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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130911, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455325

RESUMEN

Postmortem alteration by apoptosis has significant effects on flesh quality. Currently, the information necessary to understand the apoptotic behavior and the molecular mechanisms during postmortem alteration in fish muscle is still lacking. Activation of apoptosis and the cytokines involved in regulating apoptosis in fish muscle were evaluated during postmortem condition at 4 °C for 5 days in terms of apoptotic morphology changes, nucleus DNA fragmentation, caspases activation and related gene expressions. The triggering apoptotic mechanisms associated with multiple cytokines transcriptional levels showed that the up-regulated pro-apoptotic mediators [IFN-γ2, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-17D, IL-12p35 and IL-10 (except IL-15)] and the down-regulated anti-apoptotic mediators of [IL-8 and IL-11 (except TGF-ß and IL-4)] both regulated apoptosis at early stage, which were regulated by NF-κB and TOR, respectively. Results suggested that transcriptional regulation of multiple cytokines produce a positive outcome on triggering apoptosis.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Enfermedades de los Peces , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Aeromonas hydrophila , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Apoptosis , Carpas/genética , Citocinas/genética , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Proteínas de Peces/genética , Inmunidad Innata , Músculos , FN-kappa B/genética
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130494, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293544

RESUMEN

Bioactive peptides have recently gained more research attention as potential therapies for the management of bodily disorders and metabolic syndromes of delicate health importance. On another note, there is a rising trend on a global scale for the consumption and adoption of fruit and vegetables for the fulfilment of dietary and health needs. Furthermore, fruits and vegetables are being more studied as base materials for the isolation of biologically functional components and accordingly, they have been investigated for their concomitant bioactive peptides. This review focuses on isolation and bio-functional properties of bioactive peptides from fruits and vegetables. This manuscript is potential in serving as a material collection for fundamental consultancy on peptides derived from fruits and vegetables, and further canvasses the necessitation for the use of these food materials as primal matter for such.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Verduras , Dieta , Péptidos
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130636, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314929

RESUMEN

The study aimed to determine the efficiency of advanced chelate compounds-based trace minerals (OTM) in laying hens. Laying hens (240, 32 weeks old) were assigned to one of the following five groups: NOTM (no added trace minerals), CONTM (standard mineral salts), and three experimental groups in which chelates were used to replace 33, 66, and 100% of mineral salts (OTM33, OTM66, and OTM100, respectively). Each treatment had six replicates with eight hens per replicate. After 18 weeks, performance and physicochemical properties of eggs in all experimental groups was better than those in the NOTM group. Among the treatments, OTM66 and OTM100 produced the best results in terms of laying performance, yolk PUFA/SFA ratio, Zn and Se contents, and malondialdehyde concentration in both serum and yolk. In conclusion, up to 66% OTM supplementation was beneficial for performance, lipid and mineral composition of yolk, and oxidative status.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Ácidos Grasos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Yema de Huevo/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Femenino , Minerales/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo
4.
Food Chem ; 367: 130628, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343807

RESUMEN

A spectrophotometric method based on diazo-coupling reaction for nitrite analysis was established and validated, including inter-laboratory validation, linearity, accuracy, precision, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The time-saving and high-recovery method was established by examining the filtration step, colorimetric process and concentration range of the calibration curve. This method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) in the range of 0.025-1.0 µg/mL. The three-level recoveries were between 86.7% and 108.6%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) below 5.8%. Mean nitrite concentration ranges in processed foods were ND-33.47 mg/kg. The mean nitrite intake was 0.8% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI, 0.07 mg/kg bw/day) for all children and adolescents and 2.8% for the consumer group. The major contributors for all subjects and consumers were ham, sausage and bacon. These results indicated that the improved method was suitable for analyzing nitrite in processed foods and the nitrite exposure levels were safe.


Asunto(s)
Productos de la Carne , Nitritos , Adolescente , Niño , Dieta , Exposición Dietética , Humanos , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Nitritos/análisis , República de Corea
5.
Food Chem ; 367: 130732, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384980

RESUMEN

Saccharin was determined based on a new molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure. The polymer was synthesized with a hybrid monomer of metacrylic acid and 3-amino propril tetraethoxysilane and saccharin as template. After the synthesis, the saccharin removal from the MIP was verified by the UV analysis of the solutions used in the template removal procedure, as well as by the direct MIP analysis using FTIR hyperspectral image and chemometrics. The residual saccharin concentrations observed in the image analysis revealed a narrow concentration distribution consistent with a homogenous material. The MISPE was performed with homemade cartridges containing 200 mg of the MIP. The results obtained with standards and diet tea samples confirmed high affinity, adsorption capacity and selectivity of the MIP. The MISPE cartridge exhibited recoveries of 100 ± 3% in six extraction cycles. The diet tea analysis showed a significant reduction of the interferences, which can considerable simplifies the HPLC-UV analysis.


Asunto(s)
Impresión Molecular , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Dieta , Imágenes Hiperespectrales , Sacarina , Extracción en Fase Sólida ,
6.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108599, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365253

RESUMEN

The impact of growth rate (GR) and finishing regime (FR) on growth and meat quality traits of Angus x Nellore crossbred steers, harvested at a constant body weight (530 ± 20 kg) or time on feed (140 days), was evaluated. Treatments were: 1) feedlot, high GR; 2) feedlot, low GR; 3) pasture, high GR and 4) pasture, low GR. Live body composition, carcass and meat quality traits were evaluated. High GR had greater impact on muscle and fat deposition in feedlot-finished, but not in pasture-finished animals. Feedlot animals had higher Longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, meat luminosity and tenderness when compared to pasture groups. Moreover, pasture- and feedlot-finished animals with similar GR did not differ in the chromatic attributes of non-aged meat, regardless of endpoint. Thus, GR appeared to be the main factor driving beef chromatic parameters, while FR had a major impact on achromatic attributes and tenderness of meat.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/veterinaria , Carne Roja/análisis , Tejido Adiposo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Composición Corporal , Color , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Resistencia al Corte
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150027, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482139

RESUMEN

This study aims to evaluate the ecotoxicity effects of single tetracycline (TC) exposure and mixture exposure in presence of polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs, 80 nm) on juvenile Ctenopharyngodon idella. We carried out single and combined exposure of TC (5000 µg/L) and PS-NPs (20, 200, 2000 µg/L) for 7 days. Compared to TC single exposure, co-exposure to PS-NPs and TC significantly changed the levels of antioxidant entities, including T-AOC, SOD, and CAT in the liver and intestine of C. idella, indicating that PS-NPs might enhance the oxidative damage caused by TC. Further, the co-exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression levels of MMP2, MMP9, and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner in the liver and intestine tissues of C. idella, compared to the control and TC single exposure groups. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree showed that MMP2 and MMP9 in C. idella are relatively conservative, and the mRNA expressions of MMP2 are significantly positively correlated with TGFß1, IL8, and MMP9 in Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) and Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD). The above genes in LIHC and COAD were significantly correlated with various immune cells. Further, histopathological analysis revealed tissue lesions in the intestine and gill of fish in all the exposed groups, compared to the control group. In short, the present study illustrated that the toxicological effects of organic pollutants such as TC could be influenced by the presence of NPs in the C. idella.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Enfermedades de los Peces , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta , Proteínas de Peces/genética , Microplásticos , Filogenia , Poliestirenos/toxicidad , Tetraciclina
8.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108670, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509096

RESUMEN

Feed efficiency was measured in thirty Pelibuey noncastrated male lambs using the residual feed intake (RFI) and residual intake and gain (RIG). The lambs were fattened for 92 d and then slaughtered, with the aim of identifying the interplay between feed efficiency indices (FEIs) and performance, rumen fermentation parameters, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits from the 15 intermediate and most extreme lambs for each FEI. The mean values of the classes were -0.09, 0.00, and 0.09 kg DM/d for low, medium and high RFI, respectively. The RIG indicators were 2.6, -0.1, and -2.7, for high, medium and low, respectively. The lambs with high-RIG had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) average daily gain and improved feed conversion. Lambs with low-RFI and high-RIG had higher (P < 0.05) values of meat cooking loss. Efficient lambs had improved feed utilization without affecting the carcass characteristics or meat quality (except for cooking loss).


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Carne Roja/análisis , Oveja Doméstica/fisiología , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Composición Corporal , Dieta/veterinaria , Fermentación , Masculino , Rumen/fisiología
9.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 437-448, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196812

RESUMEN

Since allergic diseases are of great public health relevance, effective primary prevention strategies are urgently needed. This chapter gives an overview of existing primary prevention programs on environmental exposures and dietary strategies based on epidemiological studies which have defined risk- and protective factors for the development of allergic diseases.The allergy protective effect mediated by growing up on a traditional farm environment is well studied. But the exact underlying mechanisms have still not been fully clarified and have not yet led to concrete prevention strategies. The beneficial effect of avoiding cigarette smoke exposure, indoor moisture and molds in pregnancy and childhood on the development of asthma is well documented. Whereas the avoidance of house dust mite exposure is not recommended to prevent eczema or allergy. Dietary supplementation with vitamins, pre- and probiotics in pregnant woman and their offspring is not harmful but evidence for the prevention of allergic diseases is still lacking. Fish oil consumption was shown to be asthma protective. The early introduction of peanuts and egg protein to prevent peanut and egg allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is promising. Further studies are needed to increase the overall evidence in allergy prevention. Most studies lack methodological standards such as randomization and blinding. More evidence is in demand on the potential beneficial impact of multifaceted interventional studies. The future of allergy prevention strategies might be based on individual risk assessment. Therefore, research in the immunological and molecular basis of allergic diseases needs to be promoted.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Dermatitis Atópica , Eccema , Hipersensibilidad , Niño , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad/prevención & control , Lactante , Embarazo
10.
Food Chem ; 370: 131350, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788962

RESUMEN

Polyphenols are bioactive substances that minimize the risk of a variety of chronic diseases. Exposure to polyphenol bioactive compounds in our diet has increased across the globe, with amplified expectations from consumers, industry, and regulators centered on the potential benefits and essential safety of these compounds. Several data resources for beneficial properties of dietary polyphenols are present; however, toxicological information remains partial. We present a dynamic web-based database to assess dietary polyphenols' safety and fulfill the toxicity data gaps in the domain of food safety. The database (ToxDP2) comprises 415 dietary polyphenolic compounds, distributed into 15 subclasses with 25,792 collected and predicted data points. This web server facilitates the exploration of polyphenols for divergent applications. The data-driven approach on the ToxDP2 provides researchers with an understanding of polyphenols structure-function-toxicity relationships beneficial for developing nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, herbal supplements, and formulations.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Polifenoles , Dieta , Polifenoles/análisis
11.
Food Chem ; 370: 131069, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536780

RESUMEN

Wholegrains have been promoted for human consumption due to their various health benefits. However, different wholegrains vary in nutritional composition and their beneficial impact on health. In this study, we compared the in vitro starch and protein digestibility, as well as dietary fiber content of eight different wholegrains including barley, buckwheat, coix seed, foxtail millet, oat, proso millet, quinoa, and sorghum and their porridges. We found that boiling improved starch digestibility of all grains, and protein digestibility except proso millet and sorghum. Porridges made from oats, quinoa, or buckwheat are considered healthier than others due to their lower glycemic index and glycemic load, higher digestible protein content and amino acid bioaccessibility, and higher dietary fiber content (>12%). This study could provide a comprehensive nutritional composition and digestibility of the eight types of wholegrains and their porridges. Dietary recommendations were also given for different populations based on factor analysis.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Digestión , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Grano Comestible/química , Humanos , Almidón
12.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108662, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469806

RESUMEN

This work investigated the effects of feeding ensiled bergamot pulp to pigs on meat and salami quality. Eighteen pigs were assigned to two experimental treatments and fed a cereal-based concentrate diet (control) or the same diet in which ensiled bergamot pulp replaced 15% dry matter of the diet fed (BP). The BP treatment increased α-linolenic acid (+250%; P < 0.05), docosapentaenoic acid (+62%; P < 0.05), docosahexaenoic acid (+43%; P < 0.05) and consequently n-3 PUFA (+15%; P < 0.01) in meat. In salami, the content of α-linolenic acid, total PUFA and n-3 PUFA increased (+320%, +25% and + 258%, respectively) by feeding the BP diet (P < 0.001). The inclusion of bergamot pulp in the diet did not alter the oxidative stability in raw and cooked meat and colour descriptors. In salami, TBARS values were lower after 5 days of storage (P < 0.001) in BP group (1.54 vs 2.96). Finally, dietary supplementation with ensiled bergamot pulp to pigs improved the nutritional value of meat and meat products.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Citrus , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Carne de Cerdo/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/análisis , Ensilaje , Porcinos
13.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 364-374, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569732

RESUMEN

This study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of selenium (Se-NP) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) nanoparticles on growth performance, hemato-biochemical profile, immune and oxidative stress responses, and intestinal morphometry of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Monosex Nile tilapia (12.50 ± 1.03 g, N= 180) were randomly allocated into 4 groups in triplicates. Fish were fed diet supplemented with 0 Se-NP and Zn-NP (control group, CG), while fish in the other experimental groups were fed diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg diet Se-NP (Se-NP group), 10 mg/kg diet ZnO-NP (Zn-NP group), and a mixture of 1 and 10 mg/kg diet Se-NP and Zn-NP, respectively (Se/Zn-NP group) for 60 days. Fish fed diet containing Se-NP, Zn-NP, and Se/Zn-NP showed higher final body weight, weight gain, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, and lower feed conversion ratio with respect to CG (P<0.05) with the highest being in fish fed with Se/Zn-NP. Fish fed with Se/Zn-NP showed higher hemoglobin, red blood cells, and globulin (P<0.05). The highest phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin M was recorded in fish that received Se/Zn-NP followed by Se-NP, Zn-NP, and the lowest in CG (P<0.05). Fish that received diet supplemented with Se-NP, Zn-NP, and Se/Zn-NP significantly (P<0.05) increased superoxide dismutase and catalase while reduced malonaldehyde activity compared to CG. Intestinal morphometry revealed significantly (P<0.05) increased villi length and goblet cells number in fish fed with Se-NP and/or Zn-NP. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Nile tilapia with Se-NP and Zn-NP induces synergistic effects that improve growth performance, blood health, and intestinal histomorphology.


Asunto(s)
Cíclidos , Nanopartículas , Selenio , Óxido de Zinc , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Estrés Oxidativo , Selenio/farmacología , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 348-353, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580353

RESUMEN

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of zinc in the diet in the form of nano zinc oxide (nano ZnO) on the performance of broilers. A total of 240 day-old commercial broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design into 6 treatments with 8 replicates of 5 chicks each. Treatments comprised of T1- basal diet (BD) without ZnO supplementation, T2- 2.5 ppm ZnO, T3- 5 ppm ZnO, T4- 10 ppm ZnO, T5- 20 ppm ZnO, and T6- 40 ppm inorganic ZnO. The results revealed that supplementation of nano ZnO at 2.5 ppm recorded significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight gain, feed intake, and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control and other treatment groups at 42 days of age. All dietary treatments failed to exert any significant (P > 0.05) effect on various carcass parameters (dressing percentage, abdominal fat, giblet yields), serum protein and cholesterol concentrations, and meat quality parameters (water holding capacity and pH) of broiler chicken at 42 days of age. Finally, it could be concluded that supplementation of nano ZnO at 2.5 ppm improved the performance of broilers.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Óxido de Zinc , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Carne/análisis , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología
15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 156-163, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590455

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary high doses of chromium-methionine (CrMet) supplementation on blood hemato-biochemical parameters and growth performance of finishing lambs reared under warm condition with average temperature-humidity index (THI) of 85.8 unit. Fifteen male lambs (31.9 ± 1.2 kg) fed with either un-supplemented diet (CON) or supplemented with 1.5 (Cr1.5) and 3 (Cr3) mg of Cr/kg dry matter (DM) for 8 weeks. The results showed that high levels of supplemental Cr had no negative impacts on red (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC). Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) tended to be higher in CrMet-fed lambs than those of CON (P < 0.1). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), as a lipid peroxidation marker, was, respectively, 20.24 and 22.1%, lower in lambs given 1.5 and 3 mg of chromium comparing those of CON (P < 0.05). Moreover, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, U/dL) displayed higher activity in Cr3 (421.2) group than those of CON (334.6) and Cr1.5 (351.2) groups (P < 0.05). Accordingly, GSH-PX activity per gram hemoglobin (U/gHb) was 45.9% greater in lambs of Cr3 than the CON (P < 0.05). Furthermore, feeding 3 mg of Cr led to increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P < 0.05): as such, SOD was 1193.1, 1281.5, and 1433.0 U/gHb in CON, Cr1.5, and Cr3, respectively. Chromium supplementation linearly decreased serum iron concentration (P < 0.05), but neither blood calcium, phosphorous, copper, zinc, and glucose concentrations nor aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were affected by supplemental CrMet. In comparison with CON (1250), lambs in Cr1.5 (1199) and Cr3 (1192) groups had lower daily feed intake (g/d, P < 0.01). In addition, feed to gain ratio was 21.5% lower in the Cr3 group than the control (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that feeding summer-exposed finishing lambs with 3 mg of Cr/kg DM improves blood antioxidant status and feed to gain efficiency without adverse effects on lambs' health and metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Metionina , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Células Sanguíneas , Cromo/farmacología , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Masculino , Minerales , Ovinos
16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 339-347, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598892

RESUMEN

The aim of present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of chromium (III) picolinate (CrPic) and chromium (III) picolinate nanoparticles (NCrPic) addition on growth performance, stress-related hormonal changes, and serum levels of various immunity biomarkers, as well as the gene expression of IFN-γ in broilers exposed to heat stress conditions. Treatments included T1 which received the basal diet with no feed additive; T2 exposed to heat stress; T3, T4, and T5 containing 500, 1000, and 1500 ppb CrPic; as well as T6, T7, and T8 containing 500, 1000, and 1500 ppb NCrPic, respectively. After 2 weeks from CrPic and NCrPic supplementation, IFN-γ mRNA expression was assayed using the RT-PCR technique. The results showed that the lower body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake by heat stress, and the feed conversion ratio were recovered remarkably by CrPic and NCrPic supplements. The stress-elevated levels of cortisol and immunoglobulin were reduced significantly using CrPic and NCrPic supplementation (P ≤ 0.05). The gene expression profile showed that the upregulated expression of IFN-γ was regulated by the addition of CrPic and NCrPic, in particular, to the diet; however, a full downregulation of IFN-γ expression was observed after week 2 of NCrPic supplementation. In conclusion, the results indicated that nanoparticle supplementation could be effective in reducing heat stress-induced detrimental alterations, thereby attributing to substantial changes to the immune system, including IFN-γ expression.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Nanopartículas , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Cromo/farmacología , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacología
17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 27-30, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630276

RESUMEN

Recently, a discussion has begun on the global management strategy against COVID-19 based on the hypothesis that individuals' macro- and micronutrient status combined with antiviral drugs and herbs can be an ally against the infection. The hypothesis is that people's nutritional and oxidative scavenging capacity may provide fundamental data to predict severe and acute pulmonary distress following SARS-Cov2 infection. Consequently, the scientific community has addressed the role of balanced diets, nutritional supplements, and micronutrients, including folk herbal formulations, in reducing hospitalization and the severity of pulmonary impact in COVID-19 by preventing the most serious forms of the infection. This led to an animated debate on the potential effectiveness of some vitamins, micronutrients, and traditional Chinese medicine in preventing COVID-19, with some authors convinced that plant extracts could act oppositely, exacerbating the effect of the infection. While current research is still far to assess the suggestions and issues raised in this short communication, it is undoubtedly true that determining an individual's current metabolic status, including macro- and micronutrients, is an essential factor in defining any individuals' deficiencies, which will need to be addressed urgently through a proper diet, specific personalized nutritional supplementation, and lifestyle changes.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos , COVID-19 , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150050, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509851

RESUMEN

Fish larvae play an important structuring role for their prey and show ontogenetic shifts in diet. Changes in diet differ between species and habitats and may also be affected by turbidity (eutrophication). We investigated the diet (stomach content) and the food selection (ratio of ingested prey and prey availability) of roach and perch larvae in a clear lake and of roach, perch and pikeperch larvae in a turbid lake multiple times during spring to autumn. The diet of the fish larvae changed with size, and for roach and perch larvae between the lakes. Coexisting species of fish larvae had different diets in the two lakes, pointing to resource partitioning; yet, in the clear lake, medium-sized larvae had a high diet overlap, suggesting a competitive relationship at this developmental stage. In the clear lake, roach larvae showed diel differentiation in diet, while perch demonstrated diet shifts between habitats, which probably aided in reducing competition and also evidenced an effect of light on the larval prey capture and/or predator-fish larvae interactions. In the turbid lake, roach and perch larvae did not reveal differences in diet between habitats or time of the day, owing to homogeneity of food items and poor light conditions. However, the diet of pikeperch larvae differed between day and night following daily variations in the abundance of its preferred prey. The roach larvae were highly selective for Bosmina, Daphnia and benthic cladocerans, perch larvae generally consumed what was available, while pikeperch primarily preyed on cyclopoid copepodites. We conclude that turbidity acted as a cover for fish larvae in the turbid lake. Under eutrophication-induced turbidity scenarios the effects of fish larvae on their prey are stronger (i.e., high selectivity for several resources) than that of larvae in clear waters, creating a negative feedback on the path to restore water clarity.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Percas , Animales , Dieta , Preferencias Alimentarias , Larva , Agua
19.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 471-486, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085122

RESUMEN

In the western world the prevalence of atopic diseases such as food allergies is increasing highly significantly. One of the earliest and most prevalent food allergies occurring in the first year of life is cow's milk allergy. No treatment is available and only avoidance of the cow's milk allergens prevents the occurrence of an allergic reaction. Since cow's milk allergic children have an increased risk of developing other allergies later in life, investigating nutritional strategies to prevent the development of cow's milk allergy by developing oral tolerance is of high interest. Nutritional components such as prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids possess potential to support the maturation of the immune system early in life that might prevent the development of cow's milk allergy. The available research, so far, shows promising results particularly on the development of eczema. However, the preventive effects of the nutritional interventions on the development of food allergy are inconclusive. Future research may benefit from the combination of various dietary components. To clarify the preventive effects of the nutritional components in food allergy more randomized clinical trials are needed.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos , Hipersensibilidad a la Leche , Probióticos , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Femenino , Hipersensibilidad a la Leche/prevención & control , Prevalencia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149891, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474296

RESUMEN

Animals exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may result in retention of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). OH-PCBs can be accumulated in animals, including humans, through the transmission of food chain. However, there are few studies on the accumulation and metabolism of OH-PCBs exposed to the body through daily diet. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the fate of OH-PCBs after being ingested through dietary intake. By adding 3-OH-PCB101 and 4-OH-PCB101 to the edible tissue of crucian carp, which were used as raw materials to prepare mouse feed, with an exposure concentration of 2.5 µg/kg ww. The exposure experiment lasted for a total of 80 days. The blood, feces and 11 tissues of mice at different times were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. It was found that major OH-PCB101 were accumulated in intestine or excreted with feces. A small part was accumulated in heart, lung and spleen. For the first time that the conversion from OH-PCB101 to PCB101 in mice was discovered, which shows from another perspective that persistent organic pollutants are difficult to be completely degraded in the environment. 4-MeO-PCB101, 3-MeSO2-PCB101, and 4-MeSO2-PCB101 were also found in various tissues. The results of this study show that after OH-PCBs accumulated in animals re-enter the organism through the food chain, they can be metabolized again and may be reversely transformed into the parent compounds. The present research shed new light on simulating the metabolic transformation process of OH-PCBs exposed to mammals through ingestion of fish. Available data show that second-generation persistent organic pollutants in the environment still need to be continuously concerned.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animales , Dieta , Peces , Hidroxilación , Ratones , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis
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