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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127848, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771708

RESUMEN

Honey bees are important pollinators and are subject to numerous stressors, such as changing floral resources, parasites, and agrochemical exposure. Pesticide exposure has been linked to the decline in the global honey bee population. We have limited knowledge of the metabolic pathways and synergistic effects of xenobiotics in bees. Quercetin is one of the most abundant phytochemicals in plants and is therefore abundant in the honey bee diet. Quercetin can upregulate the detoxification system in honey bees; however, it is still unknown to what extent quercetin ingestion can reduce the content of absorbed pesticides. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary quercetin on the contents of three pesticides in honey bees: imidacloprid (insecticide), tebuconazole (fungicide), and tau-fluvalinate (insecticide and acaricide). Bees were divided into two main groups and fed either quercetin-sucrose paste or only sucrose for 72 h. Thereafter, they were orally exposed to ∼10 ng/bee imidacloprid or contact-exposed to ∼0.9 µg/bee tau-fluvalinate or ∼5.2 µg/bee tebuconazole. After 1 h of oral exposure or 24 h of contact exposure, the bees were anaesthetised with CO2, sacrificed by freezing, and extracted with a validated QuEChERS method. Subsequently, the concentrations of the three pesticides and quercetin in the bees were determined with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer coupled to an HPLC system. No significant effect on the concentration of tebuconazole or tau-fluvalinate was observed in bees fed quercetin. Intake of quercetin led to a reduction in the concentration of imidacloprid in honey bees. Quercetin-rich plants may be exploited in future beekeeping.


Asunto(s)
Abejas/metabolismo , Plaguicidas/metabolismo , Quercetina , Acaricidas , Animales , Apicultura , Dieta , Insecticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrilos , Nitrocompuestos , Fitoquímicos , Piretrinas , Xenobióticos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141790, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890869

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the effect of different grazing management strategies on carcass characteristics traits, meat quality and CH4 intensity and yield of lambs grazing Italian ryegrass pastures in Southern Brazil. A grazing trial was performed (2014 and 2015) in a randomized complete block design with two grazing management targets and four replicates. Treatments were traditional rotational stocking (RT), with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 25 and 5 cm, respectively, and 'Rotatinuous' stocking (RN), with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 18 and 11 cm, respectively. Castrated crossbred Texel and Polwarth lambs were used. Results indicated that diet cost per kg of dry matter (p = 0.001) and per hectare (p < 0.001) were lower for RN than for RT treatment. Final live weight (p = 0.022) and hot and cold carcass weight (p = 0.006) were greater for the RN treatment. All commercial cuts were greater for RN than for RT treatment. The RN treatment presented greater (p < 0.001) production of carcass, edible food and crude protein. Feed efficiency and feed cost conversion were better for RN than for RT treatment. CH4 intensity per kg of carcass, edible food and crude protein gain were 2.6, 2.7 and 2.1 times lower (p < 0.001) for RN. Moreover, CH4 yield was lower (p = 0.014) for RN than for RT treatment, with an average of 7.6 and 8.3% of the gross energy intake, respectively. We conclude that the 'Rotatinuous' stocking results in a greater carcass production, carcass quality and lower diet cost, and CH4 intensity and yield of grazing lambs. Adopting this grazing management strategy could enhance both lamb production and mitigation of CH4 intensity and yield in grazing ecosystems, which could be considered a good example of climate-smart livestock production.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Lolium , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Brasil , Clima , Dieta , Ecosistema , Ovinos
3.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 1904-1908, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148832

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Lifestyle modification, including changing eating habits, plays an essential role in the prevention of stroke. The aim: The study aimed to assess the nutritional prevention of cerebrovascular diseases in adult inhabitants of Poland. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and Methods: The study was conducted using the author's questionnaire among 145 women and 76 men, aged 18 - 30 (53.9%) and 50 - 70 (46.1%) years. RESULTS: Results: The following stroke risk factors were found in the examined group: overweight or obesity (46.6%), lack of regular physical activity (48%), smoking (33%), hypertension (22.1%), dyslipidemia (8.6%), diabetes (5.9%), and cardiac arrhythmias (6.3%). The younger subjects compared to older ones more often declared the daily consumption of whole-grain cereal products and vegetables, fish at least once a week, and they preferred vegetable oils. On the other hand, older subjects declared the consumption of sweets, sweet drinks, salt, and fast food less frequently than younger ones. Also, fruits were more often chosen by older people. Both groups declared similar moderate consumption of milk and dairy products with reduced fat content, lean meat, and alcohol. Only 38% of respondents considered their eating habits to be appropriate. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The eating habits of examined adults only partially met the recommendations regarding the nutritional prevention of stroke. In some elements, younger people were more likely to follow appropriate dietary recommendations, while older people were more appropriate in others. The education regarding the principles of the nutritional prevention of cerebrovascular diseases is still necessary and should be age-appropriate.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polonia , Accidente Cerebrovascular/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Verduras
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190201, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175015

RESUMEN

In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the hydrolysis of phytate of defatted rice bran (DRB) by a pretreatment with non-commercial phytase produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DRB-PS) compared to the application of Natuphos® (commercial phytase produced by the BASF Company) (DRB-PN) in diets for grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish (57.55 ± 0.4 g) fed one of the experimental diets in triplicates for 35 days. Effects of the phytase used on blood parameters, intestinal proteases and hepatic glucose were not observed (p > 0.05). Similarly, no differences were found for serum phosphorus (P). However, were found higher levels of calcium (9 and 5.25%) in the control treatment in relation to DRB-PS and DRB-PN respectively, besides higher calcium-phosphorus ratio was found in this treatment. For the fish carcass composition was not statistically different (p > 0.05) except total lipids, which showed its highest content in fish fed on the DRB-PN diet (p < 0.05). The obtained results suggested that the use of the phytase, irrespective to its source may eliminate the use of traditional P sources in fish diets.


Asunto(s)
6-Fitasa , Carpas , Oryza , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Nutrientes , Fósforo
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20200764, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175017

RESUMEN

To determine the chemical composition and digestibility of insect meal for poultry made from the larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TL) and nymphs of Gryllus assimilis (GAN) a total excreta collection test was carried out, substituting 20% of the reference diet with each type of meal. The meals presented 6074 and 5975 kcal/Kg of gross energy, with 49.34% and 52.66% protein for TL and GAN respectively. The most nutrient digestibility was less than 65%, except for energy and ether-extract digestibility in the meal from Tenebrio molitor larvae, which were over 70%. The meals under analysis can be used as a source of nutrients in poultry diets.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Insectos , Nutrientes
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180972, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175012

RESUMEN

This study was undertaken to investigate the performance, carcass characteristics, and economic viability of diets including pasta waste in meal form (PWM) for quail. A total of 450 unsexed meat quail (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) were distributed into five treatments (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% inclusion of PWM) in a completely randomized design with six replicates, each with 15 birds. The following rearing periods were evaluated: Phase 1 - 1 to 21 days; and period of 1 to 42 days. In Phase 1, the PWM levels did not influence feed intake (FI), and the PWM inclusion levels for optimal weight gain (WG) and feed conversion (FC) were estimated at 20.70% and 22.8%, respectively. In the cumulative period of 1 to 42 days, the PWM levels did not lead to differences in FI, WG, or FC. The yields of carcass and cuts were not influenced by the treatments; however, abdominal fat yield decreased as the PWM levels in the diets were increased. Economic analysis showed a reduction of the feeding cost in the studied phases. Pasta waste meal can be included up to the level of 40% without incurring losses in the performance or carcass yield of meat quail.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Codorniz , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinaria , Carne/análisis , Residuos Sólidos
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 731-743, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070814

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feeding status of infants and their feeder's feeding literacy in poor rural areas of Gansu Province. METHODS: From November 2018 to January 2019, a multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used to select 1200 infant and child families aged 0 to 23 months in 40 villages of Gansu Province. A standardized questionnaire from the Chinese Nutrition Society(CNS)was used to investigate the basic situation of infant and young children's families, the situation of breastfeeding and the addition of supplementary food, and parents feeding knowledge, attitude behavior(KAP). Using chi-square test, logistic regression and other method to statistically describe and infer the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 1193 infants and 1165 feeders were investigated. The exclusive breastfeeding rate of infants and young children under the age of 6 months was 39. 02%. The rate of continuous breastfeeding at 1 year old was 37. 40%, and the rate of continuous breastfeeding at 2 years old was 20. 88%, the difference between the two was significant(χ~2=13. 498, P<0. 01). The supplementary food supplement rate of infants and children over 6 months was 94. 37%, the highest supplementary supplement for cereals and potatoes(98. 01%), and the lowest percentage for beans and nuts(23. 51%), and the distribution of supplementary foods at different ages was significantly different(χ~2=52. 336, P<0. 01). The qualification rate of infants and young children's minimum dietary diversity was 64. 13%, the minimum eating frequency qualification rate was 70. 64%, the minimum acceptable dietary intake qualification rate was 42. 16%, and the qualification rates of various indicators were significantly different between different months(χ~2=85. 421, P<0. 01;χ~2=19. 66, P<0. 01; χ~2=17. 261, P<0. 01). The KAP score passing rate of infant caregivers was 37. 34%, and there was a statistical difference between the age of infants and young children, the education level and the sex of the caregiver(χ~2=9. 411, P<0. 05;χ~2=25. 901, P<0. 01;χ~2=3. 874, P<0. 05). Taking low-month-old infants and young children, low education and male caregivers as controls, infants and young children aged over 12 months, high school education and female caregivers were the protective factors of KAP scores(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: The problems of infant breastfeeding and supplementary feeding in poor rural areas of Gansu Province were serious, and the knowledge and skills of raising people were scarce, which were related to the age of infants and young children, the education and the sex of raising people.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Población Rural , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Alimentos Infantiles , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4943, 2020 10 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009384

RESUMEN

Despite their high vulnerability, insular ecosystems have been largely ignored in climate change assessments, and when they are investigated, studies tend to focus on exposure to threats instead of vulnerability. The present study examines climate change vulnerability of islands, focusing on endemic mammals and by 2050 (RCPs 6.0 and 8.5), using trait-based and quantitative-vulnerability frameworks that take into account exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Our results suggest that all islands and archipelagos show a certain level of vulnerability to future climate change, that is typically more important in Pacific Ocean ones. Among the drivers of vulnerability to climate change, exposure was rarely the main one and did not explain the pattern of vulnerability. In addition, endemic mammals with long generation lengths and high dietary specializations are predicted to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Our findings highlight the importance of exploring islands vulnerability to identify the highest climate change impacts and to avoid the extinction of unique biodiversity.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Islas , Mamíferos/fisiología , Animales , Dieta , Análisis de Componente Principal , Especificidad de la Especie
9.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1384-1395, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016445

RESUMEN

Nutrients excreted from animals affect the nutritive value of manure as a soil amendment as well as the composition of gases emitted from manure storage facilities. There is a dearth of information, however, on how diet type in combination with dietary particle size affects nutrients deposited into manure storage facilities and how this affects manure composition and gas emissions. To fill this knowledge gap, an animal feeding trial was performed to evaluate potential interactive effects between feed particle size and diet composition on manure characteristics and manure-derived gaseous emissions. Forty-eight finishing pigs housed in individual metabolism crates that allowed for daily collection of urine and feces were fed diets differing in fiber content and particle size. Urine and feces were collected and stored in 446-L stainless steel containers for 49 d. There were no interactive effects between diet composition and feed particle size on any manure or gas emission parameter measured. In general, diets higher in fiber content increased manure nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and increased manure VFA emissions but decreased manure ammonia emissions. Decreasing the particle size of the diet lowered manure N, C, VFAs, phenolics, and indole concentrations and decreased manure emissions of total VFAs. Neither diet composition nor particle size affected manure greenhouse gas emissions.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/veterinaria , Estiércol , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Gases , Tamaño de la Partícula , Porcinos
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4151-4156, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027351

RESUMEN

Our aim was to analyze the association between previously diagnosed lifetime depression and changes in physical activity (PA), TV-viewing, consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as frequency of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption. Data of 41,923 Brazilian adults (6,881 with depression and 35,042 without depression) were used. Participants reported PA (≥ 150 min/week), TV-viewing (≥ 4 h/day), frequency of eating fruits or vegetables (≤ 4 days/week) and UPF (≥ 5 days/week). For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without the risk behavior before the quarantine. People without and with depression presented, respectively, incidence of physical inactivity [70.1% (95%CI: 67.4-72.8) vs 76.3 (70.3-81.5)], high TV-viewing [31.2 (29.6-32.8) vs 33.9 (30.5-37.4)], low frequency of fruit or vegetable consumption [28.3 (25.8-31.0) vs 31.5 (26.1-37.5)] and elevated frequency of UPF consumption [9.7 (8.9-10.7) vs 15.2 (13.0-17.7)]. Participants with depression were more likely to present elevated frequency of UPF consumption incidence [OR:1.49 (95%CI:1.21-1.83)]. Thus, participants with previous diagnosis of depression were at risk for incidence of unhealthy diet behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estilo de Vida , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Cuarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Frutas , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Conducta Sedentaria , Televisión , Verduras , Adulto Joven
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 836-839, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070832

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dietary exposure of cadmium and their potential health risks of adults in Jiangxi Province. METHODS: The concentration data of cadmium of 11 kinds of foods were obtained from food safety monitoring in Jiangxi Province in 2012-2017. The food consumption data was obtained from food consumption survey in Jiangxi Province in 2016. Based on the deterministic assessment model, the dietary exposure of cadmium of adults in Jiangxi Province was calculated. RESULTS: The average dietary exposure of cadmium was 18. 426 µg/kg per month, accounting for 73. 7% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake(PTMI). The large portion exposure(P95) of cadmium was 29. 724 µg/kg per month, accounting for 118. 9% of PTMI. The average and the large portion(P95) dietary exposure range of cadmium in different age groups were 16. 224-19. 774 and 24. 059-33. 387 µg/kg per month, respectively. It was indicated that the main dietary sources of cadmium were rice and vegetables, which were contributed more than 92% of total dietary exposure of cadmium. CONCLUSION: The potential health risks caused by dietary exposure to cadmium of adults in Jiangxi Province was at an acceptable level. But there were some potential health risks in high exposure population.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Exposición Dietética , Cadmio/análisis , Cadmio/toxicidad , Dieta , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Verduras
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5353-5356, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019192

RESUMEN

The prevalence of type-2 diabetes(T2D) has increased globally. This has led to greater mortality, morbidity and disability in the general population. It is thus crucial to identify methods to prevent its onset among the healthy, and to also discover solutions to adequately manage the complications among those affected. Most research in this area has focused on the role of diet and exercise. More recently, different exercise types and their relationship with T2D has received considerable attention. In our work, we investigate the association between T2D (primary outcome) and two types of exercises: cardio (CR) and weight lifting (WL). Specifically, the relationship between duration of time spent in the two exercises and the odds of T2D is explored. Data are obtained from the Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, USA. Three ethnic populations are considered: White American, Black American and Hispanic American. Both WL and CR are found to be associated with negative log-odds of diabetes across all three ethnicities (WL: p <; 0.0001 and CR: p=0.00431). The association between WL and T2D is found to be modified for females (interaction-term coefficient: -0.096 (p=0.0115)).


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Levantamiento de Peso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos
13.
Oecologia ; 194(3): 505-513, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079267

RESUMEN

Coexistence theory predicts that, in general, increases in the number of limiting resources shared among competitors should facilitate coexistence. Heterotrophic sessile marine invertebrate communities are extremely diverse but traditionally, space was viewed as the sole limiting resource. Recently planktonic food was recognized as an additional limiting resource, but the degree to which planktonic food acts as a single resource or is utilized differentially remains unclear. In other words, whether planktonic food represents a single resource niche or multiple resource niches has not been established. We estimated the rate at which 11 species of marine invertebrates consumed three phytoplankton species, each different in shape and size. Rates of consumption varied by a 240-fold difference among the species considered and, while there was overlap in the consumer diets, we found evidence for differential resource usage (i.e. consumption rates of phytoplankton differed among consumers). No consumer ingested all phytoplankton species at equivalent rates, instead most species tended to consume one of the species much more than others. Our results suggest that utilization of the phytoplankton niche by filter feeders is more subdivided than previously thought, and resource specialization may facilitate coexistence in this system. Our results provide a putative mechanism for why diversity affects community function and invasion in a classic system for studying competition.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos , Fitoplancton , Animales , Dieta , Ecosistema , Invertebrados , Plancton
14.
Oecologia ; 194(3): 383-390, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083848

RESUMEN

Megaherbivores have been of particular interest to scientists because of the physiological and ecological challenges associated with their extreme body size. Yet, one question that has seldom been explored is how browsing megaherbivores cope with plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), such as tannins, found in their food. It is possible that the sheer body size of these megaherbivores allows them to ingest tannins with no deleterious effects. However, it is plausible that megaherbivores must rely on other mechanisms to cope with PSMs, such as the production of salivary tannin-binding proteins. Thus, we aimed to determine whether megaherbivore browsers produce tannin-binding proteins to further reduce the consequences of ingesting a tannin-rich diet. Using a series of laboratory assays, we explored whether elephants, black rhinoceros, and giraffe had tannin-binding proteins in their saliva. We tested for the presence of proline-rich proteins in the saliva using two different approaches: (1) SDS-PAGE using Laemmli's (Laemmli, Nature 227:680-685, 1970) destaining method, and (2) comparative SDS-PAGE gels using Beeley et al.'s (Beeley et al. Electrophoresis 12:493-499, 1991) method for staining and destaining to probe for proline-rich proteins. Then, to test for the tannin-binding affinity of their saliva, we performed an inhibition assay. We did not observe proline-rich proteins in any of the megaherbivore species, but they did have other protein(s) in their saliva that have a high tannin-binding affinity. Our results highlight that, despite their large body sizes, and their abilities to tolerate low-quality food, browsing megaherbivores have likely evolved tannin-binding proteins as a way of coping with the negative effects of tannins.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas y Péptidos Salivales , Taninos , Animales , Dieta , Perisodáctilos , Saliva
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190065, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084757

RESUMEN

This study investigated the impact of supplementing normal and high-fat diets with graded levels of lycopene on the growth performance, cholesterol level of the muscle, and antioxidant markers in Japanese quail. A total of 192, 14 day-old unsexed Japanese quail were part of a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement consisting of a control group; birds that were fed a normal fat diet (NFD), another control group; birds that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with four levels of lycopene for NFD and HFD (0, 100, 200 and 300mg lycopene/kg diet). Lycopene level of 300mg/kg gave the greatest body weight, body weight gain, and relative growth rate when added to the NFD, but this level showed non-significant improvement in growth performance when supplemented to an HFD. Superoxide dismutase in the muscle and liver was noted to be high in NFD+ 300mgL, HFD+ 200mgL, and HFD+ 300mgL groups, while malondialdehyde level in the muscle and liver and cholesterol level in the muscle was found to be low in the same groups. Lycopene slightly improved growth performance, but significantly improved the antioxidant status and lowered cholesterol concentration in the muscle. A diet supplemented with 300 mg lycopene/kg could be recommended for Japanese quail.


Asunto(s)
Coturnix , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Animales , Colesterol , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Licopeno , Estrés Oxidativo
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190520, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084760

RESUMEN

Sea anemones are considered as polyphagous opportunistic predators and it has been suggested that their diet reflects the structure of the community they inhabit. The feeding ecology of intertidal species is an interesting topic to study due to their wide variety of strategies to obtain food. In this sense, we studied the diet of Bunodosoma zamponii, the most abundant actiniarian in the rocky intertidal of Punta Cantera (Mar del Plata, Argentina). The objectives were to describe it and compare its composition seasonally and between diurnal and nocturnal high tides. We examined the gastric cavity content of 154 specimens collected seasonally at both diurnal and nocturnal high tides, and 39 different prey items were identified, some of which are recorded here for the first time for this species. No variations on diet composition were found between seasons or between diurnal and nocturnal high tides, suggesting that the food available does not vary either. Bunodosoma zamponii ingests mostly items with low biomass, which contribute to the total biomass ingested in direct proportion to their frequency in the diet. The bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii was the main prey for the anemone, followed to a lesser extent by certain amphipods, other mollusks and algae.


Asunto(s)
Anémonas de Mar , Animales , Argentina , Dieta/veterinaria , Ecología , Estaciones del Año
17.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008059

RESUMEN

COVID-19 related restrictions aimed at curbing the spread of the coronavirus result in changes in daily routines and physical activity which can have a negative effect on eating and health habits. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with diabetes and their nutrition and health behaviours. A survey conducted in July 2020 included 124 individuals with type 1 (n = 90) and 2 (n = 34) diabetes mellitus from Poland. To assess nutritional and health behaviours, an online questionnaire covering basic information, anthropometric data, and details regarding physical activity, eating, and hygiene habits was used. Almost 40% of all respondents with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) stated that their disease self-management had significantly improved. Over 60% of all participants declared that they had started eating more nutritious and regular meals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhanced hygiene, in particular, during the period, a statistically significant increase in hand sanitiser use was reported by respondents (18% vs. 82%, p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that the pandemic had a significant impact on the behaviour of patients with DM. Improved disease self-management and making healthy, informed food and hygiene choices were observed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Automanejo , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(10): 704-709, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045779

RESUMEN

The achievements and breakthroughs in scientific field have provided scientific evidence for the relationship amongst diet, nutrition and chronic diseases, including oral diseases. Thus many international organizations and the governments of most countries were pushed to pay their attention to the prevention of chronic diseases by dietary patterns. From 1989 to 2018, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization organized expert consultations for many times to issue a series of global strategies and action plans on diet and health. The governments of China, Japan and US had produced the Dietary Guidelines for Residents. The results showed that the morbidity and mortality of many chronic diseases had been decreased by following the dietary guidance. However, the scientific achievements did not seem to produce tremendous enhancement in public health for various reasons. In the present article, the authors analyses the relationship between contemporary dietary patterns and oral health, and make suggestions on preventing and controlling oral diseases via dietary patterns for policy makers and dental professionals.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Política Nutricional , China , Japón , Salud Pública
19.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 161, 2020 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044638

RESUMEN

This review shows the estimated calcium intake in Spain in recent years. Our results indicate that adolescents and the elderly are at risk of insufficient calcium intake. By using the national and the European recommendations, this work contributes to map and compare population's dietary calcium intake in the European countries. PURPOSE AND METHODS : The present work aims to examine calcium intake in the healthy Spanish population of any age and analyze its adequacy to the calcium Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) for different groups in Spanish population, as well to the Adequate Intake (AI) or Population Reference Intake (PRI) estimated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Forty-three studies published in the last 5 years were eligible for review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results show that infants and children exceed Spanish and EFSA dietary recommendations, adults meet more that 80% of the RDI and EFSA recommendations, and the estimated average calcium intake in the adolescent and elderly groups does not reach 75% of the recommended intake. Representative national studies with a common methodology to estimate calcium intake are needed.


Asunto(s)
Calcio en la Dieta , Dieta , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Registros de Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13460, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006420

RESUMEN

We hypothesized that ruminants discriminate among different mineral supplements and modify their selection as a function of need. Forty lambs were offered four-way choices among P, Ca, and Mg sources: monosodium phosphate (MSP), Magnesium phosphate (MGP), Monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and Dicalcium phosphate (DCP); and two-way choices between DCP and the other mineral sources (Baseline). Subsequently, lambs were randomly assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) and fed rations such that levels of Ca and P were low (LCa_LP), adequate (NCa_NP), low in Ca and adequate in P (LCa_NP), or adequate in Ca and low in P (NCa_LP). Four- and two-way choice tests were repeated (Post-deficiency). During Baseline, lambs ate and preferred MSP > MGP>DCP = MCP (p < .0001), showing that they discriminated among minerals. This pattern remained during four-way Post-deficiency tests, but lambs in LCa_LP, LCa_NP, and NCa_LP showed increased preference for MCP, MGP, and DCP, respectively, relative to other groups and Baseline (p < .05). Some mineral preference also changed in relation to serum concentration of P and Ca. Thus, lambs discriminated among minerals and some groups modified their preferences from Baseline to Post-deficiency choice tests, likely influenced by mineral needs, which in turn contributed to rectify mineral imbalances.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Calcio en la Dieta , Dieta/veterinaria , Preferencias Alimentarias , Fósforo Dietético , Ovinos/fisiología , Ovinos/psicología , Animales
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