renewable Energy infrastructure (RE) to improve GDP and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Asia , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Energía Renovable
4.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112057, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581497

RESUMEN

The Paris Climate Conference commits countries to contribute to reducing global warming through a Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) which implore on countries to reduce emissions for improved environmental quality. Recognizing the importance of innovation and financial sector development to environmental quality, several countries have embarked on identifying ways to improve environmental quality. However, studies on the tripartite linkages among innovation, financial development and pollution relationships have produced mixed findings. Furthermore, a plethora of the existing studies have relied on only carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions thus neglecting other anthropogenic activities which impact on the environment. More tellingly, how countries' levels of innovation moderate financial development-pollution link is yet to be studied. By relying on data from 27 selected industrialized countries spanning 1991-2014 in examining the tripartite relationships, we find that, while innovation lowers environmental pollution, beyond a certain threshold level, higher innovation exacerbates environmental degradation. Furthermore, while improved financial development increases pollution, higher innovation dampens the environmental quality-reducing effect of finance. Results from our panel causality tests also reveal a feedback causal linkage between innovation and ecological footprint, and a one-way causality from CO2 emissions to innovations. However, irrespective of the indicator of environmental pollution, financial development and pollution evolve independently, albeit differences at the country levels.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Contaminación Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Países Desarrollados , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 106, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532942

RESUMEN

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the key atmospheric gas that controls the earth's greenhouse effect, and forests play a major role in abating the atmospheric CO2 by storing carbon as biomass. Therefore, it is vital to understand the role of different forests in regulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this study, we have used eddy covariance (EC) tower-based atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements and satellite-retrieved column average CO2 concentration of 2018 to understand the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of atmospheric CO2 concentration over the sub-tropical forest in the foothills of northwest Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. EC study revealed that the CO2 concentration over the forest canopy peaks during mid-night to early morning and drop to a minimum during the afternoon. On a monthly scale, peak atmospheric CO2 concentration was observed during July in both the sites, which was a result of more release of CO2 by the forest ecosystem through ecosystem respiration and microbial decomposition. Enhanced photosynthetic activities during the late monsoon and post-monsoon resulted in the decrease of atmospheric CO2 concentration over the forest ecosystem. Among the meteorological variables, rainfall was found to have the highest control over the seasonal variability of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite-retrieved column average CO2 (XCO2) was also examined to comprehend its reliability on an ecosystem scale. The OCO-2 retrieved XCO2 value was higher than the EC carbon flux tower-measured atmospheric CO2 concentration, which might be due to differences in the vertical resolution of the CO2 column and scale difference. However, the monthly atmospheric XCO2 retrieved from OCO-2 strongly adheres with the ground-measured monthly pattern. Our study highlights that forests with varying functional traits within the same climatic conditions show variability in the regulation of atmospheric CO2 concentration.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Ecosistema , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Bosques , India , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estaciones del Año
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406674

RESUMEN

The issue of air pollution is gaining increasing attention worldwide, and mounting evidence has shown an association between air pollution and cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between air pollutants and cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and its sub-domains. In this study, we used data from the Taiwan Biobank combined with detailed daily data on air pollution. Cognitive function was assessed using the MMSE and its five subgroups of cognitive functioning. After multivariable linear regression analysis, a high level of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), low ozone (O3), high carbon monoxide (CO), high sulfur dioxide (SO2), high nitric oxide (NO), high nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and high nitrogen oxide (NOx) were significantly associated with low total MMSE scores. Further, high SO2 and low O3 were significantly associated with low MMSE G1 scores. Low O3, high CO, high SO2, high NO2, and high NOx were significantly associated with low MMSE G4 scores, and high PM2.5, high particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10), high SO2, high NO2, and high NOx were significantly associated with low MMSE G5 scores. Our results showed that exposure to different air pollutants may lead to general cognitive decline and impairment of specific domains of cognitive functioning, and O3 may be a protective factor. These findings may be helpful in the development of policies regarding the regulation of air pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Dióxido de Azufre/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis , Taiwán/epidemiología
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111605, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396125

RESUMEN

This is a novel study about responses of leaf photosynthetic traits and plant mercury (Hg) accumulation of rice grown in Hg polluted soils to elevated CO2 (ECO2). The aim of this study was to provide basic information on the acclimation capacity of photosynthesis and Hg accumulation in rice grown in Hg polluted soil under ECO2 at day, night, and full day. For this purpose, we analyzed leaf photosynthetic traits of rice at flowering and grain filling. In addition, chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and Malondialdehyde (MDA) of rice leaves were measured at flowering. Seed yield, ear number, grain number per ear, 1000-grain weight, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents were determined after harvest. Our results showed that Hg polluted soil and ECO2 had no significant effect on leaf chlorophyll content and leaf mass per area (LMA) in rice. The contents of soluble sugar and MDA in leaves increased significantly under ECO2. Mercury polluted soil treatment significantly reduced the light saturated CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) of rice leaves only at flowering, but not at grain filling. Night ECO2 greatly improved rice leaf water use efficiency (WUE). ECO2 greatly increased seed yield and ear number. In addition, ECO2 did not affect THg accumulation in rice organs, but ECO2 and Hg treatment had a significant interaction on MeHg in seeds, husks and roots.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Mercurio/toxicidad , Compuestos de Metilmercurio/toxicidad , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Bioacumulación , Clorofila/metabolismo , Grano Comestible/química , Grano Comestible/efectos de los fármacos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Mercurio/análisis , Compuestos de Metilmercurio/análisis , Oryza/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/química , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(7): 8922-8926, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410045

RESUMEN

This study attempts to unveil an additional dimension to economic freedom within the framework of the environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) hypothesis using the panel data for BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) economies over the period 1995-2018. Firstly, the study found that the EKC hypothesis is valid only in the long run for the panel countries. Secondly, we found that economic freedom mimics the pattern of economic output. Thus, when economic freedom is employed in lieu of economic growth, the EKC hypothesis is also validated only in the long run. Importantly, when both economic freedom and output are employed alongside, they produce the same carbon mitigation effect in each of the short-run and long-run periods. Thirdly, the country-specific evidence of the role of economic freedom and output in environmental quality is not less of a U-shaped relationship in the short run. Lastly, the impact of the bloc's energy mix (coal, natural gas, and oil energy utilization) on environmental quality is undesirable in both the short and long run; only in South Africa natural gas has the potential to mitigate carbon emissions. Overall, the study offers relevant policy measures for attaining Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target to combat climate change and its impacts.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Libertad , India , Energía Renovable , Federación de Rusia , Sudáfrica
9.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111864, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385907

RESUMEN

Seasonal temperature variations in cold regions worldwide lead to variable gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) due to changing wastewater temperatures in open-to-air treatment processes. The objective of this study was to determine the greenhouse gas (including carbon dioxide, CO2; methane, CH4; and nitrous oxide, N2O) and odour (including ammonia, NH3; and hydrogen sulphide, H2S) emission rate estimates (EREs) from the open-to-air processes of a biological nutrient removal (BNR) type MWTP in Saskatoon, SK, Canada. This MWTP experiences seasonal temperatures from -40 °C to 30 °C with the resultant wastewater temperatures considered herein of 13 °C and 17 °C being chosen based on monitoring data for winter and summer, respectively. Laboratory-scale reactors simulating anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic, and settling treatment processes were used to monitor gas EREs using wastewater samples taken from the analogous MWTP processes during the winter and summer seasons. Results indicated that the overall winter EREs for CO2, CH4, and N2O were 45,129 kg CO2/d, 21.9 kg CH4/d, and 3.20 kg N2O/d, respectively, while the H2S EREs were insignificant. The higher temperature for the summer samples resulted in increased EREs for CH4, N2O, and H2S EREs of 33.0 kg CH4/d, 3.87 kg N2O/d, and 2.29 kg H2S/d, respectively. However, the CO2 EREs were reduced to 37,794 kg CO2/d. Overall, the aerobic reactor was the dominant source of the GHG emissions for both seasons. In addition, studied changes in the aerobic reactor aeration rates (in reactor) and BNR treatment configurations (from site) further impacted the EREs.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Purificación del Agua , Canadá , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Efecto Invernadero , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/análisis , Metano/análisis , Óxido Nitroso/análisis , Nutrientes , Odorantes , Aguas Residuales
10.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111905, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388713

RESUMEN

This study investigated in-situ the seasonal and diurnal variation of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from both indigenous and exotic plant species and different environments in the Kaomei Estuary Wetland in central Taiwan with a self-designed non-dispersive infrared monitoring system. This study computed CO2 equivalent (CO2-e) emissions to identify their contribution to global warming. The net primary production and carbon sequestration were then estimated to determine the carbon budget of the coastal estuarine wetland. It concluded that the Kaomei Estuary Wetland functioned as a GHG source and a carbon sink. A significant diurnal variation of GHG emissions was observed, with generally lower daytime CO2 emissions than those at nighttime, while an opposite trend was observed for CH4 and N2O emissions. High solar radiation in the daytime enhanced the CO2 uptake by plant species via photosynthesis, and also accelerated the microbial activities in waters and soil/mud, both resulting in the decrease in atmospheric CO2 concentration. The highest GHG emissions were observed in summer, followed by fall, spring, and winter. Although the concentrations of GHG emissions from the coastal estuarine wetland were in the order as CO2>CH4>N2O, N2O has the highest impact on global warming. Biomass debris played an important role in carbon sequestration, which is stored in soils and muds and stimulated methanogenic bacteria to emit CH4. Tidal fluctuation and sewage discharge brought nitrogen-containing organics to the coastal estuarine wetland, resulting in high emission of N2O from nitrification and denitrification processes. Two vascular plants, Spartina alterniflora, and Phragmites australis emitted more GHGs than the other two plant species. However, the highest GHG emissions from the Kaomei Estuary Wetland was attributed to Bolboschoenus planiculmis due to its largest coverage area. The annual net primary production (NPP) varied mainly with vegetation coverage and season. The exotic Spartina alterniflora had the highest annual NPP compared to the indigenous plant species because of its high nutrient uptake from the soil/mud by its thriving roots.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/análisis , Metano/análisis , Óxido Nitroso/análisis , Suelo , Taiwán , Humedales
11.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111887, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421936

RESUMEN

Carbon emission from the thermal power generation sector is one of the main contributors to global warming. It is critical to objectively evaluate the influence of relevant factors on carbon emissions, which may be beneficial for the implementation of policies and the formulation of development plans. However, the current decomposition approach based on production-theoretical decomposition analysis (PDA) and weak disposability may cause deviation on potential emission reduction. This paper proposes a modified PDA model under the assumption of semi-disposability and decomposes the carbon emission changes of China's thermal power generation sector accordingly. The results show that provinces, which have the highest non-disposal degrees during the study period, are mostly located along the east coast of China. The growth in installed capacity is identified as the largest contributor to the increase in national carbon emissions, while the decrease in capacity utilization rate significantly benefits the carbon emission reduction. A cluster analysis is also conducted to give policy implications for provinces with similar characteristics. Compared with traditional methods under strong and weak disposability assumption, the proposed model shows great advantages in identifying the potential emission reduction and reflecting the real production process, which makes it more suitable for decomposing the changes of carbon emissions and other environmental pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Modelos Teóricos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111886, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421939

RESUMEN

India is one of the world's largest emerging economies and, therefore, has a critical role to play in ensuring global sustainability, while the Indian economy is also prioritizing energy security. The paper explores the dynamic linkages between energy security captured through national-level energy use, foreign direct investment (FDI), economic output, carbon emissions, and trade openness in India spanning the period from 1978 to 2016 in a multivariate framework based on the theoretical premise of an Environmental Kuznets Curve. Time series econometric modelling based on the ARDL model and VECM Granger causality tests are employed for this purpose. The results confirm the presence of a co-integrating relationship and finds a strong energy-output-CO2-FDI long-run nexus. A 1% increase in FDI results in a 0.013% reduction in energy use. Energy use is found to be Granger caused by output, carbon emissions, FDI and trade openness in the long-run. The adoption of energy-efficient techniques through FDI is essential for reducing carbon emissions in India based on our findings. The Indian government should also galvanize FDI inflow in the renewable energy sectors by assuring incentives to investors to concurrently achieve favorable macroeconomic outcomes and ensure sustainable economic development. These are globally important policy lessons for other developing and emerging economies.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , India , Inversiones en Salud , Energía Renovable
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 368, 2021 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446663

RESUMEN

Though highly motivated to slow the climate crisis, governments may struggle to impose costly polices on entrenched interest groups, resulting in a greater need for negative emissions. Here, we model wartime-like crash deployment of direct air capture (DAC) as a policy response to the climate crisis, calculating funding, net CO2 removal, and climate impacts. An emergency DAC program, with investment of 1.2-1.9% of global GDP annually, removes 2.2-2.3 GtCO2 yr-1 in 2050, 13-20 GtCO2 yr-1 in 2075, and 570-840 GtCO2 cumulatively over 2025-2100. Compared to a future in which policy efforts to control emissions follow current trends (SSP2-4.5), DAC substantially hastens the onset of net-zero CO2 emissions (to 2085-2095) and peak warming (to 2090-2095); yet warming still reaches 2.4-2.5 °C in 2100. Such massive CO2 removals hinge on near-term investment to boost the future capacity for upscaling. DAC is most cost-effective when using electricity sources already available today: hydropower and natural gas with renewables; fully renewable systems are more expensive because their low load factors do not allow efficient amortization of capital-intensive DAC plants.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Electricidad , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía , Monitoreo del Ambiente/economía , Calentamiento Global
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 765: 144385, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401058

RESUMEN

Cultivated peatlands under drainage practices contribute significant carbon losses from agricultural sector in the Nordic countries. In this research, we developed the BASGRA-BGC model coupled with hydrological, soil carbon decomposition and methane modules to simulate the dynamic of water table level (WTL), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions for cultivated peatlands. The field measurements from four experimental sites in Finland, Denmark and Norway were used to validate the predictive skills of this novel model under different WTL management practices, climatic conditions and soil properties. Compared with daily observations, the model performed well in terms of RMSE (Root Mean Square Error; 0.06-0.11 m, 1.22-2.43 gC/m2/day, and 0.002-0.330 kgC/ha/day for WTL, CO2 and CH4, respectively), NRMSE (Normalized Root Mean Square Error; 10.3-18.3%, 13.0-18.6%, 15.3-21.9%) and Pearson's r (Pearson correlation coefficient; 0.60-0.91, 0.76-0.88, 0.33-0.80). The daily/seasonal variabilities were therefore captured and the aggregated results corresponded well with annual estimations. We further provided an example on the model's potential use in improving the WTL management to mitigate CO2 and CH4 emissions while maintaining grass production. At all study sites, the simulated WTLs and carbon decomposition rates showed a significant negative correlation. Therefore, controlling WTL could effectively reduce carbon losses. However, given the highly diverse carbon decomposition rates within individual WTLs, adding indicators (e.g. soil moisture and peat quality) would improve our capacity to assess the effectiveness of specific mitigation practices such as WTL control and rewetting.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Poaceae , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Finlandia , Metano/análisis , Noruega , Países Escandinavos y Nórdicos , Suelo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141688, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835964

RESUMEN

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused tremendous loss to human life and economic decline in China and worldwide. It has significantly reduced gross domestic product (GDP), power generation, industrial activity and transport volume; thus, it has reduced fossil-related and cement-induced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China. Due to time delays in obtaining activity data, traditional emissions inventories generally involve a 2-3-year lag. However, a timely assessment of COVID-19's impact on provincial CO2 emission reductions is crucial for accurately understanding the reduction and its implications for mitigation measures; furthermore, this information can provide constraints for modeling studies. Here, we used national and provincial GDP data and the China Emission Accounts and Datasets (CEADs) inventory to estimate the emission reductions in the first quarter (Q1) of 2020. We find a reduction of 257.7 Mt. CO2 (11.0%) over Q1 2019. The secondary industry contributed 186.8 Mt. CO2 (72.5%) to the total reduction, largely due to lower coal consumption and cement production. At the provincial level, Hubei contributed the most to the reductions (40.6 Mt) due to a notable decrease of 48.2% in the secondary industry. Moreover, transportation significantly contributed (65.1 Mt), with a change of -22.3% in freight transport and -59.1% in passenger transport compared with Q1 2019. We used a point, line and area sources (PLAS) method to test the GDP method, producing a close estimate (reduction of 10.6%). One policy implication is a change in people's working style and communication methods, realized by working from home and holding teleconferences, to reduce traffic emissions. Moreover, GDP is found to have potential merit in estimating emission changes when detailed energy activity data are unavailable. We provide provincial data that can serve as spatial disaggregation constraints for modeling studies and further support for both the carbon cycle community and policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Humanos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111483, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129027

RESUMEN

The new sustainable development goals (SDGs) call for actions to close the gap between the protection of the environment and the socio-economic development. To shed light on the link among economy, society, and ecology, this study assesses the ability of renewable energy to moderate the effects of CO2 emissions on human development and economic growth for 31 transitional economies. Our findings substantiate that: (i) CO2 emissions have unconditional negative effects on human development and economic growth; (ii) the net impacts on human development and economic growth are positive from the interplay between renewable energy and CO2 emissions, i.e. renewable energy reduces the influences of per capita CO2 emissions on human development and economic growth; (iii) renewable energy interacts with CO2 intensity and CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption to negatively influence economic growth and human development. To dampen these net negative effects, corresponding renewable energy thresholds were computed and discussed. Theoretical and empirical contributions, implications to policymakers, and practitioners are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Energía Renovable , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Ecología , Desarrollo Económico , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111813, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338770

RESUMEN

Microalgae-bacteria consortium based technology using a High Rate Algal Pond (HRAP) interconnected to an Absorption Bubble Column (ABC) has emerged as an environmentally friendly promising option to upgrade biogas. However, the oxygenic photosynthesis of microalgae induces oxygen contamination in upgraded biogas, which could limit its further applications. Several strategies were proposed to favor the oxygen desorption and oxygen uptake in parts and accessories of the upgrading system. The effect of the volumetric ratio liquid recirculation rate/biogas rate (L/G = 5.0, 1.0 y 0.5) was evaluated in conjunction with the application of a novel accessory called Open Trickling Column (OTC). The O2 content in upgraded biogas was around 2.1%v, attaining CO2 removal efficiencies around 90%, at L/G ratio of 1.0 during diurnal and nocturnal periods. The inclusion of an OTC at the previous L/G, enhanced 54% the removal of O2 by stripping and uptake compared with the basal condition. Mass balances of H2S and methane showed that L/G > 1.0 favored the complete oxidation of H2S but promoted the loss of methane in dissolved form. Additionally the effect of increasing linear velocity of liquid broth in the lab-scale HRAP (from 15 cm s-1 to 20 cm s-1) showed to improve the O2 stripping with a consequential increase of biomass concentration under steady-state (from 0.7 to 1.4 g L-1) besides achieving O2 content in the upgraded biogas around 1.5%v.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Metano , Oxígeno , Fotobiorreactores , Tecnología
18.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111704, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348188

RESUMEN

Given the economic growth and energy consumption patterns, most countries are striving to solve the problems of CO2 emissions reduction to achieve sustainable development. This paper employs an improved DEA model to measure energy and environmental efficiency for some selected countries in central and western Europe. In addition, the DEA window evaluation technique is applied to measure cross-sectional efficiency using two inputs (energy consumption, labor force), a desirable output (gross domestic product), and an undesirable output (CO2 emission) for the period from 2010 to 2014. The study finds that the UK ranks the highest position in term of energy and environmental efficiency. This shows that the UK has more effective policies regarding energy efficiency, consumption, production, import and energy intensity measures for sustainable economic growth as well as environmental protection. Ireland is the second-best country after the United Kingdom. The efficiency scores of the two countries are 0.99 and 0.89 respectively. On the empirical outcomes, this study suggests effective reforms in energy sector for countries with less energy efficiency that are still facing the problem of environmental degradation.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente) , Irlanda , Energía Renovable , Reino Unido
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 758: 143688, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338785

RESUMEN

Industrialization and urbanization have aggravated the contradiction between environmental protection and economic growth, leading to health issues. While there are considerable interests in understanding the health effects of carbon emissions in the context of climate change, little is observed at regional scale and by econometric methods. Applying regression analysis on 2002-2017 Chinese provincial-level panel data, this study explores the intermediary mechanisms and regional differences of carbon emissions on residents' health. The results indicate that: (1) Carbon emissions have a long-term adverse impact on residents' health-a 1% rise in carbon emission adds 0.298% more outpatients and 0.162% more inpatients; (2) The rise in carbon emissions impairs residents' health mainly by raising the temperature; (3) In areas with high levels of industrialization and urbanization, increased carbon emissions bring greater health risks; and (4) In terms of China's unique "leading industrialization and lagging urbanization" situation, only by upgrading industrial structure, improving urbanization quality, and promoting coordinated industrialization and urbanization can the harm of carbon emissions to residents' health be reduced. Therefore, the "one-size-fits-all" policy model is not suitable for China's current situation. To address global "climate change" issues, China must act according to local conditions by applying mitigating (adaptive) measures in economically developed (less developed) regions. Simultaneously, the authorities must focus on the interaction and synergy between industrialization and urbanization.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Industrial , Urbanización , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China
20.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111752, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358429

RESUMEN

Turfgrass is an important component of the urban landscape frequently considered as an alternative land cover to offset anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, quantitative information of the potential to directly remove CO2 from the atmosphere by turfgrass systems is lacking, especially in the tropics. Most assessments have considered the carbon accumulated by grass shoots and soil, but not the release of CO2 to the atmosphere by soil respiration (i.e., soil CO2 efflux). Here, we measured at high-temporal resolution (30-min) soil CO2 efflux, production, and storage rate for nearly three years in a residential lawn of Singapore. Furthermore, we quantified the carbon capture related to biomass production and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption associated with maintenance activities (e.g., mowing equipment). Warm and humid conditions resulted in relatively constant rates of soil CO2 efflux, CO2 storage in soil, and aboveground biomass production (3370, 652, 1671 Mg CO2 km-2 yr-1; respectively), while the systematic use of mowing machinery emitted 27 Mg CO2 km-2 yr-1. Soil CO2 efflux and CO2 mowing emissions represent carbon losses to the atmosphere, while CO2 storage in soil and biomass productivity represent gains of carbon into the ecosystem. Under a steady state in which soil CO2 losses are only compensated by atmospheric CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, an ideal clipping waste disposal management, in which no CO2 molecule returns to the atmosphere (i.e., clippings are not burnt), and a 3-week mowing regime, this site can act as a sink of 2296 Mg CO2 km-2 yr-1. In the scenario of incinerating all clippings, the lawn acts as an emission source of 1046 Mg CO2 km-2 yr-1. Thus, management practices that reduce mowing frequency together with clipping disposal practices that minimize greenhouse gas emissions are needed to make urban lawns a potential natural solution to mitigate global environmental change.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Ecosistema , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Ciudades , Singapur , Suelo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA