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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e243238, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360207

RESUMEN

The use of alternative nutritional sources is an important topic for animal production such as poultry. This study examined the effect of replacing soybean meal with sunflower leaf meal in the diet of laying shaver brown pullets. A total of 30 laying birds were assigned to three treatments of 0% (as control group), 10% and 15% MSFLM inclusion. Four eggs per replicate were randomly taken for three consecutive days at two weeks interval for five times, and 18 weeks individuals were selected after 40 days of experimental time. External parameters of the eggs (egg weight, egg length, egg breadth and egg shape index, shell thickness), and body parameters (Final body weight, weight gain), feed intake and hen day production were measured. For egg length, egg breadth and shell thickness showed significant difference (p< 0.05) in from the control birds. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and hen day production showed comparable results with values from eggs of birds on control diet. The study revealed the ability of birds to easily utilize the nutrients in the protein sources. MSFLM utilization up to 15% in pullets' diet revealed no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying birds and the external qualities of eggs produced.


O uso de fontes nutricionais alternativas é um tópico importante para a produção animal, como a avicultura. Este estudo examinou o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de folha de girassol na dieta de frangas marrons barbeadoras poedeiras. Um total de 30 aves poedeiras foram designadas a três tratamentos de 0% (como grupo controle), 10% e 15% de inclusão MSFLM. Quatro ovos por repetição foram retirados aleatoriamente por três dias consecutivos em intervalos de duas semanas por cinco vezes, e indivíduos de 18 semanas foram selecionados após 40 dias do tempo experimental. Parâmetros externos dos ovos (peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e índice de forma do ovo, espessura da casca) e parâmetros corporais (peso corporal final, ganho de peso), consumo de ração e produção diária da galinha foram medidos. Para comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e espessura da casca apresentaram diferença significativa (p <0,05) nas aves controle. Peso corporal final, ganho de peso, consumo de ração e produção de dia de galinha mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​com valores de ovos de aves em dieta controle. O estudo revelou a capacidade das aves de utilizar facilmente os nutrientes das fontes de proteína. A utilização de MSFLM até 15% na dieta das frangas não revelou nenhum efeito prejudicial no desempenho das aves poedeiras e nas qualidades externas dos ovos produzidos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Aves de Corral/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta , Helianthus
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255493, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360217

RESUMEN

The demand for products to replace high-cost raw materials, such oil and fish meal, in the manufacture of feed for use in aquaculture, while also guaranteeing the nutritional quality of the diets, is increasing. Silage produced with fish and vegetables residues is a low-cost and efficient protein source. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical responses of tambaqui fingerlings fed four different levels of silage included in commercial feed with 28% crude protein, over two periods: 45 and 90 days. Each treatment was carried out over three replications, with 10 tambaqui in each 100 L experimental tank. At the end of each established period, blood samples were collected from five animals from each repetition to determine the hematological and biochemical variables. Body weight and total length, hepatosomatic and liposomal indices and hematocrit of specimens fed with diets supplemented with silage did not exhibit significant changes in both assessment period. After 45 days of feeding, the hemoglobin concentration increased when tambaqui were fed a diet including 20% silage. The red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin did not change between treatments in either period. The total protein concentrations increased significantly in the plasma of tambaqui fed with diets with the inclusion of 5 and 10% of silage, evaluated after feeding for 45 days. It was found that the groups which had silage included in their diet did not exhibit significant alterations in the evaluated parameters, and the diet was therefore not consider harmful to the health of tambaqui. Therefore, the use of silage as a feed supplement during tambaqui farming is a sustainable alternative for producers, as it leads to a reduction of impacts of fish and vegetables waste disposal.


A procura por insumos que substituam produtos de alto custo, como óleo e farinha de peixe, na fabricação de rações para uso na aquicultura é crescente, sendo necessário garantir a qualidade nutricional das dietas. A silagem produzida a partir de resíduos de pescado e de vegetais apresenta-se como uma alternativa de baixo custo e eficiente fonte proteica. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas de alevinos de tambaqui alimentados com quatro níveis de inclusão de silagem em ração comercial com 28% de proteína bruta, em dois períodos: 45 e 90 dias. Cada tratamento foi realizado em três repetições, com 10 tambaquis em cada caixa experimental de 100 L. Ao término de cada período estabelecido, amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas de cinco animais de cada repetição para determinação das variáveis hematológicas e bioquímicas. Peso, comprimento total e índices hepatossomático e lipossomático de espécimes alimentados com silagem não mostraram alterações significativas em ambos os períodos de avaliação, bem como os valores de hematócrito. A concentração de hemoglobina de tambaqui após 45 dias de alimentação aumentou quando foi fornecida dieta com inclusão de 20% de silagem. A contagem de eritrócitos, volume corpuscular médio e hemoglobina corpuscular média não apresentaram alterações entre os tratamentos, em ambos os períodos. As proteínas totais aumentaram significativamente no plasma de tambaquis que receberam dietas com inclusão de 5 e 10% de silagem, avaliados após 45 dias de alimentação. Evidenciou-se que os grupos com inclusão de silagem na dieta não apresentaram alterações significativas nos parâmetros avaliados, assim não sendo prejudiciais à higidez do tambaqui. Portanto, o uso da silagem como suplemento alimentar durante o cultivo do tambaqui é uma alternativa sustentável para produtores, por promover a redução do descarte de resíduos de pescado e da agricultura.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Acuicultura , Suplementos Dietéticos , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Dieta , Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Peces , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Pakistán , Composición Corporal , Estanques , Dieta
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMEN

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMEN

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Cíclidos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hojas de la Planta , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252093, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355861

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the diet of the free-living crab-eating fox by identifying the stomach contents of the 17 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) roadkilled in two conservation units, both located in the Amazon rainforest. The food items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (FO) and percentage of occurrence (PO). The stomach contents were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and mineral matter (MM). Nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), metabolisable energy (ME) values, as well as the energy need for maintenance were estimated. The composition of the diet for the crab-eating fox presented 29 food items from the different taxonomic groups, with a greater diversity of items of animal origin (n=22), although the highest frequency of occurrence was gramineae (Poaceae) (41.18%). Among the items of animal origin, 21% were mammals, 18% reptiles, 10% amphibians, 9% invertebrates and 3% birds. A high content of CF (62.76%) were determined. Nitrogen-free extractive and dry matter averages were 5.91% and 141.82 kcal/100g, respectively. The average maintenance energy was 447.01 kcal/day. These findings suggesting that the crab-eating foxes have a generalist diet with an omnivorous diet in the Amazon basin, feeding on gramineae, fruits, insects, snakes, amphibians, birds and small mammals and have the same feeding habit that present in other Brazilian biomes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou analisar a dieta do cachorro-do-mato, de vida livre, por meio da identificação do conteúdo estomacal de 17 Cerdocyon thous atropelados em duas unidades de conservação da Floresta Amazônica. O conteúdo estomacal foi analisado e os itens alimentares foram quantificados pela frequência de ocorrência (FO) e percentagem de ocorrência (PO). Também foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra bruta (FB), extrato etéreo (EE) e, matéria mineral (MM). Foram estimados o extrativo não-nitrogenado (ENN), a energia metabolizável (EM) e a necessidade energética de manutenção. A composição da dieta do cachorro-do-mato apresentou 29 itens alimentares dos diferentes grupos taxonômicos, tendo uma maior diversidade de itens de origem animal (n=22), ainda que a maior FO tenha sido de gramíneas (Poaceae) (41.18%). Dentre os itens de origem animal, 21% eram mamíferos, 18% répteis, 10% anfíbios, 9% invertebrados e 3% aves. Determinou-se um alto teor de FB (62.76%). A média do ENN e da MS foi 5.91% e 141.82 kcal/100g, respectivamente. A média da energia de manutenção foi 447.01 kcal/dia. Estes achados sugerem que o cachorro-do-mato encontrado na Bacia Amazônica é um animal generalista com uma dieta onívora, se alimentando de gramíneas, frutos, insetos, serpentes, anfíbios, aves e pequenos mamíferos, portanto com o mesmo hábito alimentar relatado a esta espécie quando encontrada em outros biomas brasileiros.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Bosque Lluvioso , Zorros , Brasil , Dieta/veterinaria
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMEN

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dieta , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMEN

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Antihelmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinaria , Carne/análisis
10.
Food Chem ; 399: 133799, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998490

RESUMEN

Flesh quality is evaluated according to nutritional value and sensory quality. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) improves mammalian meat quality, but research relating this to aquaculture is scarce. In this study, five doses of CIN (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 mg/kg diet) were fed to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) for 60 days. The results show that CIN supplementation increased nutritional value by increasing crude protein content. CIN also improved the sensory quality by increasing the pH and collagen content, decreasing shear force, lactate, and cooking loss. These changes may be related to changes in muscle fiber growth by increasing myofiber diameter. The increased myofiber diameter induced by CIN is associated with TOR mRNA and protein levels, and down-regulated FOXO3a mRNA levels, which might be associated with PTP1B/IGF1/PI3K/AKTs-TOR/FOXO3a signaling. Based on muscle crude protein content, optimal CIN supplementation dosage was 88.01 mg/kg.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Enfermedades de los Peces , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Enfermedades de los Peces/genética , Proteínas de Peces/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Mamíferos/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , Transducción de Señal
11.
Food Chem ; 398: 133944, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987003

RESUMEN

B group vitamins, except folate, are involved in at least one step of cellular energy production. Vegetables are considered essential for a healthy diet plan. Vegetables significantly affect diet quality by contributing to the adequate intake of some B group vitamins. Our results demonstrated that the level of vitamins B1, B2, and B3 in the studied vegetables was in the range of 9-85 µg/100 g, 22-319 µg/100 g, and 459-3497 µg/100 g, respectively. However, it is fundamental to investigate the bioaccessibility of all vitamins to identify primary dietary sources. We observed that the average bioaccessibility values for vitamins B1 and B2 were 68.9% and 63.9%, respectively. The bioaccessibility of the nicotinic acid form of vitamin B3 was 40%, while the nicotinamide form was 33.9%. As revealed in this research, the bioaccessibilities of vitamins B1, B2, and B3 in vegetables were generally low in vitro.


Asunto(s)
Tiamina , Complejo Vitamínico B , Dieta , Ácido Fólico , Tiamina/análisis , Verduras
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 488-495, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35892267

RESUMEN

The chances of people suffering from cognitive impairments increase gradually with age. Diet and lifestyle are closely related to the occurrence and development of cognitive function. Dietary flavonoid supplementation has been shown to be one of the protective factors against cognitive decline. Flavonoids belong to a class of polyphenols that have been proposed for the treatment of cognitive decline. Recent evidence has shown that intestinal flora in the human body can interact with flavonoids. Intestinal microbiota can modify the chemical structure of flavonoids, producing new metabolites, the pharmacological activities of which may be different from those of the parent; meanwhile, flavonoids and their metabolites can, in turn, regulate the composition and structure of intestinal flora. Notably, intestinal flora affect host nervous system activity through the gut-brain axis, ultimately causing changes in cognitive function. This review therefore summarizes the interaction of dietary flavonoids and intestinal flora, and their protective effect against cognitive decline through the gut-brain axis, indicating that dietary flavonoids may ameliorate cognitive impairment through their interaction with intestinal microbiota. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Polifenoles/farmacología , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Disfunción Cognitiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Flavonoides/farmacología , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Dieta
13.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 23(1): 159-173, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980601

RESUMEN

High-throughput sequencing and metabarcoding techniques provide a unique opportunity to study predator-prey relationships. However, in animal dietary preference studies, how to properly correct tissue bias within the sequence read count and the role of interactions between co-occurring species in metabarcoding mixtures remain largely unknown. In this study, we propose two categories of tissue bias correction indices: sequence read count number per unit tissue (SCN) and its ratio form (SCN ratio). By constructing plant mock communities with different numbers of co-occurring species in metabarcoding mixtures and conducting feeding trails on captive sika deer (Cervus nippon), we demonstrate the features of the SCN and SCN ratio, evaluate their correction effects and assess the role of species interactions during tissue bias correction. Tissue differences between species are defined as the differential ability to generate sequence counts. Our study suggests that pure tissue differences among species without a species interaction is not an optimal correction index for many biomes with limited tissue differences among species. Species interactions in mixtures may amplify tissue differences, which is beneficial for tissue bias correction. However, caution must be taken because varied species interactions among communities may increase the risk of worse correction. Correction effects based on the SCN and SCN ratio are comparable, but the SCN is less influenced by control species than the SCN ratio. Based on our study, several suggestions are provided for future animal diet studies or other high-throughput sequencing studies containing tissue bias.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos , Animales , Ciervos/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Dieta , Sesgo
14.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 23(1): 41-51, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017818

RESUMEN

Dietary metabarcoding has vastly improved our ability to analyse the diets of animals, but it is hampered by a plethora of technical limitations including potentially reduced data output due to the disproportionate amplification of the DNA of the focal predator, here termed "the predator problem". We review the various methods commonly used to overcome this problem, from deeper sequencing to exclusion of predator DNA during PCR, and how they may interfere with increasingly common multipredator-taxon studies. We suggest that multiprimer approaches with an emphasis on achieving both depth and breadth of prey detections may overcome the issue to some extent, although multitaxon studies require further consideration, as highlighted by an empirical example. We also review several alternative methods for reducing the prevalence of predator DNA that are conceptually promising but require additional empirical examination. The predator problem is a key constraint on molecular dietary analyses but, through this synthesis, we hope to guide researchers in overcoming this in an effective and pragmatic way.


Asunto(s)
Cadena Alimentaria , Conducta Predatoria , Animales , Cartilla de ADN/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , ADN/análisis , Dieta
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 764-769, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054497

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed at evaluating the in vitro adsorption capability of chitooligosaccharide (COS) with some metal elements (Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb) at different pH values along with potential effects of dietary COS supplementation on growth performance, mineral content, meat quality and oxidant status in broilers. Day-old male chicks were randomly distributed into two groups and offered a basal diet supplemented with or without 30 mg kg-1 COS for 42 days. RESULTS: In vitro trials demonstrated that Fe levels were higher (P < 0.001) in the COS-treated group compared with the non-treated group at pH of 2.5. However, these levels became lowered when pH values were raised to 5 (P < 0.01) or 6 (P < 0.001). Similarly, COS adsorbed more (P < 0.05) Zn at pH values of 2.5 and 6, and Cd contents at pH of 2.5 for 70 min when compared with the control. For in vivo trial, the feed-to-gain ratio, serum Cu (P < 0.01), hepatic Mn, Cr (P < 0.05) and intramuscular Cd (P < 0.01) were lower in response to COS treatment. Supplementation of COS improved (P < 0.05) meat quality of broilers in terms of lower drip loss, cooking loss and malondialdehyde content with a concomitant increase (P < 0.01) in the pH of breast meat at 24 h post mortem. CONCLUSION: COS adsorbed heavy metal ions not only in vitro but also in broilers, and dietary supplementation with 30 mg kg-1 COS improved growth performance, breast meat quality and oxidant status in broilers. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos , Animales , Masculino , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Oxidantes , Cadmio , Carne/análisis , Minerales , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Dieta , Antioxidantes
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 750-763, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054758

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: N-Carbamoyl-aspartic acid (NCA) is a critical precursor for de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. To investigate the cumulative effects of maternal supplementation with NCA on the productive performance, serum metabolites and intestinal microbiota of sows, 40 pregnant sows (∼day 80) were assigned into two groups: (1) the control (CON) and (2) treatment (NCA, 50 g t-1 NCA). RESULTS: Results showed that piglets from the NCA group had heavier birth weight than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). In addition, maternal supplementation with NCA decreased the backfat loss of sows during lactation (P < 0.05). Furthermore,16S-rRNA sequencing results revealed that maternal NCA supplementation decreased the abundance of Cellulosilyticum, Fournierella, Anaerovibrio, and Oribacterium genera of sows during late pregnancy (P < 0.05). Similarly, on the 14th day of lactation, maternal supplementation with NCA reduced the diversity of fecal microbes of sows as evidenced by significantly lower observed species, Chao1, and Ace indexes, and decreased the abundance of Lachnospire, Faecalibacterium, and Anaerovorax genera, while enriched the abundance of Catenisphaera (P < 0.05). Untargeted metabolomics showed that a total of 48 differentially abundant biomarkers were identified, which were mainly involved in metabolic pathways of arginine/proline metabolism, phenylalanine/tyrosine metabolism, and fatty acid biosynthesis, etc. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results indicated that NCA supplementation regulated intestinal microbial composition of sows and serum differential metabolites related to arginine, proline, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and fatty acids metabolism that may contribute to regulating the backfat loss of sows, and the birth weight and diarrhea rate of piglets. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Porcinos , Animales , Embarazo , Femenino , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Calostro/química , Ácido Aspártico/análisis , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Peso al Nacer , Dieta/veterinaria , Lactancia , Arginina/análisis , Fenilalanina/análisis , Tirosina/análisis , Prolina/análisis
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 247: 114057, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327670

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are man-made fluorinated chemicals, widely used in various types of consumer products, resulting in their omnipresence in human populations. The aim of this study was to describe current PFAS levels in European teenagers and to investigate the determinants of serum/plasma concentrations in this specific age group. METHODS: PFAS concentrations were determined in serum or plasma samples from 1957 teenagers (12-18 years) from 9 European countries as part of the HBM4EU aligned studies (2014-2021). Questionnaire data were post-harmonized by each study and quality checked centrally. Only PFAS with an overall quantification frequency of at least 60% (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA) were included in the analyses. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were analysed together with food consumption frequencies to identify determinants of PFAS exposure. The variables study, sex and the highest educational level of household were included as fixed factors in the multivariable linear regression models for all PFAS and each dietary variable was added to the fixed model one by one and for each PFAS separately. RESULTS: The European exposure values for PFAS were reported as geometric means with 95% confidence intervals (CI): PFOS [2.13 µg/L (1.63-2.78)], PFOA ([0.97 µg/L (0.75-1.26)]), PFNA [0.30 µg/L (0.19-0.45)] and PFHxS [0.41 µg/L (0.33-0.52)]. The estimated geometric mean exposure levels were significantly higher in the North and West versus the South and East of Europe. Boys had significantly higher concentrations of the four PFAS compared to girls and significantly higher PFASs concentrations were found in teenagers from households with a higher education level. Consumption of seafood and fish at least 2 times per week was significantly associated with 21% (95% CI: 12-31%) increase in PFOS concentrations and 20% (95% CI: 10-31%) increase in PFNA concentrations as compared to less frequent consumption of seafood and fish. The same trend was observed for PFOA and PFHxS but not statistically significant. Consumption of eggs at least 2 times per week was associated with 11% (95% CI: 2-22%) and 14% (95% CI: 2-27%) increase in PFOS and PFNA concentrations, respectively, as compared to less frequent consumption of eggs. Significantly higher PFOS concentrations were observed for participants consuming offal (14% (95% CI: 3-26%)), the same trend was observed for the other PFAS but not statistically significant. Local food consumption at least 2 times per week was associated with 40% (95% CI: 19-64%) increase in PFOS levels as compared to those consuming local food less frequently. CONCLUSION: This work provides information about current levels of PFAS in European teenagers and potential dietary sources of exposure to PFAS in European teenagers. These results can be of use for targeted monitoring of PFAS in food.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Fluorocarburos , Masculino , Femenino , Animales , Adolescente , Humanos , Peces , Dieta , Modelos Lineales , Recolección de Datos
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 957-967, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178065

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of low protein diets balanced with four amino acids on growth performance, meat quality and cecal microflora of finishing pigs. Fifty-four healthy hybrid barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) with an average body weight of 70.12 ± 4.03 kg were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments with six replicate pens per treatment (three barrows per pen). The three dietary treatments included a normal protein diet (NP), a low protein diet (LP) and a very low protein diet (VLP). RESULTS: The average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio of pigs were not significantly changed with the LP and VLP diets compared to the NP diet (P > 0.05). The water holding capacity and shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle were decreased, whereas the intramuscular fat content of the longissimus dorsi muscle was increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed with the LP and VLP diets compared to the NP diet. The contents of saturated fatty acids in muscle were decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle was increased (P < 0.01) with the VLP diet compared to the NP diet. The contents of histamine, spermidine, spermine and tyramine of muscle were decreased with the VLP diet compared to the NP diet (P < 0.05). The relative abundance of Turicibacter, Terrisporobacter, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and UCG-005 was higher (P < 0.05), whereas the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus was lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed with the LP and VLP diets compared to the NP diet. Based on the correlation of cecal microbiota and cecal biogenic amine, the contents of tyramine, spermidine and histamine were negatively correlated with the abundance of Terrisporobacter (P < 0.01) and the content of histamine was positively correlated with the abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Balanced with four essential amino acids, the VLP diet with crude protein levels decreased by > 4% increased the intramuscular fat content, changed the fatty acid and amino acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscle and the profile of cecum microbiota, and reduced the content of cecum bioamine, with no negative effect on the growth performance of pigs. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Porcinos , Animales , Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas/veterinaria , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Espermidina/farmacología , Histamina , Carne/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Ciego/metabolismo , Tiramina , Composición Corporal
19.
Physiol Behav ; 258: 114002, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273496

RESUMEN

Rats offered free access to sucrose solution in addition to a sucrose-free composite diet develop leptin resistance whereas those consuming a similar amount of sucrose from a dry diet remain leptin responsive. Here we tested whether rats consuming a complete high sucrose diet in liquid form also became leptin resistant. Female Sprague Dawley rats were offered a sucrose free diet (NS), a dry high sucrose diet (HS), NS diet plus 30% sucrose solution (LiqS), NS diet in liquid form (NSLiq) or HS diet in Liquid form (HSLiq). After 30 days LiqS rats were leptin resistant, but all other groups were leptin responsive even though HSLiq rats consumed as much sucrose as LiqS rats and NSLiq rats had the greatest amount of body fat. Therefore, development of leptin resistance is dependent upon the consumption of sucrose independent of any other nutrients. Because LiqS rats consume sucrose throughout the day and night we tested whether limiting sucrose solution access to either the light or dark period prevented development of leptin resistance. Leptin resistant LiqS rats were either given free access to sucrose, had access to sucrose only at night or had access only during the day. The intake of rats with limited access was supplemented to the level of those with free access by tube-feeding. The results of this study show that leptin resistance of LiqS rats is independent of when the sucrose is consumed and is unrelated to total energy intake, body fat mass or serum leptin concentration.


Asunto(s)
Sacarosa en la Dieta , Leptina , Femenino , Ratas , Animales , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Ingestión de Energía , Dieta , Peso Corporal
20.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120626, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370968

RESUMEN

Modern agriculture depends highly on pesticides and pharmaceutical preparations, so controlling exposure to these substances in the feed and food chain is essential. This article presents the first study on residues of a broad spectrum of pesticides and veterinary drugs in the diets of dairy cattle. One hundred and two representative samples of the complete diets, including basal feed rations and additional fed concentrate, were collected in three Austrian provinces (Styria, Lower and Upper Austria) in 2019 and 2020. The samples were tested for >700 pesticides, veterinary drugs and related metabolites using a validated method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). In total, 16 residues (13 pesticides and three veterinary drug residues) were detected. > 90% of the diets contained pesticide residues and <10% veterinary drug residues, whereas banned pesticides were not found. The most frequent pesticide residues were fluopyram (62%), piperonyl butoxide (39%) and diethyltoluamide (35%). The following pesticides exceed the default EU maximum residue level (MRL) (10 µg kg-1) for products exclusively used for animal feed production: Benzovindiflupyr (proportion of samples > MRLs: 1%), bixafen (2%), fluopyram (6%), ipconazole (1%) and tebuconazole (3%). Three residues (dinitrocarbanilide, monensin and nicarbazin) of veterinary drugs were identified, all below the MRLs. Over 60% of the evaluated samples contained mixtures of two to six residues/sample. Only one pesticide (diethyltoluamide) presented a significant difference among regions, with higher concentrations in Upper Austria. Brewery's spent grains were the dietary ingredient that showed the strongest correlation to pesticide residues. These findings evidence the realistic scenario of highly occurrent low doses of pesticides cocktails in the feed/food chain, which may affect the animal, human and environmental health. Since the risk assessments are based on single pesticides, the potential synergistic effect of co-occurring chemicals ("cocktail effect") requires further investigations.


Asunto(s)
Residuos de Plaguicidas , Plaguicidas , Drogas Veterinarias , Animales , Humanos , Bovinos , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Drogas Veterinarias/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Austria , Agricultura Orgánica , Dieta , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis
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