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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0221838, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160192

RESUMEN

Larval mosquitoes are aquatic omnivorous scavengers which scrape food from submerged surfaces and collect suspended food particles with their mouth brushes. The composition of diets that have been used in insectaries varies widely though necessarily provides sufficient nutrition to allow colonies to be maintained. Issues such as cost, availability and experience influence which diet is selected. One component of larval diets, essential fatty acids, appears to be necessary for normal flight though deficiencies may not be evident in laboratory cages and are likely more important when mosquitoes are reared for release into the field in e.g. mark-release-recapture and genetic control activities. In this study, four diets were compared for rearing Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, all of which provide these essential fatty acids. Two diets were custom formulations specifically designed for mosquitoes (Damiens) and two were commercially available fish foods: Doctors Foster and Smith Koi Staple Diet and TetraMin Plus Flakes. Development rate, survival, dry weight and adult longevity of mosquitoes reared with these four diets were measured. The method of presentation of one diet, Koi pellets, was additionally fed in two forms, pellets or a slurry, to determine any effect of food presentation on survival and development rate. While various criteria might be selected to choose 'the best' food, the readily-available Koi pellets resulted in development rates and adult longevity equal to the other diets, high survival to the adult stage and, additionally, this is available at low cost.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Anopheles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta/métodos , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Peso Corporal , Dieta/economía , Ácidos Grasos Esenciales , Femenino , Alimentos/economía , Vivienda para Animales/economía , Longevidad , Masculino , Tasa de Supervivencia , Temperatura , Agua
2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229439, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160633

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify food choices allowing the fulfillment of nutritionally adequate diets resembling actual food patterns at the lowest cost achievable for the Brazilian population, stratified by income level. METHODS: Food consumption and prices were obtained from the Household Budget Survey (n = 55,970 households) and National Dietary Survey (n = 32,749 individuals). The sample was stratified into capitals of the states and further by income levels according to the official minimum wage (totaling 108 geographic-economic strata, or GES). Linear programming models were performed for each GES in order to find the lowest cost of diets that meet a set of nutritional constraints. In order to find realistic diets, constraints referring to preferences were introduced in the models allowing optimized food quantities to depart progressively from the current intake for each food and food group. The impact of meeting each target nutrient was assessed by performing models removing each nutrient at the time. RESULTS: The observed and optimized diet costs were US$2.16 and US$2.58 per capita/day. The highest cost increment and the greatest food shifts were observed in the lowest income level. The nutrient adequacy was reached by mainly increasing fruits and vegetables, beans, fish and seafood, dairy, nuts, and eggs; and reducing red and processed meat, chicken, margarine and butter, cookies, cakes, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sauces. As the departure from the current intakes increase, the optimized healthy diet cost reduced. In the lowest income, the lowest cost increment was about US$ 0.10; in the higher income levels, it tended to be cheaper than the observed cost. Calcium was the most expensive nutrient to meet adequacy. CONCLUSION: Nutritionally adequate diets are possible but costlier than the observed.


Asunto(s)
Costos y Análisis de Costo , Dieta/economía , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Pobreza/economía , Brasil , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 19, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049210

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the consumption of ultra-processed foods in the Colombian population across sociodemographic factors. METHODS: We used data from the 2005 National Survey of the Nutritional Status in Colombia. Food consumption was assessed using a 24-hour food recall in 38,643 individuals. The food items were classified according to the degree and extent of industrial processing using the NOVA classification. RESULTS: The mean calorie contribution of ultra-processed foods ranged from 0.2% in the lowest quintile of consumers to 41.1% in the highest quintile of consumers. The greatest increases were due to the consumption of industrialized breads, sweet and savory snacks, sugary drinks, processed meats, and confectionery. No major differences were found in the consumption of ultra-processed foods between men and women. We observed significant differences by age, socioeconomic status, area of residence, and geographic region. Children and adolescents showed a higher intake of ultra-processed foods, almost double that of participants over 50 years of age. Children consumed significantly more snacks, confectionery products, processed cereals, milk-based drinks and desserts. Participants over 50 years consumed fewer products from these sub-groups of ultra-processed foods but had the highest consumption of industrialized bread. Individuals from urban areas, those with high socioeconomic status, participants residing in the Bogotá region had 1.5 to 1.7 times higher calorie intake from ultra-processed foods compared with those from a lower socioeconomic status and those residing in rural regions. CONCLUSION: In Colombia, industrialized bread is the ultra-processed product that is most easily assimilated into the traditional diet, along with snacks and sugary drinks. Children and adolescents residing in urban areas and households with greater purchasing power have some of the highest intakes of ultra-processed foods in the country.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta/economía , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(7): 1141-1159, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668142

RESUMEN

Personalized nutrition means that we are unique in the way to absorb and to metabolize nutrients as a consequence of our genetic profile and the microbiome that we host in the gut. With the terminology of Personalized Food Manufacturing we want not only to stress the idea of the capability to manufacture food meeting our unique nutritional needs but - based on the idea that eating is a global experience - also to broad this to meet additional personal requirements and expectations, i.e. taste, texture, color, aspect, etc. To address this aim, traditional and advances technologies will have to be employed in new ways and new technological solutions will have to be implemented. All these considerations motivated our paper by which we want to explore and to discuss the technological options having the potential to produce personalized food. After pointing out the main diet styles, firstly we have analyzed the modern approaches of agricultural and animal nutrition in use to manufacture food for narrow group of consumers. Secondly, we have explored emerging technologies at disposal employable to manufacture customized food that meet our uniqueness. Finally the most important market products belonging in the sector of personalized food production have been considered.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/economía , Dieta/métodos , Preferencias Alimentarias , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Individualidad , Animales , Industria de Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Gusto
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(1): e59-e66, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708415

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The EAT-Lancet Commission drew on all available nutritional and environmental evidence to construct the first global benchmark diet capable of sustaining health and protecting the planet, but it did not assess dietary affordability. We used food price and household income data to estimate affordability of EAT-Lancet benchmark diets, as a first step to guiding interventions to improve diets around the world. METHODS: We obtained retail prices from 2011 for 744 foods in 159 countries, collected under the International Comparison Program. We used these data to identify the most affordable foods to meet EAT-Lancet targets. We compared total diet cost per day to each country's mean per capita household income, calculated the proportion of people for whom the most affordable EAT-Lancet diet exceeds total income, and also measured affordability relative to a least-cost diet that meets essential nutrient requirements. FINDINGS: The most affordable EAT-Lancet diets cost a global median of US$2·84 per day (IQR 2·41-3·16) in 2011, of which the largest share was the cost of fruits and vegetables (31·2%), followed by legumes and nuts (18·7%), meat, eggs, and fish (15·2%), and dairy (13·2%). This diet costs a small fraction of average incomes in high-income countries but is not affordable for the world's poor. We estimated that the cost of an EAT-Lancet diet exceeded household per capita income for at least 1·58 billion people. The EAT-Lancet diet is also more expensive than the minimum cost of nutrient adequacy, on average, by a mean factor of 1·60 (IQR 1·41-1·78). INTERPRETATION: Current diets differ greatly from EAT-Lancet targets. Improving diets is affordable in many countries but for many people would require some combination of higher income, nutritional assistance, and lower prices. Data and analysis for the cost of healthier foods are needed to inform both local interventions and systemic changes. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Costos y Análisis de Costo/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/economía , Dieta/normas , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Política Nutricional/economía , Humanos
6.
PLoS Med ; 16(12): e1002981, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Poor diet is a leading risk factor for cardiometabolic disease (CMD) in the United States, but its economic costs are unknown. We sought to estimate the cost associated with suboptimal diet in the US. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A validated microsimulation model (Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model for Risk, Events, Detection, Interventions, Costs, and Trends [CVD PREDICT]) was used to estimate annual cardiovascular disease (fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke) and type 2 diabetes costs associated with suboptimal intake of 10 food groups (fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds, whole grains, unprocessed red meats, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, polyunsaturated fats, seafood omega-3 fats, sodium). A representative US population sample of individuals aged 35-85 years was created using weighted sampling from National Health And Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2009-2012 cycles. Estimates were stratified by cost type (acute, chronic, drug), sex, age, race, education, BMI, and health insurance. Annual diet-related CMD costs were $301/person (95% CI $287-$316). This translates to $50.4 billion in CMD costs (18.2% of total) for the whole population, of which 84.3% are attributed to acute care ($42.6 billion). The largest annual per capita costs are attributed to low consumption of nuts/seeds ($81; 95% CI $74-$86) and seafood omega-3 fats ($76; 95% CI $70-$83), and the lowest are attributed to high consumption of red meat ($3; 95% CI $2.8-$3.5) and polyunsaturated fats ($20; 95% CI $19-$22). Individual costs are highest for men ($380), those aged ≥65 years ($408), blacks ($320), the less educated ($392), and those with Medicare ($481) or dual-eligible ($536) insurance coverage. A limitation of our study is that dietary intake data were assessed from 24-hour dietary recall, which may not fully capture a diet over a person's life span and is subject to measurement errors. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal diet of 10 dietary factors accounts for 18.2% of all ischemic heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes costs in the US, highlighting that timely implementation of diet policies could address these health and economic burdens.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Dieta/economía , Medicare/economía , Encuestas Nutricionales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
7.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861553

RESUMEN

Socioeconomic status affects food choices. This study examined the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and animal and plant protein intake in the Korean elderly population whose protein intake is insufficient. We used cross-sectional data from 3512 Koreans aged 60 years or older, who had participated in the Nutrition Survey of the 2013-14 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). One day 24-h recall data was used to estimate the daily total, animal, and plant protein intake. Household income and educational attainment were assessed by trained interviewers. After making adjustment, household income was positively associated with animal protein intake with a statistical significance in females (p = 0.030) and with a marginal significance in males (p = 0.069). However, plant protein intake did not show any significant association. In both sexes, educational attainment was positively associated with animal protein intake (p = 0.007 for males, p = 0.001 for females). Association of educational attainment with plant protein intake was negative in males (p = 0.037) and non-significant in females. (p = 0.945). High SES was associated with higher total protein intake and animal protein intake in the Korean elderly. Health policies and nutrition education are needed to improve protein intake of the vulnerable Korean elderly with low SES.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Proteínas en la Dieta/economía , Renta , Encuestas Nutricionales , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 703-711, Nov. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001487

RESUMEN

Abstract This study was conducted to determine an appropriate replacement of fishmeal with amino acids (AAs) and optimized protein levels in practical diets for Oreochromis niloticus with mean initial body weight 12.52±0.63g. Six experimental and a control diet (total 7 diets) divided into two groups, and a control diet (D1) containing 32% protein. The first group contained three diets that included different dietary protein levels, viz. 20 (D2), 25 (D3), and 30% (D4) with AAs when replacing fishmeal by plant protein sources. In the second group, the diets were contained 20 (D5), 25 (D6), and 30% (D7) without AAs. The best growth performance was achieved in fish fed with diet D1. Total feed intake was increased with an increase in dietary protein level with AAs. The specific growth rate showed a similar pattern with a significant difference between control, D4 and D7 compared to other groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased when protein levels in the diets increased. The protein efficiency ratio showed a similar performance, with a slight increase between the control diet and diets with AAs. However, insignificant differences (P>0.05) were observed between diets with and without AAs. An economic evaluation indicated that inclusion of low fishmeal in tilapia diets reduced the price/kg of diets compared to control.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para determinar uma substituição adequada de farinha de peixe com aminoácidos (AA) e níveis otimizados de proteína em dietas práticas para Oreochromis niloticus com peso corporal inicial médio de 12,52 ± 0,63 g. Seis dietas experimentais e controle (total de 7 dietas) divididas em dois grupos, e uma dieta controle (D1) contendo 32% de proteína. O primeiro grupo continha três dietas que incluíam diferentes níveis de proteína na dieta, viz. 20 (D2), 25 (D3) e 30% (D4) com AAs ao substituir a farinha de peixe por fontes de proteína vegetal. No segundo grupo, as dietas continham 20 (D5), 25 (D6) e 30% (D7) sem AAs. O melhor desempenho de crescimento foi alcançado em peixes alimentados com dieta D1. O consumo total de ração foi aumentado com o aumento do nível de proteína na dieta com AAs. A taxa de crescimento específico mostrou um padrão semelhante com uma diferença significativa entre o controle, D4 ​​e D7 em comparação com outros grupos. A taxa de conversão alimentar diminuiu quando os níveis de proteína nas dietas aumentaram. A taxa de eficiência protéica apresentou desempenho semelhante, com discreto aumento entre a dieta controle e as dietas com AAs. Entretanto, diferenças insignificantes (P> 0,05) foram observadas entre dietas com e sem AAs. Uma avaliação econômica indicou que a inclusão de farinha de peixe baixa em dietas de tilápia reduziu o preço / kg de dietas em relação ao controle.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Alimentos Marinos/economía , Alimentos Marinos/normas , Cíclidos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cíclidos/fisiología , Dieta/economía , Dieta/métodos , Peso Corporal , Proteínas en la Dieta , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Aminoácidos , Alimentación Animal/economía
9.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623373

RESUMEN

Lower cost can lead to poorer-quality diets, potentially worsening metabolic profiles. We explored these pathways among urban adults. Longitudinal data were extracted from 1224-1479 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. DASH(mean) (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score was computed using four 24 h recalls (v1/v2: 2004-2013) linked with a national food price database to estimate monetary value of the diet [MVD(mean)]. Allostatic load (AL) was measured at visits 2 (v2) and 3 (v3) in 2009-2018. Mixed-effects regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted, linking MVD(mean)/DASH(mean) to AL [v2 and annual change(v3-v2)] and exploring mediating pathways between MVD(mean) and AL(v3) through DASH(mean), stratifying by sex, race and poverty status. MVD(mean) tertiles were linearly associated with contemporaneous DASH(mean), after energy adjustment. In mixed-effects regression models, DASH(mean) was consistently linked to lower AL(v2). DASH(mean) and MVD(mean) were positively associated with higher serum albumin(v2). In SEM, MVD(mean) was linked to AL(v3) through DASH(mean), mainly among Whites and specifically for the cholesterol and Waist-Hip-Ratio AL components. In summary, energy and other covariate-adjusted increase in MVD may have a sizeable impact on DASH which can reduce follow-up AL among urban White middle-aged adults. More studies are needed to replicate findings in comparable samples of urban adults.


Asunto(s)
Alostasis/fisiología , Costos y Análisis de Costo/economía , Dieta/economía , Enfoques Dietéticos para Detener la Hipertensión/economía , Población Urbana , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Escolaridad , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Envejecimiento Saludable/fisiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Pobreza/economía , Albúmina Sérica/análisis
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(11): 4053-4060, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664378

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of ultra-processed foods and associated factors in prepubertal children. It is a cross-sectional study with 378 children aged 8 and 9 years enrolled in public and private schools in Viçosa-MG. Food intake was assessed by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary data were entered into the Diet Pro® 5i software to quantify energy intake. The Two-Step Cluster technique was used to analyze food consumption groups, with the Stata 13 software package. The foods were grouped and classified as "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating markers. The association between the sociodemographic variables and the groups formed was examined by Poisson Regression. Two food groups were formed: "healthy" and "unhealthy". The caloric intake of ultra-processed foods was lower in the "healthy" group (20.5%) than in the "unhealthy" group (24.1%; P = 0.043). The multivariate model showed that private school children (PR = 1.25, P <0.001), who did not receive Bolsa Familia (PR = 1.13, P = 0.036) and had working mothers (PR = 1.38, P <0.001) had increased probability of unhealthy food consumption. Ultra-processed food intake was associated with greater purchasing power of families of prepubertal children.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Ingestión de Energía , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/economía , Dieta Saludable/economía , Familia , Comida Rápida/economía , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11504-11522, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587901

RESUMEN

Water is essential in livestock production systems. In typical dairy production systems, 90% of the total water used by a dairy farm is attributed to feed production. Theoretically, ration manipulation is a method to potentially reduce the irrigation water needed for feed crops without dramatically increasing diet costs. However, published quantitative studies on the relationship between feed production and water use that are integrated with linear programming models are scarce. The overall objective of this study was to develop an optimization framework that could achieve a balance between minimization of dietary costs and dietary irrigation water usage, and that could be used as a framework for future research and models for various livestock production systems. Weighted goal programming models were developed to minimize the dietary costs and irrigation water usage for a hypothetical cow under 8 different environmental scenarios. The environmental conditions used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, including 2 atmospheric CO2 concentrations (400 and 550 ppm), 2 water years (dry and wet), and 2 irrigation methods (furrow and drip). A systematic weighting scheme was used to model the trade-off between minimizing diet cost and minimizing irrigation water use for feedstuffs. Each environmental condition generated a set of distinct diets, which each met the same nutrient requirements of the hypothetical cow but had a different water usage when the weighting scheme was changed from weighting minimum diet costs to minimum irrigation water usage. For water resource planning in areas of dairy production, this set of unique solutions provides the decision maker with different feeding options according to diet cost, water usage, and available feeds. As water was more constrained, dietary dry matter intake increased, concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, ether extract, and energy decreased, and the concentration of lignin increased because less nutritive but more water-saving feedstuffs were included in the diet. Mitigation costs of water usage were calculated from goal programming results and indicated that the potential value of water under water-limited conditions (e.g., in a drought region) was higher than that under water-sufficient conditions. However, a smaller increase in feed costs can initially significantly reduce water usage compared with that of a least-cost diet, which implies that the reduction of water usage through ration manipulation might be possible. This model serves as a framework for the study of irrigation water usage in dairy production and other livestock production systems and for decision-making processes involved in water resources planning in the broader area of animal production.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/economía , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Agua Potable , Animales , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Industria Lechera/economía , Dieta/economía , Ambiente , Femenino , Lactancia , Necesidades Nutricionales , Programación Lineal
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 646, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585547

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is a scarcity of evidence on socioeconomic inequalities of childhood anemia in Ethiopia. We determined the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in anemia and the contribution of dietary and non-dietary factors to the observed inequality, using a nationally representative data of 2902 children included in the 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey. The data were collected following a multistage, stratified cluster sampling strategy. We followed the Blinder-Oaxaca regression-based approach to decompose the inequality and determine the relative contribution (%) of the dietary and non-dietary factors to the observed inequality. RESULT: We found a significant pro-poor socioeconomic inequality in childhood anemia in Ethiopia. A third (~ 33%) of the inequality was attributable to compositional differences in the dietary determinants of anemia (dietary diversity, meal frequency, and breastfeeding factors). Non-dietary factors like residence place, maternal education, and birth weight) jointly explained ~ 36% of the inequality. Maternal education was the single most important factor, accounting alone for ~ 28% the inequality, followed by rural residence (~ 17%) and dietary diversity (~ 16%). Efforts to narrow socioeconomic gaps and/or designing equity sensitive interventions by prioritizing the poor in health/nutrition interventions stands worth of consideration to reduce the burden of childhood anemia in Ethiopia and beyond.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/economía , Anemia/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Estado Nutricional , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Anemia/etiología , Peso al Nacer , Lactancia Materna , Niño , Dieta/economía , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Población Rural , Población Urbana
13.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505826

RESUMEN

The high prevalence of undernutrition, especially stunting, in Ethiopia hampers the country's economic productivity and national development. One of the obstacles to overcome undernutrition is the relatively high cost of food for low economic groups. In this study, linear programming was used to (i) identify urban and rural nutritionally adequate food baskets (FBs) with the highest affordability for an Ethiopian family of five and (ii) create urban and rural FBs, optimized for cultural acceptability, which are affordable for a family with the lowest income. Nutritionally adequate rural and urban FBs with highest affordability cost as little as Ethiopian Birr (ETB) 31 and 38 (~USD 1.07 and 1.31), respectively, but have poor dietary diversity (16 and 19 foods). FBs that cost ETB 71.2 (~USD 2.45) contained 64 and 48 foods, respectively, and were much more similar to the food supply pattern reported by FAO (15% and 19% average relative deviation per food category). The composed FBs, which are affordable for the greater part of the Ethiopian population, may serve as a basis for the development of culturally acceptable food-based dietary guidelines. These guidelines would recommend a diet composed of approximately up to 60% cereals, up to 20% roots and tubers, 10% legumes, and 10% fruits and vegetables by weight, plus only a small share from animal foods.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente/economía , Dieta/economía , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Desnutrición/economía , Política Nutricional/economía , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Desnutrición/dietoterapia , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Pobreza/economía , Programación Lineal , Población Rural , Población Urbana
14.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390758

RESUMEN

Women from low socioeconomic backgrounds are more affected by obesity than men. The influence of weight as a determinant of women's eating behaviors has seldom been studied, especially in Latin America. In this study, we analyzed the food choices of vulnerable women according to their weight status. We conducted photo-elicitation interviews with 31 women from low-income neighborhoods in Santiago, Chile. Weight and height were measured and participants were divided into normal weight (n = 9), overweight (n = 15), and obese groups (n = 7) according to World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) categories (p < 0.001). Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used for the analysis. Women in overweight and obese groups described more about their families, temporality, financial issues, and food perception. When weight groups were analyzed separately, more factors explaining eating behaviors were found (mental and physical health, body dissatisfaction, gender role, and obstacles for eating healthy) in the obese group. Results suggest that women with obesity or overweight based their diets on more internal and external factors than did normal weight women. This study contributes to our understanding of why changing behaviors can be difficult in women with obesity. Health care providers should consider these factors in the implementation of programs to address the need for a healthy diet for overweight and obese women.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Dieta/economía , Conducta Alimentaria , Obesidad/economía , Pobreza , Índice de Masa Corporal , Chile , Femenino , Humanos
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295801

RESUMEN

Socioeconomic deprivation has been linked to food consumption practices, but studies investigating the food environment around schools provide mixed findings. Peer influence and marketing cues are considered important influencers of young people's behaviors. This study used a tribal theory lens to investigate the factors affecting pupils' purchasing and consumption of food/drinks outside schools at lunchtime. A survey was conducted with 243 pupils from seven UK secondary schools of differing socioeconomic status (SES). A purchasing recall questionnaire (PRQ) was developed and administered online at the participating schools to capture food and drink purchasing, intake, and expenditure. No significant differences were found in terms of energy and nutrients consumed or food/drink expenditure between pupils from schools of lower and higher SES. Enjoyment of food shopping with friends was linked with higher food energy intake and spend. Higher susceptibility to peer influence was associated with greater influence from food advertising and endorsements. Without ignoring the impact that SES can have on young people's food choices, we suggest that tribal theory can be additionally used to understand pupils' eating behaviors and we present implications for social marketers and policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Dieta/economía , Dieta/psicología , Preferencias Alimentarias/psicología , Almuerzo/psicología , Clase Social , Identificación Social , Adolescente , Bebidas/economía , Femenino , Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía , Grupo Paritario , Teoría Psicológica , Instituciones Académicas , Escocia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218464, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291265

RESUMEN

There is evidence that replacing saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) lowers ischemic heart disease (IHD). In order to improve the population's diet, the World Health Organization has called for the taxation of foods that are high in SFA. We aimed to assess the potential health gains of a European fat tax by applying the SFA intake reduction that has been observed under the Danish fat tax to six other European countries. For each country, we created a fat tax scenario with a decreased SFA intake and a corresponding increase in PUFA. We compared this fat tax scenario to a reference scenario with no change in SFA intake, and to a guideline scenario with a population-wide SFA intake in line with dietary recommendations. We used DYNAMO-HIA to dynamically project the policy-attributable IHD cases of these three scenarios 10 years into the future. A fat tax would reduce prevalent IHD cases by a minimum of 500 and 300 among males and females in Denmark, respectively, up to a maximum of 5,600 and 4,000 among males and females in the UK. Thereby, the prevented IHD cases under a fat tax scenario would correspond to between 11.0% (in females in the Netherlands) and 29.5% (in females in Italy) of the prevented IHD cases under a guideline scenario, which represents the maximum preventable disease burden. Henceforth, our quantification of beneficial health impacts makes the case for the policy debate on fat taxes.


Asunto(s)
Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiología , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevención & control , Dieta/economía , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Dieta Alta en Grasa/economía , Grasas de la Dieta/economía , Grasas Insaturadas en la Dieta/economía , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Política de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Impuestos
17.
Am J Med ; 132(10): 1182-1190.e5, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278932

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The economic recession of 2008-2009 resulted in unprecedented employment and economic losses leading to deterioration of cardiovascular health. We examined the trends in ideal cardiovascular health as measured by the American Heart Association's (AHA's) Life's Simple 7 metric during the periods of economic recession and subsequent economic recovery. METHODS: Data on adults ages ≥20 years from the NHANES from economic-recession (2007-2010) and post-recession (2011-2016) periods was analyzed. The AHA's Life's Simple 7 score of 10-14 was used to classify ideal cardiovascular health status. Socioeconomic status was divided into 3 categories: high, middle, and low based on education and income status. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models including demographics, insurance status, health care access, and adjustment for multiple testing were used to analyze the trends in prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health across socioeconomic strata. RESULTS: We observed a decline in the multivariable-adjusted mean cardiovascular health score from 8.18 in 2007-2010 to 7.94 in 2015-2016 (Plinear = 0.02). This was primarily driven by the increasing prevalence of obesity (34% in 2007-2010 vs 41% in 2015-2016, Plinear = 0.005) and poor fasting glucose (8% in 2007-2010 vs 12% in 2015-2016, Plinear = 0.003). In multivariable-adjusted models, we observed the decreasing prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health with a nonlinear trend in the participants in the highest (51% in 2007-2010 vs 42% in 2015-2016, Pquadratic = 0.01) and lowest socioeconomic strata (16% in 2007-2010 vs 13% in 2015-2016, Pquadratic = 0.02). The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was higher in participants with high-socioeconomic status compared with other socioeconomic status participants. CONCLUSIONS: Despite economic recovery, ideal cardiovascular health metrics have not yet recovered. Cardiovascular health appears to be further deteriorating for US adults, particularly those in high- and lower-socioeconomic strata.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Dieta/normas , Recesión Económica , Encuestas Nutricionales , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/economía , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Dieta/economía , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aptitud Física , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 40, 2019 07 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325970

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Meeting nutrient intake recommendations may demand substantial modifications in dietary patterns, and may increase diet cost. Incentives for modifying one's dietary intake that disregard prices are unlikely to be effective in the general population, especially among low-income strata, due to the high percentage of income committed to food purchases. The aim of this study is to evaluate how much the nutrient content can be increased through a modeled diet, without any cost increase, for low-income Brazilian households. METHODS: Low-income households were selected from the Household Budget Survey (24,688 households) and National Dietary Survey (6,032 households, 16,962 individuals), from where we obtained food prices and consumption data. Food quantities were modeled using linear programming to find diets that meet nutritional recommendations in two sets of models: cost-constrained (the cost should not be higher than the observed diet cost) and cost-free. Minimum and maximum amounts of each food in the modelled diets were allowed at three levels of food acceptability: rigorous (least deviance from the current observed diets), moderate, and flexible (higher deviance from the current observed diets). RESULTS: We found no feasible solution that would accommodate all the nutritional targets. The most frequent limiting nutrients were calcium; vitamins D, E, and A; zinc; fiber; sodium; and saturated and trans-fats. However, increases in nutrient contents were observed, especially for fiber, calcium, copper, magnesium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. In general, the best achievement was obtained with cost-free models. Fruits and beans increased in all models; large increase in whole cereals was observed only in the flexible models; large increase in vegetables was observed only in the cost-free models; and fish increased only in the cost-free models. Reductions were observed for rice, red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweets. The mean observed cost was US$2.16 per person/day. The mean cost in the cost-free models was US$2.90 (moderate), US$2.70 (rigorous), and US$2.60 (flexible). CONCLUSION: The complete nutritional adequacy is unattainable, although feasible changes would substantially improve diet quality by improving nutrient content without additional costs.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/economía , Dieta/métodos , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Pobreza , Programación Lineal , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Niño , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 881, 2019 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272404

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Less than 2% of children in the U.S., ages 9-13, meet the minimum dietary recommendations for vegetable intake. The home setting provides potential opportunities to promote dietary behavior change among children, yet limited trials exist with child vegetable intake as a primary outcome. Strategies to increase vegetable intake grounded in behavioral economics are no/low cost and may be easily implemented in the home by parents. METHODS: This non-randomized, controlled study tested whether an intervention of parent-led strategies informed by behavioral economics and implemented within a series of 6 weekly parent-child vegetable cooking skills classes, improved dietary outcomes of a diverse sample of low-income children (ages 9-12) more than the vegetable cooking skills classes alone. The primary outcomes were total vegetable intake, dietary quality (HEI scores), total energy intake, vegetable liking, variety of vegetables tried, child BMI-z score, and home availability of vegetables. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, immediate post-treatment, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Mixed model regression analyses with fixed independent effects (treatment condition, time point and treatment condition x time interaction) were used to compare outcomes between treatment conditions. RESULTS: A total of 103 parent/child pairs (intervention = 49, control = 54) were enrolled and 91 (intervention = 44, control = 47) completed the weekly cooking skills program. The intervention did not improve child total vegetable intake. Intervention children increased dark green vegetable intake from immediate post-treatment to 12 months. The number of vegetables children tried increased and mean vegetable liking decreased over time for both control and intervention children. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggest that the strategies and the manner in which they were implemented may not be effective in low-income populations. The burden of implementing a number of strategies with potentially higher food costs may have constrained the ability of families in the current study to use the strategies as intended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial has been retrospectively registered at : # NCT03641521 on August 21, 2018.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/psicología , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Verduras , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Dieta/economía , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Economía del Comportamiento , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Adulto Joven
20.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284521

RESUMEN

Very little is known about seasonal hunger in South Africa, or about the food security and nutritional status of farm workers. This article identifies a pathway to seasonal hunger-through intra-annual fluctuations in agricultural employment and income-that is underanalyzed in the literature. We report on findings from a year-long data collection process, comprising baseline and endline surveys and monthly monitoring of three food security indicators, with a sample of 195 female farm workers in the Northern Cape province in South Africa. The three monthly monitoring indicators-the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), and Coping Strategies Index (CSI)-which measure different aspects of food insecurity, are analyzed to determine whether and to what extent food security fluctuates seasonally in our sample. HFIAS results show unambiguous evidence of seasonal food insecurity, with the highest prevalence (88 percent experiencing severe food insecurity) and severity during the low employment winter period, and lowest prevalence (49 percent) and severity during the summer harvest, which corresponds with relatively higher employment and earnings. The DDS results show evidence of highest dietary diversity during summer and the CSI results reveal the need to employ coping strategies to deal with intensified food insecurity during winter.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Renta , Estaciones del Año , Desempleo , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Dieta/economía , Agricultores/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Nutritivo , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica , Factores de Tiempo
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