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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803655

RESUMEN

Impact of parental feeding practices on children's eating behaviors is well-documented in the literature. Nevertheless, little is known about how many of these behaviors might persist into adulthood. There is a lack of a tool measuring childhood feeding experiences recollected by adults, while the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) is used to measure parental feeding practices applied towards children. The aim of the study was to adapt the CFPQ to measure adults' recollections of their childhood (5-10 years old) feeding experiences, to examine its discriminant validity and then to assess if these practices are related to adults' food choices. In 2020, the modified version of CFPQ (mCFPQ) and questions on current food consumption were administered in a group of 500 adults twice over a two-week interval. The analysis included 443 participants whose questionnaires were correctly completed in both stages of the study. The Q-sorting procedure was used to test for discriminant validity of the questionnaire, i.e., confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Cronbach's alpha, correlations coefficients, and the analysis of the differences between groups according to the intake of certain food products. Test-retest reliability was examined by calculating interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for each obtained factor. As a result of EFA, five subscales were identified: "Restrictions", "Healthy Eating Guidance", "Pressure and Food Reward", "Monitoring", and "Child Control". Items from these subscales created a new tool-Adults' Memories of Feeding in Childhood (AMoFiC). Test for internal consistency, factor correlations, and discriminant validity proved satisfactory psychometric parameters of AMoFiC. "Pressure and Food Reward" and "Child Control" were associated with higher intake of sweets and salty snacks, whereas "Healthy Eating Guidance", "Monitoring", and "Restrictions" were associated with higher consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Despite the fact that the AMoFiC questionnaire requires further research, the findings of the study might be of practical use in counseling addressed to the parents.


Asunto(s)
Niños Adultos/psicología , Encuestas sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta Saludable/psicología , Preferencias Alimentarias/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Niño , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Preescolar , Conducta de Elección , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuerdo Mental , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800531

RESUMEN

Dietary mobile applications (apps) continue to hold promise for facilitating a healthy diet and managing nutrition. However, few studies have objectively evaluated the content and quality of such apps in Korea. The present study assessed the content and quality of dietary mobile apps using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). We selected 29 dietary apps based on keywords and eligibility criteria for inclusion in the analyses. We conducted regression analyses to examine the association between app content and MARS scores. Most of the apps featured a tracking tool, while few featured rewards or follow-up management. Our quality assessment revealed that the top-rated apps have distinct levels of quality in terms of MARS scores. The regression analyses showed that the ways in which the apps provide information and motivate the users are statistically significant predictors of app quality. Our findings may facilitate the selection of dietary apps in Korea and provide guidelines for app developers regarding potential improvements in terms of content and quality.


Asunto(s)
Aplicaciones Móviles , Dieta , Dieta Saludable , Estado Nutricional , República de Corea
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806094

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization has identified the school community as a key setting for health promotion efforts, laying out its priorities in the Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) framework. This framework offers a comprehensive approach that has been adopted in countries around the globe, with defining characteristics focused around the school curriculum and environment. Nova Scotia (NS) adopted the HPS framework at a provincial level in 2005, but it has been variably implemented. We aimed to identify, categorize, and broadly describe the environment for HPS policies in NS. Four iterative steps were employed: (1) a scan of government and regional school websites to identify publicly available policies; (2) consultations with provincial departments with respect to policy relevance and scope; (3) cross-comparison of policies by two reviewers; (4) compilation of policies into an online database. Seventy policies at the provincial level and 509 policies across eight public school regions were identified. Policies focusing on a 'safe school environment' were most common; those addressing mental health and well-being, physical activity, nutrition and healthy eating, and substance use were among those least commonly identified. This scan provides a comprehensive overview of HPS-relevant policies in NS, along with relative proportions and growth over time. Our findings suggest areas of policy action and inaction that may help or hinder the implementation of HPS principles and values.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Instituciones Académicas , Política de Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Nueva Escocia , Servicios de Salud Escolar
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(4): 1429-1440, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886771

RESUMEN

In response to the health, social, economic and political impacts caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, several countries have adopted social isolation as a preventive measure. The concern with "healthy" eating was accentuated in this context and food norms were developed as an orientation strategy related to eating habits. The scope of this article is to carry out a critical and comparative analysis of four food guidelines published in Brazil and Spain in this period, based on three principles: concepts regarding healthy eating; the place attributed to the multidimensionality of the act of eating; and the relevance of intersectionality. Comparison of the documents was conducted using a qualitative approach based on discourse analysis. The documents feature differences in terms of the format and content of the recommendations, but the discursive construction of all the guidelines is normative and reproduces a fundamentally biomedical perspective centered on nutrients and on individual responsibility, without taking into consideration the multidimensionality of the act of eating and the specificities of the micro- and macrosocial contexts. The analysis also reveals the need to include the intersectional dimensions of gender, race, ethnicity and class into the proposed recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Conducta Alimentaria , Pandemias , Brasil , Humanos , España
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808432

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reaching and engaging individuals, especially young adults, in web-based prevention programs is challenging. 'No Money No Time' (NMNT) is a purpose built, healthy eating website with content and a social marketing strategy designed to reach and engage a young adult (18-34 year olds) target group. The aim of the current study was to conduct a process evaluation of the 12-month social marketing strategy to acquire and engage NMNT users, particularly young adults. METHODS: a process evaluation framework for complex interventions was applied to investigate the implementation of the social marketing strategy component, mechanisms of impact and contextual factors. Google Analytics data for the first 12 months of operation (17 July 2019 to 17 July 2020) was evaluated. RESULTS: in year one, 42,413 users from 150+ countries accessed NMNT, with 47.6% aged 18-34 years. The most successful channel for acquiring total users, young adults and return users was via organic search, demonstrating success of our marketing strategies that included a Search Engine Optimisation audit, a content strategy, a backlink strategy and regular promotional activities. For engagement, there was a mean of 4.46 pages viewed per session and mean session duration of 3 min, 35 s. Users clicked a 'call-to-action' button to commence the embedded diet quality tool in 25.1% of sessions. The most common device used to access NMNT (63.9%) was smartphone/mobile. Engagement with 'quick, cheap and healthy recipes' had the highest page views. CONCLUSIONS: findings can inform online nutrition programs, particularly for young adults, and can apply to other digital health programs.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Mercadeo Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Dieta , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802507

RESUMEN

Two aspects that characterize the Mediterranean diet (MD) are "what" and "how" we eat. Conviviality relates to "how" we eat and to the pleasure of sharing meals with significant people. The most studied concept is "family meals", which includes conviviality, which involves "enjoying" family meals. Given the lack of research on convivial family meals in Mediterranean countries, the purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze the family meal representations and practices of families with 12- to 16-year-old adolescents to assess whether they responded to a pattern of conviviality, and to examine their association with MD adherence. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted and food frequency and family meal questionnaires were administered. A food pattern analysis was carried out and digital photos of meals were analyzed to examine eating habits and meal composition, respectively. The findings showed that parents believed family meals are a space for socialization and communication. Items relating to the conviviality of family meals identified in the study were meal frequency, meals at the table, lack of digital distractions, pleasant conversations, and time spent on family meals. Attention should be paid to conviviality in Mediterranean families when designing multi-approach strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Mediterránea , Adolescente , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Adolescentes , Niño , Dieta , Dieta Saludable , Familia , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Comidas
7.
Rev Infirm ; 70(270): 37-39, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832729

RESUMEN

At the crossroads of social influences and the psychopathology of everyday life, orthorexis is a little-known concept. This obsession with a healthy diet with deleterious consequences raises questions of differential clinical evaluation. Case studies and clinical illustrations provide a better understanding of what some orthorexic people think, feel, do and experience in having these restrictive and deviant relationships to food.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Dieta Saludable/psicología , Humanos , Psicopatología
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(4): 485-491, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858060

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the relationship between the level of blood homocysteine (Hcy) and the total score of Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) and its item score. Methods: The subjects were recruited from the East China Natural Population Cohort Study, led by the School of Public Health in Fudan University, which was conducted in Zhongshan Community, Songjiang District of Shanghai from April to September 2017. By using the cluster random sampling method, 8 neighborhood committees were randomly selected from 18 neighborhood committees in Zhongshan community (Beimen, Baiyun, Dongwai, Huaqiao, Lantian village 1, Lantian village 2, Lantian village 4, and Lantian village 5). All the residents who met the standard and had lived in Shanghai for more than half a year were selected as research subjects. 4 995 subjects with complete survey information were finally included in this study. General information (age, sex, disease history, etc.), lifestyle (smoking, drinking, tea drinking, physical activity, etc.), food frequency and blood Hcy concentration were collected through questionnaire survey, physical examination and biological sample detection. The multivariate linear regression model was used to analyze the correlation between blood Hcy concentration and the total score of CHEI and its item score, and the multivariate logistics regression model was used to analyze the correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) and the total score of CHEI and its item score. Results: The age of the subjects was (56.72±9.72) years. The proportion of females, people with middle and high school education and high physical activity was 64.90% (3 241), 50.80% (2 539) and 63.20% (3 157), respectively. The blood Hcy concentration was (11.25±4.90) µmol/L, and the total prevalence of hHcy was 9.3% (467 cases). The results of multivariate linear regression showed that after adjusting for the relevant confounding factors, the blood Hcy concentration of subjects decreased with the increase of the total score of CHEI and the item score of fruit, milk, seafood, poultry and egg, but increased with the increase of the item score of total grain and tuber. In males, blood Hcy levels decreased with the increase of the item score of seafood and poultry [ß (95%CI) values were -0.343 (-0.582, -0.102) and -0.225 (-0.402, -0.046), respectively]. In females, the blood Hcy level decreased with the increase of the total score of CHEI and its item score of milk, egg, seafood and poultry [ß (95%CI) values were -0.130 (-0.207, -0.052), -0.091 (-0.148, -0.034), -0.016 (-0.026, -0.007), -0.069 (-0.122, -0.016), and -0.087 (-0.157, -0.017), respectively]. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that the higher the total score of CHEI and its item score of milk and seafood, the lower the risk of hHcy [OR (95%CI) value were 0.986 (0.978, 0.995), 0.915 (0.864, 0.969), and 0.862 (0.806, 0.922), respectively]. In females, the higher the total score of CHEI and its item score of milk and seafood, the lower the risk of hHcy [OR (95%CI) values were 0.984 (0.970, 0.999), 0.877 (0.802, 0.958), and 0.845 (0.760, 0.941), respectively]. In males, the higher the total score of CHEI and its item score of seafood, the lower the risk of hHcy [OR (95%CI) values were 0.988 (0.977, 0.998) and 0.858 (0.791, 0.930), respectively]. Conclusion: The dietary pattern of residents in Zhongshan Community, Songjiang District, Shanghai can affect their own blood Hcy concentration and the risk of hHcy. The total score of CHEI and the item score of fruit, milk, seafood, poultry and eggs play an important role in reducing the level of blood Hcy. The higher the total score of CHEI and the item score of milk and seafood, the lower the risk of hHcy.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Hiperhomocisteinemia , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Homocisteína , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 125-132, 20210000.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178956

RESUMEN

La transición demográfica mundial, ha permitido identificar el creciente aumento de la población mayor de 60 años, lo que conlleva la necesidad de generar políticas, programas o acciones que conserven o mejoren la calidad de vida de personas en esta etapa del curso vital. Una alimentación equilibrada y suficiente garantiza un bienestar integral; sin embargo, la globalización ha permeado las concepciones de una alimentación saludable, situación que ha favorecido la presencia de malnutrición y por lo mismo, el deterioro de sistemas y órganos en el que se incluye el tracto gastrointestinal. En los cuidados destinados al envejecimiento y a las personas mayores, la salud gastrointestinal presenta una destacada importancia, debido al rol que en la actualidad se le reconoce la microbiota en el eje intestino-cerebro, en la modulación del sistema inmunológico y en la etiología de enfermedades inflamatorias, neurodegenerativas o de salud mental. La siguiente revisión presenta como objetivo el desarrollar una búsqueda en diversas fuentes de información sobre la relevancia de la alimentación y nutrición para la mantención y equilibrio de la microbiota en personas mayores. Entre sus resultados se reconocen conceptos generales sobre la microbiota y el entrelazado que se genera con la nutrición y también la alimentación. A lo anterior, la revisión centra la atención en el rol de presenta la microbiota en las personas mayores, menciona algunos aportes de nuevas investigaciones y concluye con reflexiones sobre la importancia de incorporar los cuidados de la microbiota en la mantención estilos de vida saludables.


The global demographic transition has allowed to identify a growing increase in the population over 60 years old, which entails the need to generate policies, programs or actions that preserve or improve the quality of life of people at this stage of life. A balanced and sufficient diet guarantees an integral well-being; however, globalization has permeated the conceptions of a healthy diet, a situation that has favored the presence of malnutrition and, therefore, the deterioration of systems and organs including the gastrointestinal tract. In care for elderly aging, gastrointestinal health is of outstanding importance, due to the role that the microbiota is currently recognized in the gut-brain axis, in the modulation of the immune system and in the etiology of inflammatory, neurodegenerative or mental health diseases. The following review presents the objective of developing a search in various sources of information on the relevance of food and nutrition for the maintenance and balance of the microbiota in older people. Among their results, general concepts about the microbiota and the intertwining that is generated with nutrition and food are recognized. On the above, the review focuses on the role of the microbiota in older people, mentions some contributions from new research and ends with reflections about the importance of incorporating microbiota care in maintaining healthy lifestyles.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Desnutrición , Cerebro , Tracto Gastrointestinal , Ciencias de la Nutrición , Dieta Saludable , Sistema Inmunológico
10.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923341

RESUMEN

Adolescents' daily life has dramatically changed during the COVID-19 era due to the social restrictions that have been imposed, including closures of schools, leisure centers and sport facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of well-being and mood and their relations with physical (in)activity and eating behaviors in adolescents during a lockdown period in Greece. A total of 950 adolescents (Mean Age = 14.41 years ± 1.63) participated in a web-based survey while education was conducted online and organized sport activities were interrupted. Participants showed poor well-being, insufficient physical activity levels and moderate scores of healthy eating behavior. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, after controlling for the effect of gender and body mass index, increased physical activity and healthier eating behavior predicted better well-being (b = 0.24, p < 0.01 and b = 0.19, p < 0.01, respectively), whereas sedentariness predicted worse well-being (b = -0.16, p < 0.01). Furthermore, it was revealed that days of physical activity per week was a stronger predictor of well-being than minutes of physical activity per week, and that both in-house and out-of-house physical activity were beneficial. Considering that well-being in our study was below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization as indicative of possible depressive symptoms, measures to increase physical activity, decrease sedentariness and improve eating behavior should become a priority for communities and policy makers.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión/epidemiología , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Grecia/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , Aislamiento Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(6): 100823, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789171

RESUMEN

We continue to increase our cognizance and recognition of the importance of healthy living (HL) behaviors and HL medicine (HLM) to prevent and treat chronic disease. The continually unfolding events precipitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have further highlighted the importance of HL behaviors, as indicated by the characteristics of those who have been hospitalized and died from this viral infection. There has already been recognition that leading a healthy lifestyle, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, may have a substantial protective effect in those who become infected with the virus. Now more than ever, HL behaviors and HLM are essential and must be promoted with a renewed vigor across the globe. In response to the rapidly evolving world since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clear need to change lifestyle behaviors to promote human resilience and quality of life, the HL for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) network was established. The 4 major areas of focus for the network are: (1) knowledge discovery and dissemination; (2) education; (3) policy; (4) implementation. This HL-PIVOT network position statement provides a current synopsis of the major focus areas of the network, including leading research in the field of HL behaviors and HLM, examples of best practices in education, policy, and implementation, and recommendations for the future.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Educación en Salud , Política de Salud , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Difusión de la Información , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Enfermedad Crónica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Saludable , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Obesidad , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Calidad de Vida , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria , Cese del Hábito de Fumar
12.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669614

RESUMEN

The Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 allows the provision of universal free meals (UFMs) in high-poverty school areas. Participation in UFM programs, including through CEP, could reduce meal costs due to economies of scale and a lower administrative burden. We analyzed the School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study (SNMCS) data from 508 UFM-eligible schools (103 UFMs) to evaluate whether meal costs varied by UFM status. We used school-level data to address the non-random selection to UFMs with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). We estimated a generalized linear model with a log link and gamma distribution to predict meal costs by UFM status and school size. Full costs among medium and large schools were marginally lower in UFM schools for lunch (-$0.673; 95% CI: -1.395, 0.0499; p = 0.068) and significantly lower for breakfast (-$0.575; 95% CI: -1.077, -0.074; p = 0.025). UFM was not associated with meal costs among smaller schools. Healthy Eating Index scores did not vary significantly by UFMs, suggesting that lower costs could be achieved without an adverse effect on nutritional quality. This analysis is limited by the lack of identified student percentage (ISP) data needed to definitively identify CEP eligibility, although results were robust to sensitivity analyses addressing the lack of ISP data. The potential policy impact of these findings emphasizes the need for future studies that assess ISP and cost with more recent data and longitudinal designs.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Alimentaria/economía , Comidas , Valor Nutritivo , Instituciones Académicas , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Dieta Saludable , Servicios de Alimentación/economía , Humanos , Hambre , Almuerzo , Pobreza , Estudiantes
13.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669768

RESUMEN

Restaurants are regular eating environments for many families. Children's consumption of restaurant foods has been linked with poorer diet quality, prompting emerging research examining strategies to encourage healthier eating among children in restaurants. Although taste is a primary determinant of restaurant meal choices, there is a lack of research considering children's perspectives on the taste of different healthier kids' meal options. The current study sought to examine, via objective taste testing, children's liking of and preference for healthier kids' meal options at a quick-service restaurant (QSR) and to describe bundled kids' meals with evidence of both taste acceptability and consistency with nutrition guidelines. Thirty-seven 4-to-8-year-old children completed taste tests of ten healthier main and side dish options. Liking and preference were assessed using standard methods after children tasted each food. Children also reported their ideal kids' meal. Results show the majority of children liked and preferred three main (turkey sandwich, chicken strips, peanut butter/banana sandwich) and side dishes (yogurt, applesauce, broccoli), with rank order differing slightly by age group. Accepted foods were combined into 11 bundles meeting nutritional criteria. Results highlight healthier kids' meals with evidence of appeal among children in a QSR. Findings can inform future research and may increase the success of healthy eating interventions in these settings.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Comida Rápida , Preferencias Alimentarias , Gusto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Planificación de Menú , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Restaurantes
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 895-904, 2021 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721014

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nutrition in pregnancy and accelerated childhood growth are important predictors of obesity risk. Yet, it is unknown which dietary patterns in pregnancy are associated with accelerated growth and whether there are specific periods from birth to adolescence that are most sensitive to these associations. OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which 3 dietary indices in pregnancy [Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), Alternate Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy (AHEI-P), and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS)] are associated with child BMI z-score (BMI-z) trajectories from birth to adolescence. METHODS: We examined 1459 mother-child dyads from Project Viva that had FFQ data in pregnancy and ≥3 child BMI-z measurements between birth and adolescence. We used linear spline mixed-effects models to examine whether BMI-z growth rates and BMI z-scores differed by quartile of each dietary index from birth to 1 mo, 1-6 mo, 6 mo to 3 y, 3-10 y, and >10 y. RESULTS: The means ± SDs for DII (range, -9 to +8 units), AHEI-P (range, 0-90 points), and MDS (range, 0-9 points) were -2.6 ± 1.4 units, 61 ± 10 points, and 4.6 ± 2.0 points, respectively. In adjusted models, children of women in the highest (vs. lowest) DII quartile had higher BMI-z growth rates between 3-10 y (ß, 0.03 SD units/y; 95% CI: 0.00-0.06) and higher BMI z-scores from 7 y through 10 y. Children of women with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet had higher BMI z-scores from 3 y through 15 y. Associations of AHEI-P with growth rates and BMI z-scores from birth through adolescence were null. CONCLUSIONS: A higher DII and a lower MDS in pregnancy, but not AHEI-P results, are associated with higher BMI-z trajectories during distinct growth periods from birth through adolescence. Identifying the specific dietary patterns in pregnancy associated with rapid weight gain in children could inform strategies to reduce child obesity.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Dieta/normas , Fenómenos Fisiologicos de la Nutrición Prenatal , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Inflamación , Embarazo
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670967

RESUMEN

Lack of tools to evaluate the quality of diet impedes dietary counselling in healthcare. We constructed a scoring for a validated food intake questionnaire, to measure the adherence to a healthy diet that prevents type 2 diabetes (T2D). The Healthy Diet Index (HDI) consists of seven weighted domains (meal pattern, grains, fruit and vegetables, fats, fish and meat, dairy, snacks and treats). We studied the correlations of the HDI with nutrient intakes calculated from 7-day food records among 52 men and 25 women, and associations of HDI with biomarkers and anthropometrics among 645 men and 2455 women. The HDI correlated inversely with total fat (Pearson's r = -0.37), saturated fat (r = -0.37), monounsaturated fat (r = -0.37), and the glycaemic index of diet (r = -0.32) and positively with carbohydrates (r = 0.23), protein (r = 0.25), fibre (r = 0.66), magnesium (r = 0.26), iron (r = 0.25), and vitamin D (r = 0.27), (p < 0.05 for all). In the linear regression model adjusted for BMI and age, HDI is associated inversely with waist circumference, concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose and triglycerides in men and women, total and LDL cholesterol in women, and fasting insulin in men (p < 0.05 for all). The HDI proved to be a valid tool to measure adherence to a health-promoting diet and to support individualised dietary counselling.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Saludable , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Verduras
17.
Neurology ; 96(15): e1940-e1953, 2021 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692165

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a healthful plant-based diet is related to lower stroke risk, we examined the associations of plant-based diet quality with risk of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: The participants were 73,890 women in Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1984-2016), 92,352 women in NHSII (1991-2017), and 43,266 men in Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012) without cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Plant-based diet quality was evaluated by the overall plant-based diet index (PDI), the healthful PDI (hPDI), and the unhealthful PDI (uPDI). Participants who reported that their meat and/or fish intakes were 0 or <1 serving per month were categorized as vegetarians, and others were classified as nonvegetarians. Strokes with available medical records were subtyped as ischemic or hemorrhagic. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 6,241 total stroke cases (including 3,015 ischemic and 853 hemorrhagic strokes) were documented. Compared to participants with the lowest PDIs, among participants with the highest PDIs, the hazard ratios (HRs) for total stroke were 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.86-1.03) for PDI, 0.90 (0.83-0.98) for hPDI, and 1.05 (0.96-1.15) for uPDI. Participants in the highest hPDI showed marginally lower HR for ischemic stroke (0.92 [0.82-1.04]) and no consistent associations for hemorrhagic stroke. We observed no association between a vegetarian diet and total stroke (1.00 [0.76-1.32]), although the number of cases was small. CONCLUSION: Lower risk of total stroke was observed by those who adhered to a healthful plant-based diet.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Vegetariana , /epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652643

RESUMEN

Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a recognized target of pharmacological therapeutic agents in both primary and secondary prevention [...].


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Dieta Saludable/métodos , Ingredientes Alimentarios/análisis , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicaciones
19.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652687

RESUMEN

The impacts of the current global food system are already visible in the environment and in the health of the population. The promotion of sustainable diets is key to counter the negative consequences. The healthcare system could be a powerful tool to educate patients by guiding their diets towards sustainability. This study aimed to assess the size and scope of the available literature regarding the promotion of sustainable diets in the healthcare system and to obtain a reliable approximation of the processes and roles related to sustainable diet promotion within healthcare systems. A scoping review where online databases were used to identify English written scientific and grey literature published between 2000-2019 was carried out. The analytical-synthetic approach was used for data charting. Twelve studies were included that were published between 2007-2020. The data highlight education, community and clinical health services, community engagement and policy advocacy, and governance as main action areas along with two transversal aspects, social support, and gender. A systemic approach to the food system is emphasized. Evidence suggests that health professionals have the potential to drive a paradigm shift in food-health environments. Currently, however, their role and potential impact is underestimated within healthcare systems. This review has identified a framework with key areas where processes need to be developed to guarantee sustainable diet promotion in healthcare services.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Dieta Saludable/métodos , Promoción de la Salud , Rol Profesional , Desarrollo Sostenible , Humanos
20.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652759

RESUMEN

Although most people are aware of the health benefits of consuming sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables, many do not adhere to current dietary recommendations. Recent studies have suggested meal colour variety as an intuitive cue for healthy and enjoyable lunch meal choices. The present study extends this research by testing the "colourful = healthy" association across meal types. Using smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment, 110 participants recorded 2818 eating occasions over a period of eight days. For each eating occasion, a picture, a short written description of the meal, the meal type (breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, snack) and the perceived meal colour variety were recorded. Foods were classified into seven food groups based on the pictures and descriptions. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. For all meal types except afternoon tea which did not include vegetables, perceived that meal colour variety was positively related to vegetable consumption (bs ≥ 0.001, ts ≥ 3.27, ps ≤ 0.002, quasi-R2s ≥ 0.06). Moreover, perceived meal colour variety was negatively associated with sweets consumption for breakfast, dinner and snacks (bs ≤ -0.001, ts ≤ -2.82, ps ≤ 0.006, quasi-R2s ≥ 0.01). The "colourful = healthy" association can be generalized across meal types and thus may be a promising strategy to promote a healthier diet.


Asunto(s)
Percepción de Color , Dieta Saludable/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Comidas/psicología , Adulto , Evaluación Ecológica Momentánea , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Teléfono Inteligente , Verduras , Adulto Joven
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