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1.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 31(1): 1-8, 2024-05-03. Ilustraciones
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1538067

RESUMEN

Background: Potato peel extract has demonstrated the ability to reduce platelet aggregation in vitro, suggesting its potential as a dietary intervention for preventing atherothrombotic disorders. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the impact of a potato peel-rich diet on platelet aggregation. Methods: A randomized, crossover-controlled, open two-period study was carried out with the participation of 12 healthy volunteers. Platelet aggregation was assessed before and after a seven-day dietary intervention. Participants consumed either a diet rich in potato peel (2 g/kg/d) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as a reference (100 mg/d). Platelet aggregation percentages were measured following stimulation with arachidonic acid (AA, 150 µg/mL), adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 10 µM), and collagen (COL, 10 µg/mL). Results: The potato peel-rich diet resulted in a slight but significant reduction in platelet aggregation when stimulated with arachidonic acid compared to baseline values (85.0±2.0% vs. 91.3±1.7%, p<0.05). This effect was less pronounced than the reduction achieved with ASA (16±1.9%, p<0.001). Conclusion: The administration of a diet rich in potato peel reduces platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, suggesting its potential role in the prevention of atherothrombotic disorders.


Introducción: El extracto de cáscara de patata ha demostrado su capacidad para reducir la agregación plaquetaria in vitro, lo que sugiere su potencial como intervención dietética para prevenir trastornos aterotrombóticos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de una dieta rica en cáscara de patata en la agregación plaquetaria. Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio aleatorizado, controlado, cruzado y abierto con la participación de 12 voluntarios sanos. Se evaluó la agregación plaquetaria antes y después de una intervención dietética de siete días. Los participantes consumieron una dieta rica en cáscara de patata (2 g/kg/d) o ácido acetilsalicílico (ASA) como referente (100 mg/d). Se midieron los porcentajes de agregación plaquetaria después de la estimulación con ácido araquidónico (AA, 150 µg/mL), difosfato de adenosina (ADP, 10 µM) y colágeno (COL, 10 µg/mL). Resultados: La dieta rica en cáscara de patata resultó en una ligera pero significativa reducción en la agregación plaquetaria cuando se estimuló con ácido araquidónico en comparación con los valores iniciales (85,0 ± 2,0% vs. 91,3 ± 1,7%, p <0,05). Este efecto fue menos pronunciado que la reducción lograda con ASA (16 ± 1,9%, p <0,001). Conclusión: La administración de una dieta rica en cáscara de patata reduce la agregación plaquetaria inducida por ácido araquidónico, lo que sugiere su papel potencial en la prevención de trastornos aterotrombóticos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Agregación Plaquetaria , Solanum tuberosum , Ácido Clorogénico , Ácido Araquidónico , Dieta
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310050, abr. 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537591

RESUMEN

Introducción. Contar con los datos del consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados en los niños resulta importante para planificar políticas públicas. Objetivos. Describir la prevalencia de consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados en menores de 2 años e identificar factores asociados. Describir la proporción que los alimentos ultraprocesados representan del número total de los alimentos consumidos en el día. Métodos. Análisis secundario de los datos de niños entre 6 y 23 meses de edad con al menos un recordatorio de 24 horas de consumo de alimentos de la Segunda Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición y Salud de Argentina del año 2018. Se estudiaron como variables principales: "consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados" (según el sistema NOVA) categorizada en sí/no y la "proporción de ultraprocesados del total de alimentos consumidos". Los factores asociados explorados fueron lactancia materna, sexo, edad y el número de alimentos no ultraprocesados consumidos. Se realizó un modelo de regresión logística multivariable y se aplicó un factor de expansión para ponderar los datos. Resultados. Se incluyeron 4224 niños (ponderado 908 104). La prevalencia de consumo de ultraprocesados fue del 90,8 % (IC95%: 89,5-92) y fue asociado con mayor edad (OR 3,21; IC95% 2,28-4,52) y con el número de alimentos no ultraprocesados consumidos (OR 1,17; IC95% 1,13-1,23). Los ultraprocesados representaron una mediana del 20 % (RIC: 12,5-28,6 %) del total de alimentos consumidos en el día. Conclusiones. Este estudio señala la alta penetración de los alimentos ultraprocesados en la alimentación complementaria.


Introduction. The availability of data on the consumption of ultra-processed foods among children is important for planning public policies. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of consumption of ultra-processed foods in children under 2 years of age and identify associated factors. To describe the proportion that ultra-processed foods represent out of the total number of foods consumed in a day. Methods. Secondary analysis of data from children aged 6­23 months with at least a 24-hour recall of food consumption based on the Second National Survey on Nutrition and Health of Argentina (2018). The following primary variables were studied: "consumption of ultra-processed foods" (according to the NOVA system) categorized into yes/no and "proportion of ultra-processed out of total foods consumed." The following associated factors were studied: breastfeeding, sex, age, and number of non-ultra-processed foods consumed. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed and an expansion factor was applied to weight the data. Results. A total of 4224 children were included (weighed: 908 104). The prevalence of ultra-processed food consumption was 90.8% (95% CI: 89.5­92) and was associated with an older age (OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 2.28­4.52) and the number of non-ultra-processed foods consumed (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.13­1.23). Ultra-processed foods accounted for a median 20% (IQR: 12.5­28.6%) of all foods consumed in a day. Conclusions. This study highlights the high penetration of ultra-processed foods in complementary feeding.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lactante , Dieta , Alimentos Procesados , Argentina , Comida Rápida , Manipulación de Alimentos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612845

RESUMEN

The relationship between nutrition and brain health is intricate. Studies suggest that nutrients during early life impact not only human physiology but also mental health. Although the exact molecular mechanisms that depict this relationship remain unclear, there are indications that environmental factors such as eating, lifestyle habits, stress, and physical activity, influence our genes and modulate their function by epigenetic mechanisms to shape mental health outcomes. Epigenetic mechanisms act as crucial link between genes and environmental influences, proving that non-genetic factors could have enduring effects on the epigenome and influence health trajectories. We review studies that demonstrated an epigenetic mechanism of action of nutrition on mental health, focusing on the role of specific micronutrients during critical stages of brain development. The methyl-donor micronutrients of the one-carbon metabolism, such as choline, betaine, methionine, folic acid, VitB6 and VitB12 play critical roles in various physiological processes, including DNA and histone methylation. These micronutrients have been shown to alter gene function and susceptibility to diseases including mental health and metabolic disorders. Understanding how micronutrients influence metabolic genes in humans can lead to the implementation of early nutritional interventions to reduce the risk of developing metabolic and mental health disorders later in life.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Salud Mental , Humanos , Encéfalo , Epigénesis Genética , Micronutrientes
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612885

RESUMEN

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a condition preceded by prediabetes, is documented to compromise skeletal muscle health, consequently affecting skeletal muscle structure, strength, and glucose homeostasis. A disturbance in skeletal muscle functional capacity has been demonstrated to induce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. However, the modifications in skeletal muscle function in the prediabetic state are not well elucidated. Hence, this study investigated the effects of diet-induced prediabetes on skeletal muscle strength in a prediabetic model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the two groups (n = 6 per group; six prediabetic (PD) and six non-pre-diabetic (NPD)). The PD group (n = 6) was induced with prediabetes for 20 weeks. The diet that was used to induce prediabetes consisted of fats (30% Kcal/g), proteins (15% Kcal/g), and carbohydrates (55% Kcal/g). In addition to the diet, the experimental animals (n = 6) were supplied with drinking water that was supplemented with 15% fructose. The control group (n = 6) was allowed access to normal rat chow, consisting of 35% carbohydrates, 30% protein, 15% fats, and 20% other components, as well as ordinary tap water. At the end of week 20, the experimental animals were diagnosed with prediabetes using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) prediabetes impaired fasting blood glucose criteria (5.6-6.9 mmol/L). Upon prediabetes diagnosis, the animals were subjected to a four-limb grip strength test to assess skeletal muscle strength at week 20. After the grip strength test was conducted, the animals were euthanized for blood and tissue collection to analyze glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma insulin, and insulin resistance using the homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Correlation analysis was performed to examine the associations of skeletal muscle strength with HOMA-IR, plasma glucose, HbA1c, and MDA concentration. The results demonstrated increased HbA1c, FBG, insulin, HOMA-IR, and MDA concentrations in the PD group compared to the NPD group. Grip strength was reduced in the PD group compared to the NPD group. Grip strength was negatively correlated with HbA1c, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, and MDA concentration in the PD group. These observations suggest that diet-induced prediabetes compromises muscle function, which may contribute to increased levels of sedentary behavior during prediabetes progression, and this may contribute to the development of hyperglycemia in T2DM.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglucemia , Resistencia a la Insulina , Estado Prediabético , Masculino , Ratas , Animales , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Estado Prediabético/etiología , Glucemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiología , Hemoglobina Glucada , Dieta/efectos adversos , Músculo Esquelético , Insulina , Insulina Regular Humana
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8505, 2024 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605045

RESUMEN

The 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi), a rumen protective methionine, has been extensively studied in dairy cows and beef cattle and has been shown to regulate gastrointestinal microbiota and improve production performance. However, knowledge of the application of HMBi on cashmere goats and the simultaneous study of rumen and hindgut microbiota is still limited. In this study, HMBi supplementation increased the concentration of total serum protein, the production of microbial protein in the rumen and feces, as well as butyrate production in the feces. The results of PCoA and PERMANOVA showed no significant difference between the rumen microbiota, but there was a dramatic difference between the fecal microbiota of the two groups of Cashmere goats after the HMBi supplementation. Specifically, in the rumen, HMBi significantly increased the relative abundance of some fiber-degrading bacteria (such as Fibrobacter) compared with the CON group. In the feces, as well as a similar effect as in the rumen (increasing the relative abundance of some fiber-degrading bacteria, such as Lachnospiraceae FCS020 group and ASV32), HMBi diets also increased the proliferation of butyrate-producing bacteria (including Oscillospiraceae UCG-005 and Christensenellaceae R-7 group). Overall, these results demonstrated that HMBi could regulate the rumen and fecal microbial composition of Liaoning cashmere goats and benefit the host.


Asunto(s)
Ésteres , Microbiota , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Ácido Butírico/farmacología , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Ésteres/metabolismo , Rumen/microbiología , Fermentación , Cabras , Dieta/veterinaria , Heces , Bacterias/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Lactancia/fisiología
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 332, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605336

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Osteosarcopenia adversely affects the quality of life and physical health of older adults. We sought to explore the association between dietary patterns and osteosarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study from Northeast China, in which, we included older community adults aged 60 and above. Through face-to-face interviews, we collected dietary information from participants using a food frequency questionnaire. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to obtain the dietary patterns of the participants. Through physical examination, we obtained the participants' information on osteosarcopenia, which was defined by the coexist of osteopenia and sarcopenia. We analysed the association between dietary patterns and dietary compositions with ostesarcopenia. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 9429 participants were included, and the prevalence of osteosarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults was 6.2%. PCA identified three main dietary patterns, and the lacto-ovo-vegetarian dietary pattern was inversely associated with osteosarcopenia. Compared to the lowest lacto-ovo-vegetarian quartile (Q1), the Q4 group (OR = 0.64, 95% CI:0.49-0.83) was inversely associated with osteosarcopenia. Through the weighted quantile sum regression model, we also found that the overall effect of the lacto-ovo-vegetarian dietary components was inversely associated with osteosarcopenia (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37-0.92); the largest contributors were vegetables, fresh milk, eggs, and dairy products. CONCLUSION: Overall, we found that a lacto-ovo-vegetarian dietary pattern, particularly the consumption of vegetables, fresh milk, eggs, and dairy products, was inversely associated with osteosarcopenia in older adults. And this might provide new insights for the prevention and treatment of osteosarcopenia.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Vegetariana , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/efectos adversos , Verduras
7.
Trials ; 25(1): 252, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605376

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate eating behaviors, particularly a lack of food diversity and poor diet quality, have a significant impact on the prognosis of certain chronic conditions and exacerbate these conditions in the community-dwelling elderly population. Current dietary interventions for the elderly have not adequately considered the nutritional needs associated with multiple chronic conditions and personal dietary preferences of elderly individuals. A personalized recommendation system has been recognized as a promising approach to address this gap. However, its effectiveness as a component of an elderly-targeted dietary intervention in real-world settings remains unknown. Additionally, it is unclear whether this intervention approach will be user-friendly for the elderly. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effectiveness of a personalized meal recommendation system designed to improve dietary behavior in community-dwelling elders. The implementation process in terms of System usability and satisfaction will also be assessed. METHODS: The trial has been designed as a 6-month, non-blinded, parallel two-arm trial. One hundred fifty community-dwelling elders who meet the eligibility criteria will be enrolled. Subjects will be allocated to either the intervention group, receiving personalized meal recommendations and access to corresponding food provided as one component of the intervention, as well as health education on elder nutrition topics, or the control group, which will receive nutritional health education lectures. Outcomes will be measured at three time points: baseline at 0 months, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcomes will include dietary diversity (DDS) and diet quality (CDGI-E) of enrolled community-dwelling elders, representing their dietary behavior improvement, along with dietary behavior adherence to recommended meals. Secondary outcomes will measure the perceived acceptability and usability of the personalized meal recommendation system for the intervention group. Exploratory outcomes will include changes in the nutritional status and anthropometric measurements of the community-dwelling elders. DISCUSSION: This study aims to examine the effectiveness, acceptability, and usability of a personalized meal recommendation system as a data-driven dietary intervention to benefit community-dwelling elders. The successful implementation will inform the future development and integration of digital health strategies in daily nutrition support for the elderly. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2300074912. Registered on August 20, 2023, https://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.html?proj=127583.


Asunto(s)
Vida Independiente , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Anciano , Dieta/efectos adversos , Comidas , China , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
8.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 73, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605412

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The utilization of mulberry branch fiber (MF), the largest by-product of the sericulture industry, is an important issue. Supplementation with MF as a dietary fiber for poultry may serve as a useful application. However, little is known about the effects of MF on liver lipid metabolism and egg yolk fatty acid composition of laying hens and their underlying mechanisms. In this study, we performed a multi-omics investigation to explore the variations in liver lipid metabolism, egg yolk fatty acid composition, gut microbiota, and the associations among them induced by dietary MF in laying hens. RESULTS: Dietary MF had no harmful effects on the laying performance or egg quality in laying hens. The enzyme activities associated with lipid metabolism in the liver were altered by the addition of 5% MF, resulting in reduced liver fat accumulation. Furthermore, dietary 5% MF induced the variation in the fatty acid profiles of egg yolk, and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. We observed a significant reduction in the diversity of both gut bacteria and changes in their compositions after the addition of MF. Dietary MF significantly increased the abundance of genes involved in fatty acid biodegradation, and short-chain fatty acids biosynthesis in the gut microbiota of laying hens. The significant correlations were observed between the liver lipid metabolism enzyme activities of hepatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and total esterase with gut microbiota, including negative correlations with gut microbiota diversity, and multiple correlations with gut bacteria and viruses. Moreover, various correlations between the contents of PUFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk with the gut microbiota were obtained. Based on partial-least-squares path modeling integrated with the multi-omics datasets, we deduced the direct effects of liver enzyme activities and gut bacterial compositions on liver fat content and the roles of liver enzyme activities and gut bacterial diversity on egg yolk fatty acid composition. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that dietary MF is beneficial to laying hens as it reduces the liver fat and improves egg yolk fatty acid composition through the enterohepatic axis. Video Abstract.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos , Morus , Animales , Femenino , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Yema de Huevo/metabolismo , Morus/metabolismo , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Pollos/metabolismo , Dieta , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos
9.
Zebrafish ; 21(2): 214-222, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621204

RESUMEN

The zebrafish is a powerful model organism for studying development and regeneration. However, there is a lack of a standardized reference diet for developmental and regeneration experiments. Most studies evaluate the rate of growth, survival, and fecundity. In this study, we compare three diets and their effects on growth and regeneration after a spinal cord injury (SCI). Fish were fed daily for 1 week with daily measurements of overall length and width of spinal injury. Fish fed a live rotifer diet grew 32%, whereas a commercially available diet only led to a 4% increase in body length. Similarly, differences in rate of regeneration were observed with over 80% of rotifer-fed larvae forming a glial bridge after injury compared to <10% of zebrafish fed with the commercial diet. Our data highlight the need for establishing a standardized diet for regeneration studies to improve research reproducibility.


Asunto(s)
Rotíferos , Regeneración de la Medula Espinal , Animales , Pez Cebra , Larva , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Dieta/veterinaria
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(5): 1310-1317, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621978

RESUMEN

This study investigated the effect of Erchen Decoction(ECD) on the prevention of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) in mice and explored its possible mechanism, so as to provide scientific data for the clinical application of ECD in the prevention of NASH. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into normal group(methionine and choline supplement, MCS), model group(methionine and choline deficient, MCD), low-dose ECD group(ECD_L, 6 g·kg~(-1)), medium-dose ECD group(ECD_M, 12 g·kg~(-1)), and high-dose ECD group(ECD_H, 24 g·kg~(-1)), with eight mice in each group. The MCS group was fed with an MCS diet, and the other groups were fed with an MCD diet. The mice in each group were given corresponding diets, but the drug intervention group was given low-, medium-, and high-dose ECD(10 mL·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) by intragastric administration for six weeks on the basis of MCD diet feeding, and the mice could eat and drink freely during the whole experiment. At the end of the experiment, mice were fasted overnight(12 h) and were anesthetized with 20% urethane. Thereafter, the blood and liver tissue were collected. The serum was used to detect the levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase(AST), interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Liver tissue was processed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and used for hepatic histological analysis and detection of the expression levels of genes and proteins related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/glutathione peroxidase 4(Nrf2/GPX4) pathway by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. The results showed that compared with the MCS group, the MCD group showed higher serum ALT and AST levels; the HE staining exhibited fat vacuoles and obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in liver tissue; serum IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were significantly increased, and the serum IL-10 level was significantly decreased. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase(FASN), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), and IL-1ß in liver tissue were significantly up-regulated, while those of GPX4, Nrf2, and NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase(NQO1) were significantly down-regulated. Compared with the MCD group, the serum ALT and AST levels of ECD_M and ECD_H groups were significantly decreased, and the AST level in the ECD_L group was significantly decreased. The number of fat vacuoles and the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration in liver tissue were improved; serum IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased, but the serum IL-10 level was significantly increased only in the ECD_H group. The mRNA expressions of FASN, MCP-1, and IL-1ß in liver tissue were significantly down-regulated, and those of GPX4 and NQO1 were significantly up-regulated. The mRNA expressions of Nrf2 in ECD_M and ECD_H groups were significantly up-regulated. Western blot results showed that compared with the MCD group, the protein expression levels of Nrf2 and GPX4 in each group were significantly increased after ECD administration, and the protein expression level of FASN was significantly decreased; the protein expression of NQO1 was increased in ECD_M and ECD_H groups. In summary, ECD can reduce hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, liver inflammation, and liver injury in NASH mice, which may be related to the activation of the Nrf2/GPX4 pathway.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Ratones , Masculino , Animales , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/etiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/genética , Metionina/metabolismo , Metionina/farmacología , Interleucina-10/genética , Colina/metabolismo , Colina/farmacología , Colina/uso terapéutico , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Hígado , Racemetionina/metabolismo , Racemetionina/farmacología , Dieta , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8726, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622145

RESUMEN

Chronic pain, a substantial public health issue, may be influenced by dietary patterns through systemic inflammation. This cross-sectional study explored the association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and chronic pain among 2581 American adults from NHANES data. The DII, ranging from - 4.98 to 4.69, reflects the inflammatory potential of the diet, with higher scores indicating greater pro-inflammatory capacity. Our findings showed no significant association between the continuous DII score and chronic pain prevalence. However, a nonlinear relationship emerged. When the DII was categorized, a significant association between higher DII scores (DII ≥ 2.5) and chronic pain prevalence was observed. The analysis uncovered a U-shaped pattern, with an inflection point at a DII score of - 0.9, indicating an association between both low and high levels of dietary inflammation are associated with higher pain prevalence. This nuanced interaction between dietary inflammation and chronic pain indicates the possibility of incorporating dietary modification into pain management strategies and underscores the need for further research into the long-term effects of diet on chronic pain.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Encuestas Nutricionales , Dolor Crónico/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/efectos adversos , Inflamación/epidemiología
12.
Ecol Lett ; 27(4): e14414, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622965

RESUMEN

Animals assimilate macronutrients and mineral nutrients in specific quantities and ratios to maximise fitness. To achieve this, animals must ingest different foods that contain the needed nutrients or facilitate the digestion of those nutrients. We explored how these multidimensional considerations affect the desert isopods (Hemilepistus reaumuri) curious food selection, using field and laboratory experiments. Wild isopods consumed three-fold more macronutrient-poor biological soil crust (BSC) than plant litter. Isopods tightly regulated macronutrient and calcium intake, but not phosphorus when eating the two natural foods and when artificial calcium and phosphorus sources substituted the BSC. Despite the equivalent calcium ingestion, isopods performed better when eating BSC compared to artificial foods. Isopods that consumed BSC sterilised by gamma-radiation ate more but grew slower than isopods that ate live BSC, implying that ingested microorganisms facilitate litter digestion. Our work highlights the need to reveal the multifaceted considerations that affect food-selection when exploring trophic-interactions.


Asunto(s)
Polvo , Isópodos , Animales , Calcio , Dieta/veterinaria , Nutrientes
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 12: e52074, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623738

RESUMEN

Background: Accurately assessing an individual's diet is vital in the management of personal nutrition and in the study of the effect of diet on health. Despite its importance, the tools available for dietary assessment remain either too imprecise, expensive, or burdensome for clinical or research use. Image-based methods offer a potential new tool to improve the reliability and accessibility of dietary assessment. Though promising, image-based methods are sensitive to adherence, as images cannot be captured from meals that have already been consumed. Adherence to image-based methods may be improved with appropriately timed prompting via text message. Objective: This study aimed to quantitatively examine the effect of prompt timing on adherence to an image-based dietary record and qualitatively explore the participant experience of dietary assessment in order to inform the design of a novel image-based dietary assessment tool. Methods: This study used a randomized crossover design to examine the intraindividual effect of 3 prompt settings on the number of images captured in an image-based dietary record. The prompt settings were control, where no prompts were sent; standard, where prompts were sent at 7:15 AM, 11:15 AM, and 5:15 PM for every participant; and tailored, where prompt timing was tailored to habitual meal times for each participant. Participants completed a text-based dietary record at baseline to determine the timing of tailored prompts. Participants were randomized to 1 of 6 study sequences, each with a unique order of the 3 prompt settings, with each 3-day image-based dietary record separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. The qualitative component comprised semistructured interviews and questionnaires exploring the experience of dietary assessment. Results: A total of 37 people were recruited, and 30 participants (11 male, 19 female; mean age 30, SD 10.8 years), completed all image-based dietary records. The image rate increased by 0.83 images per day in the standard setting compared to control (P=.23) and increased by 1.78 images per day in the tailored setting compared to control (P≤.001). We found that 13/21 (62%) of participants preferred to use the image-based dietary record versus the text-based dietary record but reported method-specific challenges with each method, particularly the inability to record via an image after a meal had been consumed. Conclusions: Tailored prompting improves adherence to image-based dietary assessment. Future image-based dietary assessment tools should use tailored prompting and offer both image-based and written input options to improve record completeness.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13948, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623923

RESUMEN

We compared nucleic acid-extracted torula yeast (NTY) with soybean meal (SBM) to evaluate NTY as a potential protein feed for ruminants in a metabolic trial using four castrated male goats. NTY was replaced isonitrogenously with SBM at a 25% crude protein (CP) level on a dry matter (DM) basis. NTY has 55% CP and 74% total digestive nutrients on DM. Absorbed N was lower on the NTY diet, but since the urinary N excretion was lower on the NTY diet, no significant between-diet difference in retained N was observed. The efficiency of N utilization (retained N/absorbed N) was significantly higher on the NTY diet. The Lys and Met contents (presumed limiting amino acids for dairy cattle) were higher in NTY than SBM, which may be why N utilization efficiency was higher for the NTY diet. Ruminal ammonia-N and blood serum N were lower on the NTY diet, suggesting that NTY has more rumen undegradable protein than SBM. There was no significant between-diet difference in the visceral disorder indicators or antioxidant activities. Our results indicate that NTY is a safe protein feed with a high CP ratio and high-quality amino acid profile for ruminants that is equivalent to SBM.


Asunto(s)
Cryptococcus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Bovinos , Masculino , Animales , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Harina , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Rumen/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Soja , Dieta/veterinaria , Rumiantes/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Digestión
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1446: 39-53, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625524

RESUMEN

The nutritional health of dogs and cats is important to pet owners around the world. Nutrition is inextricably linked to the health of the gastrointestinal system and vice versa. Gastrointestinal signs, such as vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, or weight loss, are one of the most common reasons that dog and cat owners make non-routine appointments with veterinarians. Those patients are evaluated systematically to identify and/or rule out the causes of the symptoms. Some causes of chronic diarrhea are within the gastrointestinal tract while others are secondary to pathogenic factors outside the digestive system. Some useful biomarkers of chronic intestinal disease (enteropathy) exist in serum and feces. After determination that the clinical signs are due to primary gastrointestinal disease and that there is no parasitism, specific diets are used for at least two weeks. There are several types of diets for pets with chronic enteropathies. There are limited ingredient diets and hydrolyzed protein diets with reduced levels of allergens. There are also highly digestible and fiber-enhanced diets. Some diets contain probiotics and/or prebiotics. If symptoms do not improve and the patient is stable, a diet from a different class may be tried. For chronic enteropathies, the prognosis is generally good for symptom resolution or at least improvement. However, if interventions with novel diets do not ameliorate the symptoms of chronic enteropathy, then antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, or immunosuppressant therapy or further, more invasive diagnostics such as taking an intestinal biopsy, may be indicated. Pancreatitis is a common gastrointestinal disease in dogs and cats and patients may present with mild to severe disease. Many patients with mild to moderate disease can be successfully treated with early supportive care, including feeding a low-fat diet. A novel pharmaceutical, fuzapladib (Panoquell-CA1) looks very promising for treating more severe forms of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Maintenance on a low-fat diet may prevent pancreatitis in at-risk dogs. Future advances in medicine will allow pet owners and veterinarians to use dietary management to maximize the health of their dogs and cats.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Pancreatitis , Gatos , Perros , Humanos , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/terapia , Enfermedad Aguda , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/terapia , Dieta , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/terapia , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/veterinaria , Diarrea/diagnóstico , Diarrea/terapia , Diarrea/veterinaria
16.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563521

RESUMEN

Pigs from 64 commercial sites across 14 production systems in the Midwest United States were evaluated for baseline biological measurements used to determine bone mineralization. There were three pigs selected from each commercial site representing: 1) a clinically normal pig (healthy), 2) a pig with evidence of clinical lameness (lame), and 3) a pig from a hospital pen that was assumed to have recent low feed intake (unhealthy). Pigs ranged in age from nursery to market weight, with the three pigs sampled from each site representing the same age or phase of production. Blood, urine, metacarpal, fibula, 2nd rib, and 10th rib were collected and analyzed. Each bone was measured for density and ash (defatted and non-defatted technique). A bone × pig type interaction (P < 0.001) was observed for defatted and non-defatted bone ash and density. For defatted bone ash, there were no differences among pig types for the fibulas, 2nd rib, and 10th rib (P > 0.10), but metacarpals from healthy pigs had greater (P < 0.05) percentage bone ash compared to unhealthy pigs, with the lame pigs intermediate. For non-defatted bone ash, there were no differences among pig types for metacarpals and fibulas (P > 0.10), but unhealthy pigs had greater (P < 0.05) non-defatted percentage bone ash for 2nd and 10th ribs compared to healthy pigs, with lame pigs intermediate. Healthy and lame pigs had greater (P < 0.05) bone density than unhealthy pigs for metacarpals and fibulas, with no difference observed for ribs (P > 0.10). Healthy pigs had greater (P < 0.05) serum Ca and 25(OH)D3 compared to unhealthy pigs, with lame pigs intermediate. Healthy pigs had greater (P < 0.05) serum P compared to unhealthy and lame pigs, with no differences between the unhealthy and lame pigs. Unhealthy pigs excreted significantly more (P < 0.05) P and creatinine in the urine compared to healthy pigs with lame pigs intermediate. In summary, there are differences in serum Ca, P, and vitamin D among healthy, lame, and unhealthy pigs. Differences in bone mineralization among pig types varied depending on the analytical procedure and bone, with a considerable range in values within pig type across the 14 production systems sampled.


There is little literature or data comparing bone diagnostic results for healthy, lame, and unhealthy pigs. Typically, diagnosticians assessing clinical lameness cases in pigs will measure bone mineralization along with histopathological evaluation to diagnose and assess the severity of metabolic bone disease. Bone ash is the primary method to determine bone mineralization, with the removal of the lipid in the bone (defatting) before the bone is ashed, compared to not removing the lipid before the ashing (non-defatted). Defatting the bone reduces the amount of variation across the bones compared to non-defatting. In this diagnostic survey, there was no difference among the healthy, lame, or unhealthy pigs when comparing defatted bone ash, however, unhealthy pigs had an increased bone ash percentage compared to the healthy and lame pigs when the bones were assessed using the non-defatted procedure. There was variation across production systems and pig types for serum vitamin D. When comparing the pig types, healthy pigs had increased serum Ca, P, and vitamin D [25(OH)D3] compared to the unhealthy pigs, with the lame pigs intermediate.


Asunto(s)
Calcificación Fisiológica , Minerales , Porcinos , Animales , Densidad Ósea , Costillas , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Dieta
17.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(4): e14558, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566368

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected lysine (RPL) supplementation during the close-up period on uterine involution and the resumption of ovarian function in dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous Holstein cows were categorized based on parity and expected calving date and randomly assigned to the RPL or control (CON) groups. The RPL group received 80 g of RPL daily from day 21 before the expected calving date until parturition. Blood samples were obtained twice weekly from pre-supplementation to 6 weeks postpartum. The onset of luteal activity postpartum was determined via ultrasonography twice weekly for up to 6 weeks postpartum. Uterine involution was tracked at 3 and 5 weeks postpartum through the vaginal discharge score, percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in endometrial cytology samples, presence of intrauterine fluid, and gravid horn diameter via ultrasonography. Before supplementation, the RPL group showed amino acid imbalance, which was improved by RPL supplementation. There were no significant differences in the onset of luteal activity, percentage of PMN, intrauterine fluid, or the diameter of the uterine horn between the two groups. The vaginal discharge score in the RPL group decreased from 3 to 5 weeks postpartum, whereas that in the CON groups did not decrease. The number of cows with clinical endometritis was lower in the RPL group. Overall, RPL supplementation during the close-up period enhanced vaginal discharge clearance, potentially averting clinical endometritis, but did not affect the first ovulation in dairy cows.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Endometritis , Excreción Vaginal , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Embarazo , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Endometritis/prevención & control , Endometritis/veterinaria , Endometritis/metabolismo , Lactancia , Luteína/análisis , Luteína/metabolismo , Lisina/farmacología , Leche/química , Periodo Posparto , Rumen/metabolismo , Excreción Vaginal/veterinaria
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(4): 927-948, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A global move toward consumption of diets from sustainable sources is required to protect planetary health. As this dietary transition will result in greater reliance on plant-based protein sources, the impact on micronutrient (MN) intakes and status is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the evidence of effects on intakes and status of selected MNs resulting from changes in dietary intakes to reduce environmental impact. Selected MNs of public health concern were vitamins A, D, and B12, folate, calcium, iron, iodine, and zinc. METHODS: We systematically searched 7 databases from January 2011 to October 2022 and followed the PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies had to report individual MN intake and/or status data collected in free-living individuals from the year 2000 onward and environmental outcomes. RESULTS: From the 10,965 studies identified, 56 studies were included, mostly from high-income countries (n = 49). Iron (all 56) and iodine (n = 20) were the most and least reported MNs, respectively. There was one randomized controlled trial (RCT) that also provided the only biomarker data, 10 dietary intake studies, and 45 dietary modeling studies, including 29 diet optimization studies. Most studies sought to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or intake of animal-sourced foods. Most results suggested that intakes of zinc, calcium, iodine, and vitamins B12, A, and D would decrease, and total iron and folate would increase in a dietary transition to reduce environmental impacts. Risk of inadequate intakes of zinc, calcium, vitamins A, B12 and D were more likely to increase in the 10 studies that reported nutrient adequacy. Diet optimization (n = 29) demonstrated that meeting nutritional and environmental targets is technically feasible, although acceptability is not guaranteed. CONCLUSIONS: Lower intakes and status of MNs of public health concern are a potential outcome of dietary changes to reduce environmental impacts. Adequate consideration of context and nutritional requirements is required to develop evidence-based recommendations. This study was registered prospectively with PROSPERO (CRD42021239713).


Asunto(s)
Yodo , Micronutrientes , Humanos , Calcio , Calcio de la Dieta , Dieta , Ácido Fólico , Hierro , Vitaminas , Zinc , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
19.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581217

RESUMEN

Pelleted total mixed ration (P-TMR) feeding, which has become a common practice in providing nutrition for fattening sheep, requires careful consideration of the balance between forage neutral detergent fiber (FNDF) and rumen degradable starch (RDS) to maintain proper rumen functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the dietary FNDF/RDS ratio (FRR) on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, ruminal microbes, and nutrient digestibility in Hu sheep fed a P-TMR diet. This study utilized eight ruminally cannulated male Hu sheep, following a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 31 d each period. Diets consisted of four FRR levels: 1.0 (high FNDF/RDS ratio, HFRR), 0.8 (middle high FNDF/RDS ratio, MHFRR), 0.6 (middle low FNDF/RDS ratio, MLFRR), and 0.4 (low FNDF/RDS ratio, LFRR). Reducing the dietary FRR levels resulted in a linear decrease in ruminal minimum pH and mean pH, while linearly increasing the duration and area of pH below 5.8 and 5.6, as well as the acidosis index. Sheep in the HFRR and MHFRR groups did not experience subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), whereas sheep in another two groups did. The concentration of total volatile fatty acid and the molar ratios of propionate and valerate, as well as the concentrate of lactate in the rumen linearly increased with reducing dietary FRR, while the molar ratio of acetate and acetate to propionate ratio linearly decreased. The degradability of NDF and ADF for alfalfa hay has a quadratic response with reducing the dietary FRR. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber linearly decreased when the dietary FRR was reduced. In addition, reducing the dietary FRR caused a linear decrease in OTUs, Chao1, and Ace index of ruminal microflora. Reducing FRR in the diet increased the percentage of reads assigned as Firmicutes, but it decreased the percentage of reads assigned as Bacteroidetes in the rumen. At genus level, the percentage of reads assigned as Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio, and Butyrivibrio linearly decreased when the dietary FRR was reduced. The results of this study demonstrate that the dietary FRR of 0.8 is crucial in preventing the onset of SARA and promotes an enhanced richness of ruminal microbes and also improves fiber digestibility, which is a recommended dietary FRR reference when formulating P-TMR diets for sheep.


Forage neutral detergent fiber (FNDF) and rumen degradable starch (RDS) are key components of carbohydrates in the diet for ruminants, which would reflect saliva secretion and the acid production potential of feed. However, appropriate FNDF to RDS ratios (FRR) applicable to ruminants under the condition of pelleted total mixed ration (P-TMR) feeding have not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of the dietary FRR on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, ruminal microbial communities, and nutrient digestibility of Hu sheep under P-TMR feeding. The results indicate that reducing dietary FRR levels would induce acidosis in sheep, which negatively affected fiber utilization and ruminal bacterial communities. The FRR of 0.8 was a recommended dietary FRR when formulating a P-TMR diet for fattening sheep, as indicated by decreased ruminal acidosis risk and increased richness of ruminal microbes in the rumen as well as nutrient digestibility.


Asunto(s)
Acidosis , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Masculino , Femenino , Animales , Ovinos , Leche/metabolismo , Masticación/fisiología , Almidón/metabolismo , Lactancia/fisiología , Detergentes/metabolismo , Ensilaje/análisis , Propionatos/metabolismo , Fermentación , Rumen/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Nutrientes , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acidosis/veterinaria , Digestión/fisiología
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(8): e033323, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591328

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity, a social and economic condition of limited availability of healthy food, is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes among adults; few studies have been conducted in adolescents. This study explores the association between food insecurity and cardiovascular health risk factors among a nationally representative sample of US adolescents, adopting the American Heart Association's Life's Essential 8 metric. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 2534 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years from the 2013 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. In the sample, 24.8% of adolescents lived in food-insecure households. After multivariable adjustment, food insecurity was associated with a 3.23-unit lower total Life's Essential 8 score (95% CI, -6.32, -0.15) and lower scores on diet quality (ß=-5.39 [95% CI, -8.91, -1.87]) and nicotine exposure (ß=-4.85 [95% CI, -9.24, -0.45]). Regarding diet, food insecurity was associated with 5% lower Healthy Eating Index-2015 scores [95% CI, -7%, -2%], particularly lower intakes of whole grains and seafood/plant proteins and marginally higher intake of added sugar. Regarding nicotine exposure, food insecurity was associated with ever use of a tobacco product among m (odds ratio, 1.74 [95% CI, 1.20-2.53]). Compared with their food-secure counterparts, food-insecure male (odds ratio, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.07-3.65]) and female (odds ratio, 3.22 [95% CI, 1.60-6.45]) adolescents had higher odds of living with a current indoor smoker. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative sample of adolescents, food insecurity was associated with multiple indicators of cardiovascular health risk. These findings underscore the need for public health interventions and policies to reduce food insecurity and improve cardioprotective behaviors during adolescence, with particular efforts targeting diet quality and nicotine exposure.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Nicotina , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Dieta , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas Nutricionales , Inseguridad Alimentaria
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