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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMEN

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMEN

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Cíclidos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hojas de la Planta , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252093, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355861

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the diet of the free-living crab-eating fox by identifying the stomach contents of the 17 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) roadkilled in two conservation units, both located in the Amazon rainforest. The food items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (FO) and percentage of occurrence (PO). The stomach contents were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and mineral matter (MM). Nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), metabolisable energy (ME) values, as well as the energy need for maintenance were estimated. The composition of the diet for the crab-eating fox presented 29 food items from the different taxonomic groups, with a greater diversity of items of animal origin (n=22), although the highest frequency of occurrence was gramineae (Poaceae) (41.18%). Among the items of animal origin, 21% were mammals, 18% reptiles, 10% amphibians, 9% invertebrates and 3% birds. A high content of CF (62.76%) were determined. Nitrogen-free extractive and dry matter averages were 5.91% and 141.82 kcal/100g, respectively. The average maintenance energy was 447.01 kcal/day. These findings suggesting that the crab-eating foxes have a generalist diet with an omnivorous diet in the Amazon basin, feeding on gramineae, fruits, insects, snakes, amphibians, birds and small mammals and have the same feeding habit that present in other Brazilian biomes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou analisar a dieta do cachorro-do-mato, de vida livre, por meio da identificação do conteúdo estomacal de 17 Cerdocyon thous atropelados em duas unidades de conservação da Floresta Amazônica. O conteúdo estomacal foi analisado e os itens alimentares foram quantificados pela frequência de ocorrência (FO) e percentagem de ocorrência (PO). Também foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra bruta (FB), extrato etéreo (EE) e, matéria mineral (MM). Foram estimados o extrativo não-nitrogenado (ENN), a energia metabolizável (EM) e a necessidade energética de manutenção. A composição da dieta do cachorro-do-mato apresentou 29 itens alimentares dos diferentes grupos taxonômicos, tendo uma maior diversidade de itens de origem animal (n=22), ainda que a maior FO tenha sido de gramíneas (Poaceae) (41.18%). Dentre os itens de origem animal, 21% eram mamíferos, 18% répteis, 10% anfíbios, 9% invertebrados e 3% aves. Determinou-se um alto teor de FB (62.76%). A média do ENN e da MS foi 5.91% e 141.82 kcal/100g, respectivamente. A média da energia de manutenção foi 447.01 kcal/dia. Estes achados sugerem que o cachorro-do-mato encontrado na Bacia Amazônica é um animal generalista com uma dieta onívora, se alimentando de gramíneas, frutos, insetos, serpentes, anfíbios, aves e pequenos mamíferos, portanto com o mesmo hábito alimentar relatado a esta espécie quando encontrada em outros biomas brasileiros.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Bosque Lluvioso , Zorros , Brasil , Dieta/veterinaria
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMEN

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Antihelmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinaria , Carne/análisis
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249422, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339393

RESUMEN

Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Resumo O estudo de 90 dias foi realizado em hapas instalados em tanques de terra. Peixes com peso inicial médio (220 g) foram distribuídos uniformemente em grupos triplicados em 15 hapas. Cinco dietas experimentais rotuladas como T1 (25% de CP e NRC recomendado nível de aminoácidos) como dieta controle, T2 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 5% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T3 (com 2% de proteína baixa e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos), T4 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 10% de suplementação de aminoácidos) e T5 (com 4% de baixa proteína e 20% de suplementação de aminoácidos) foram preparadas. Os peixes foram alimentados com 3% do seu peso corporal duas vezes por dia às 10h00 e 16h00. Ganho de peso significativamente maior (420,18 ± 66,84a) e taxa de crescimento específico (13499,33 ± 1273,54a) juntamente com taxa de conversão alimentar melhorada (1, 29 ± 0,09b) e sobrevivência de cem por cento foram registrados durante o ensaio. Além disso, a análise aproximada da carne mostrou melhora significativa no nível de proteína bruta (81,77 ± 0,19a) servida com dieta contendo 20% de mistura de aminoácidos limitantes. Portanto, a limitação de aminoácidos pode ser uma fonte de alimentação econômica e usada com segurança na dieta de L. rohita.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Cyprinidae , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dieta/veterinaria , Aminoácidos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250296, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339385

RESUMEN

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de Zingiber officinale como aditivo à base de plantas medicinais sobre o desempenho de crescimento, características da carcaça, bioquímica sérica, contagem bacteriana total (CBT), morfologia intestinal e parâmetros imunológicos de frangos de corte. Um total de 1.500 pintos de corte de um dia de idade (Hubbard) foram igualmente credenciados em cinco grupos de tratamento, cada um com seis repetições (50 aves/repetição). Cinco dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando dieta basal, ou seja, com controle positivo de antibióticos (PC), 3 g/kg de gengibre (grupo A), 6 g/kg de gengibre (grupo B), 9 g/kg de gengibre (grupo C) e sem controle negativo de antibióticos (NC). Os grupos A e C apresentaram consumo de ração (FI) significativamente (p < 0,05) maior do que os outros grupos. O grupo C apresentou contagem bacteriana total (CBT) significativamente menor (p < 0,05) seguido pelo grupo B em comparação com o NC. As características da carcaça apresentaram efeitos não significativos entre os diferentes tratamentos. O comprimento e largura médios das vilosidades foram significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores em todos os grupos suplementados com gengibre em comparação com os grupos de controle. Os parâmetros séricos do sangue, incluindo colesterol, triglicerídeos e lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL), foram significativamente (p < 0,05) menores nos grupos B e C em comparação com os grupos controle. Enquanto as lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) foram significativamente maiores no grupo B em comparação com os outros. Em conclusão, a suplementação de gengibre a 0,6% na dieta basal melhorou significativamente o desempenho de crescimento e a morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte. Ele também mostrou um impacto positivo sobre o colesterol, triglicerídeos e micróbios intestinais. Portanto, o gengibre pode ser um substituto melhor para os promotores de crescimento com antibióticos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Jengibre , Pollos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339378

RESUMEN

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Osmeriformes , Chile , Dieta/veterinaria , Lípidos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247791, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285637

RESUMEN

Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O crescimento do setor de aquicultura é fortemente dependente do fornecimento contínuo de rações baratas para peixes com perfil nutricional equilibrado. Porém, a farinha de peixe (FM) não consegue atender a essa demanda devido à sua escassa oferta e alto custo. Com o objetivo de testar o potencial da farinha de semente de canola (MSC) como substituto da farinha de peixe, um ensaio alimentar de 12 semanas foi conduzido para verificar o desempenho de crescimento e a composição centesimal de alevinos de Labeo rohita. A ração de proteína da ração teste foi satisfeita substituindo FM por CSM em 0, 25, 50 e 75%. Dezesseis dietas de teste, viz., TD1 (controle), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 e TD16 foram suplementadas com ácido cítrico (CA; 0 e 2,5%) e fitase (PHY; 0 e 750 FTU / kg) em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. O maior ganho de peso (11,03g), % de ganho de peso (249,21%), taxa de crescimento específico (1,39) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (1,20) foram registrados por peixes alimentados com TD12. Além disso, o mesmo nível aumentou a proteína bruta (59,26%) e a gordura (16,04%), sendo significativamente diferente (p <0,05) do controle. Conclusivamente, a adição de fitase acidificada (CA; 2,5%, PHY; 750 FTU / kg) em TD12 (CSM = 50%) levou a um melhor crescimento e composição próxima de alevinos de L. rohita.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Cyprinidae , 6-Fitasa , Aceite de Semillas de Algodón , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

RESUMEN

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Asunto(s)
Animales , 6-Fitasa , Nutrientes , Pollos , Ácido Cítrico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales
10.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 74, 2022 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diet is a key component of a species ecological niche and plays critical roles in guiding the trajectories of evolutionary change. Previous studies suggest that dietary evolution can influence the rates and patterns of species diversification, with omnivorous (animal and plant, 'generalist') diets slowing down diversification compared to more restricted ('specialist') herbivorous and carnivorous diets. This hypothesis, here termed the "dietary macroevolutionary sink" hypothesis (DMS), predicts that transitions to omnivorous diets occur at higher rates than into any specialist diet, and omnivores are expected to have the lowest diversification rates, causing an evolutionary sink into a single type of diet. However, evidence for the DMS hypothesis remains conflicting. Here, we present the first test of the DMS hypothesis in a lineage of ectothermic tetrapods-the prolific Liolaemidae lizard radiation from South America. RESULTS: Ancestral reconstructions suggest that the stem ancestor was probably insectivorous. The best supported trait model is a diet-dependent speciation rate, with independent extinction rates. Herbivory has the highest net diversification rate, omnivory ranks second, and insectivory has the lowest. The extinction rate is the same for all three diet types and is much lower than the speciation rates. The highest transition rate was from omnivory to insectivory, and the lowest transition rates were between insectivory and herbivory. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings challenge the core prediction of the DMS hypothesis that generalist diets represent an 'evolutionary sink'. Interestingly, liolaemid lizards have rapidly and successfully proliferated across some of the world's coldest climates (at high elevations and latitudes), where species have evolved mixed arthropod-plant (omnivore) or predominantly herbivore diets. This longstanding observation is consistent with the higher net diversification rates found in both herbivory and omnivory. Collectively, just like the evolution of viviparity has been regarded as a 'key adaptation' during the liolaemid radiation across cold climates, our findings suggest that transitions from insectivory to herbivory (bridged by omnivory) are likely to have played a role as an additional key adaptation underlying the exceptional diversification of these reptiles across extreme climates.


Asunto(s)
Lagartos , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ecosistema , Herbivoria , Filogenia
11.
J Anim Sci ; 100(6)2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708589

RESUMEN

Methods for developing incoming replacement gilts can indirectly and directly influence survivability of their offspring. Indirectly, having proper gilt development reduces culling rates and mortality, which increases longevity and creates a more mature sow herd. Older sows are more likely to have greater immunity than gilts and therefore can pass this along to their pigs in both quantity and quality of colostrum and milk, thus improving piglet survivability. Directly, proper gilt development will maximize mammary gland development which increases colostrum and milk production leading to large, healthy pig. As for the developing gilt at birth, increasing colostrum intake, reducing nursing pressure, providing adequate space allowance, and good growth rate can increase the likelihood that gilts successfully enter and remain in the herd. Light birth weight gilts (<1 kg) or gilts from litters with low birth weight should be removed early in the selection process. Gilts should be weaned at 24 d of age or older and then can be grown in a variety of ways as long as lifetime growth rate is over 600 g/d. Current genetic lines with exceptional growth rate run the risk of being bred too heavy, reducing longevity. On the other hand, restricting feed intake at specific times could be detrimental to mammary development. In these situations, reducing diet amino acid concentration and allowing ad libitum feed is a possible strategy. Gilts should be bred between 135 and 160 kg and at second estrus or later while in a positive metabolic state to increase lifetime productivity and longevity in the herd. Once bred, gilts should be fed to maintain or build body reserves without becoming over-conditioned at farrowing. Proper body condition at farrowing impacts the percentage of pigs born alive as well as colostrum and milk production, and consequently, offspring performance and survivability. Combined with the benefit in pig immunity conferred by an older sow parity structure, gilt development has lasting impacts on offspring performance and survivability.


Proper gilt development influences offspring performance and survivability by increasing gilt longevity and colostrum and milk production. Gilt development success starts in selecting gilts heavier than 1 kg at birth, prioritizing colostrum and milk intake, and weaning at 24 d of age or older. During the grower phase, attention must rely on nutrition and feeding management to avoid fat gilts at farrowing, promote adequate mammary development, and have structural soundness. Appropriate boar exposure and reaching target weight (135 to 160 kg) at breeding in the second or third estrous can dictate reproductive performance and longevity. During gestation, the whole focus is on body condition. Fat gestating gilts may struggle with leg and feet issues and compromise the litter due to lower colostrum and milk production. Properly developed gilts directly impact livability of their offspring through increased colostrum and milk production. Increased longevity indirectly improves livability because offspring of older sows have improved growth and survival rate compared to offspring of first litter sows.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Lactancia , Animales , Peso al Nacer , Calostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Paridad , Embarazo , Reproducción , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Destete
12.
J Anim Sci ; 100(6)2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708593

RESUMEN

The physiology during late gestation and the transition period to lactation changes dramatically in the sow, especially during the latter period. Understanding the physiological processes and how they change dynamically as the sow approaches farrowing, nest building, giving birth to piglets, and producing colostrum is important because these processes greatly affect sow productivity. Glucose originating from assimilated starch accounts for the majority of dietary energy, and around farrowing, various organs and peripheral tissues compete for plasma glucose, which may become depleted. Indeed, physical activity increases shortly prior to farrowing, leading to glucose use by muscles. Approximately ½ to 1 d later, glucose is also needed for uterine contractions to expel the piglets and for the mammary gland to produce lactose and fat for colostrum. At farrowing, the sow appears to prioritize glucose to the mammary gland above the uterus, whereby insufficient dietary energy may compromise the farrowing process. At this time, energy metabolism in the uterus shifts dramatically from relying mainly on the oxidation of glucogenic energy substrates (primarily glucose) to ketogenic energy supplied from triglycerides. The rapid growth of mammary tissue occurs in the last third of gestation, and it accelerates as the sow approaches farrowing. In the last 1 to 2 wk prepartum, some fat may be produced in the mammary glands and stored to be secreted in either colostrum or transient milk. During the first 6 h after the onset of farrowing, the uptake of glucose and lactate by the mammary glands roughly doubles. Lactate is supplying approximately 15% of the glucogenic carbon taken up by the mammary glands and originates from the strong uterine contractions. Thereafter, the mammary uptake of glucose and lactate declines, which suggests that the amount of colostrum secreted starts to decrease at that time. Optimal nutrition of sows during late gestation and the transition period should focus on mammary development, farrowing performance, and colostrum production. The birth weight of piglets seems to be only slightly responsive to maternal nutrition in gilts; on the other hand, sows will counterbalance insufficient feed or nutrient intake by increasing mobilization of their body reserves. Ensuring sufficient energy to sows around farrowing is crucial and may be achieved via adequate feed supply, at least three daily meals, high dietary fiber content, and extra supplementation of energy.


The transition period is a short period of the reproductive cycle spanning from 7­10 d prepartum to 3­5 d postpartum in sows. Nonetheless, it is highly important for the productivity of sows because it is when the majority of piglet deaths occur. Most piglets die either during the birth process or within the first days postpartum, and mammary development, fetal growth, farrowing process, and colostrum production have profound impacts on piglet survival and growth. Nutrition during this critical period can greatly affect these physiological processes, and the most effective feeding strategy needs to be elaborated. Around farrowing, the sow may suffer from inadequate energy from assimilated starch, and liver glycogen seems not to be able to supply sufficient glucose to meet the demand for nest building, uterine contractions, and colostrum production. The sow seems to prioritize glucose for the mammary gland above the uterus but may suffer from depletion due to nest building. The insufficient energy status of the sow compromises the farrowing process and prolongs the duration, thereby increasing the need for farrowing assistance and stillbirths. Nutritional strategies to alleviate these challenges include adequate feed supply, number of daily meals, dietary fiber content, and extra supplementation of energy to sows around farrowing.


Asunto(s)
Calostro , Lactancia , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Calostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Glucosa/metabolismo , Lactatos/análisis , Lactatos/metabolismo , Lactancia/fisiología , Embarazo , Porcinos
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10798, 2022 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750897

RESUMEN

Bacterial colonization in the rumen of pre-weaned ruminants is important for their growth and post-weaning productivity. This study evaluated the effects of oral fiber administration during the pre-weaning period on the development of rumen microbiota from pre-weaning to the first lactation period. Twenty female calves were assigned to control and treatment groups (n = 10 each). Animals in both groups were reared using a standard feeding program throughout the experiment, except for oral fiber administration (50-100 g/day/animal) from 3 days of age until weaning for the treatment group. Rumen content was collected during the pre-weaning period, growing period, and after parturition. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that oral fiber administration facilitated the early establishment of mature rumen microbiota, including a relatively higher abundance of Prevotella, Shuttleworthia, Mitsuokella, and Selenomonas. The difference in the rumen microbial composition between the dietary groups was observed even 21 days after parturition, with a significantly higher average milk yield in the first 30 days of lactation. Therefore, oral fiber administration to calves during the pre-weaning period altered rumen microbiota, and its effect might be long-lasting until the first parturition.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta , Femenino , Lactancia , Leche , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Rumen/microbiología , Destete
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 245, 2022 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic large bowel diarrhea is a common occurrence in pet dogs. While nutritional intervention is considered the primary therapy, the metabolic and gut microfloral effects of fiber and polyphenol-enriched therapeutic foods are poorly understood. METHODS: This prospective clinical study enrolled 31 adult dogs from private veterinary practices with chronic, active large bowel diarrhea. Enrolled dogs received a complete and balanced dry therapeutic food containing a proprietary fiber bundle for 56 days. Metagenomic and metabolomic profiling were performed on fecal samples at Days 1, 2, 3, 14, 28, and 56; metabolomic analysis was conducted on serum samples taken at Days 1, 2, 3, 28, and 56. RESULTS: The dietary intervention improved clinical signs and had a clear effect on the gut microfloral metabolic output of canines with chronic diarrhea, shifting gut metabolism from a predominantly proteolytic to saccharolytic fermentative state. Microbial metabolism of tryptophan to beneficial indole postbiotics and the conversion of plant-derived phenolics into bioavailable postbiotics were observed. The intervention altered the endocannabinoid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and sphingolipid profiles, suggesting a modulation in gastrointestinal inflammation. Changes in membrane phospholipid and collagen signatures were indicative of improved gut function and possible alleviation of the pathophysiology related to chronic diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs with chronic diarrhea, feeding specific dietary fibers increased gut saccharolysis and bioavailable phenolic and indole-related compounds, while suppressing putrefaction. These changes were associated with improved markers of gut inflammation and stool quality.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Microbiota , Animales , Diarrea/veterinaria , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Heces , Indoles , Inflamación/veterinaria , Estudios Prospectivos
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 206, 2022 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676389

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two methods of provision of açai seed (AS) as a fiber source (coarsely broken or whole) for feedlot beef cattle on the intake, digestibility, and ruminal parameters. Four bulls (male, non-castrated, and rumen fistulated), with an average body weight of 340 ± 31 kg, distributed in two simultaneous 2 × 2 Latin squares, were used. The treatments were two methods of processing of the açai seed, as follows: whole açai seed (WAS), and coarsely broken açai seed (CBAS). The dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake were higher (P < 0.10) with the use of CBAS. The digestibility of DM and nutrients was not affected (P > 0.10) by AS processing. Acetate and total volatile fatty acids concentrations, and acetate:propionate ratio were higher with the CBAS diet, whereas the pH was higher with the WAS diet. The concentrations of propionate, butyrate, and ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3) did not change with AS processing. Thus, coarsely broken açai seed increases the intake of DM and nutrients without altering the digestibility. Furthermore, it increases the concentrations of total fatty acids and acetate.


Asunto(s)
Fibras de la Dieta , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión , Fermentación , Masculino , Propionatos/metabolismo , Rumen/metabolismo , Semillas/química
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 205, 2022 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676446

RESUMEN

In this study, we evaluated the feeding behavior of Girolando steers on Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu pastures. Twenty-two animals with an average initial weight of 209.09 ± 8.18 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three seasons and two nutritional plans (NP)) with 11 replicates, as follows: rainy season 1 (NP1, mineral mixture ad libitum, and NP2, nitrogen/energy supplement [2 g.kg‒1 body weight [BW]]); dry season (NP1, nitrogen/energy supplement [1 g.kg‒1 BW], and NP2, nitrogen/energy supplement [2 g.kg‒1 BW]); and rainy season 2 (NP1, mineral mixture ad libitum, and NP2, nitrogen/energy supplement ([1 g.kg‒1 BW]). Total chewing time was longer in NP1 (566.44 vs 528.33 min.day‒1 in NP2) (p < 0.05). The grazing, idle, trough, and total chewing times were affected by the interaction between nutritional plans and seasons. The period expended grazing was longer for the NP1. The idle time was affected by the nutritional plans and was lower for the NP1. Feeding at the trough was not affected by the nutritional plans. The animals of the NP2 showed the highest feed efficiencies in DM and NDF (0.91 and 0.52 vs 0.75 and 0.45 in NP1, respectively). Rainy season 2 had the highest efficiencies. The feeding behavior changes according to the supplementation level. Nutritional plan 2 in the second rainy season presented the best results.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Digestión , Conducta Alimentaria , Minerales , Nitrógeno , Estaciones del Año
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 148: 42-51, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660544

RESUMEN

Early gestation may be the best period for sows to recover body reserve losses from previous lactation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of restricted feeding in early gestation on the body status, productive and reproductive performance, and hormonal-metabolic status of primiparous and multiparous sows. A total of 130 sows were randomly assigned to one of three feeding levels: Treatment I, which sows were fed at the level commonly used from day 3 to 28 of gestation (2.5 kg·d-1 of a diet with 2.18 Mcal NE·kg-1 and 13.72 g CP·kg-1), and Treatments II and III, where feed was increased by 25% and 50%, respectively. Sow body status, litter size and weight, early mortalities, reproductive rates, weaning-to-estrus interval, and hormones linked to metabolism were recorded. The highest weight gain, body condition score, and backfat thickness were found in sows fed Treatment III compared to those fed the usual feeding level (Treatment I). No differences among treatment groups were found in litter size or litter weight, although a tendency for more live born piglets and fewer stillbirths was found in sows fed Treatment III. In contrast, litters from sows fed at higher feeding levels had a higher mortality at 72 h compared to those fed at the lowest feeding level (I), which was partly linked to a higher percentage of piglets culled at birth and piglets weighing less than 800 g. There were no differences in conception and farrowing rates, leptin, progesterone, insulin, or cortisol among treatment groups applied in early gestation. In conclusion, increasing the feeding level in sows during early gestation to improve their short-term productive and reproductive performance remains controversial. Further studies are needed to focus on how the restricted feeding level applied could affect the viability and proportion of low-weight piglets.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Dieta/veterinaria , Preñez/fisiología , Reproducción , Porcinos/fisiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Femenino , Lactancia , Tamaño de la Camada , Embarazo , Porcinos/metabolismo , Destete , Aumento de Peso
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e261574, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703630

RESUMEN

In current study, different feeding levels of Moringa oleifera formulated diet was compared to analyze the growth performance, feed conversion ratio, feed conversion efficiency and gut microbiology of Oreochromis niloticus. The study was comprised of four treatment groups including 4%, 8% and 12% Moringa oleifera and one control group which was devoid of Moringa leaves. The experimental trial was conducted at the Zoology laboratory of Pakistan Institute of Applied and Social Sciences, (PIASS) Kasur. The physicochemical parameters of water such as temperature, dissolve oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids and salinity in all aquaria were found non-significantly different from each other. In control condition T1, the average weight gain was 14.89±16.90a grams, while average length gain was 11.52±7.444a cm. However, the total viable count on Eosin methylene blue was 7.4×107, 5.8×107 on Tryptic soy agar and 5.8×107on Nutrient agar. In T2, the average weight gain was 16.22±16.09b grams and average length gain was 12.97±7.79b cm. The total viable count on Eosin methylene blue was 7×107, 5.5×107 on Tryptic soy agar and 5.8×107on Nutrient agar. In T3, the average weight gain was 37.88±27.43c grams, while the average length gain was recorded as 16.48±12.56c cm. However, the total viable count for treatment 3 was 6.4×10 on Eosin methylene blue, 4.8×107 on Tryptic soy agar and 5.2×107on Nutrient agar. In T4, the average weight gain was 44.22±31.67d grams, while the average length gain was 15.25±10.49d cm. The total viable count was 4.3×107on Eosin methylene blue, 3.1×107 on Tryptic soy agar and 3.8×107 on Nutrient agar. The effect of Moringa oleifera on the growth of Oreochromis niloticus was found to be significant and 12% Moringa extract showed maximum length and weight gain and minimum feed conversion ratio with the least microbial count in fish intestine.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Moringa oleifera , Tilapia , Agar/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Eosina Amarillenta-(YS)/análisis , Azul de Metileno/análisis , Tilapia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tilapia/microbiología , Aumento de Peso
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20200266, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703687

RESUMEN

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary zinc (Zn) levels on growth performance, carcass characteristic, nutrient digestibility, jejunum architecture and immune responses in broiler chickens fed wheat-soy diets. In addition the Zn requirement to optimize responses were estimated through regression models. A total, of 250 day-old male Ross-308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to a completely randomized design experiment with five dietary treatments of five replicates of 10 birds each. Birds were fed diets containing 30, 70, 110, 150, and 190 mg/kg Zn from 1 to 35 days of age. A Zn level of 70 mg/kg diet was adequate to acquire typical growth performance, the nutrient digestibility, and carcass yield. First antibody titres response to sheep red blood cell inoculation, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity elicited by phytohemagglutinin-P intradermal injection increased linearly by the increase in dietary Zn level. The Zn requirement estimated by the quadratic and linear broken-line models was varied between 63-70 mg/kg to optimize growth performance criteria. It is concluded the basal Zn concentration in wheat-soy diet is inadequate to fulfill the broiler chickens genetic potential in growth and a minimum of 70 mg/kg dietary Zn concentration is suggested to optimize broiler chickens performance.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Inmunidad , Yeyuno , Masculino , Nutrientes , Ovinos , Triticum , Zinc/farmacología
20.
Poult Sci ; 101(7): 101948, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679675

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of age and dietary cellulose levels on the ileal endogenous energy losses (IEEL) in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, a glucose-based purified diet was used to determine the IEEL. Titanium dioxide (5.0 g/kg) was added to the diet as an indigestible marker. Six groups of broiler chickens aged 1 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, 22 to 28, 29 to 35 or 36 to 42 d posthatch, were utilized. With the exception of 1-7 d, the birds were fed a starter (d 1-21) and/or a finisher (d 22-35) diet before the experimental diet was introduced. The diet was randomly allocated to 6 replicate cages, and the number of birds per cage was 12 (d 1-7), 10 (d 8-14), and 8 (d 15-42). The ileal digesta were collected at the last day of each week (d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42). Bird age had no effect (P > 0.05) on the IEEL estimates. The IEEL estimates ranged from 263 to 316 kcal/kg dry matter intake (DMI) during weeks 1 to 6. In Experiment 2, 4 glucose-based purified diets were developed using 0, 25, 50 and 75 g/kg cellulose. Titanium dioxide (5.0 g/kg) was added to the diets as an indigestible marker. The diets were randomly allocated to 6 replicate cages (8 birds per cage) and fed from 18 to 21 d posthatch and, ileal digesta were collected on d 21. The IEEL estimates of broiler chickens at 21 d of age showed a quadratic response (P < 0.05) to increasing cellulose contents. The lowest IEEL (88 kcal/kg DMI) was recorded for the diet without cellulose and the highest IEEL (430 kcal/kg DMI) was observed for the diet with 75 g/kg cellulose. Overall, the present findings confirmed that the IEEL in broiler chickens can be quantified by feeding a glucose-based purified diet. Broiler age had no influence on the IEEL estimates. The IEEL increased with increasing dietary cellulose contents and the IEEL determined using a purified diet without cellulose represents a better estimate of IEEL.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Pollos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Celulosa , Pollos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión/fisiología , Glucosa , Íleon
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