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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521817

RESUMEN

We determined whether sheep discriminate among different mineral supplements containing P and Mg and if they modify their selection as a function of the basal diet received. Forty lambs were offered four-way choices among inorganic sources of P and Mg: magnesium oxide in its coarse 1) C-MgO and granular 2) MgO forms and magnesium phosphate: 3) Mag33 (33% Mg and 2.7% P), and 4) MGP (25% Mg and 15% P), and two-way choices between MGP and each of the other minerals, and between MgO and C-MgO (baseline). Subsequently, lambs were randomly assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) and fed rations such that the levels of Mg and P were low (LMg_LP), adequate (NMg_NP), low in Mg and adequate in P (LMg_NP), or adequate in Mg and low in P (NMg_LP). After 29 d, choice tests (post-deficiency) were repeated. During baseline, lambs ate and preferred Mag33 > C-MgO = MGP > MgO (P < 0.05). This pattern remained during post-deficiency tests, but lambs in LMg_LP and LMg_NP increased their preference for MGP and C-MgO, respectively, whereas lambs in NMg_LP increased their preference for C-MgO and MGP relative to baseline (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of P and Mg increased after preference tests, and preference for MgO and MGP in low-Mg groups increased as the serum concentration of Mg declined (P < 0.05). Thus, lambs discriminated among different minerals and some groups modified their preferences based on the basal diets received, which rectified mineral imbalances.


Asunto(s)
Magnesio , Fósforo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ingestión de Alimentos , Ovinos
2.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521816

RESUMEN

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dose-response and supplemental effects of whey permeate on growth performance and intestinal health of nursery pigs. In experiment (exp.) 1, 1,080 pigs weaned at 6.24 kg body weight (BW) were allotted to five treatments (eight pens/treatment) with increasing levels of whey permeate in three phases (from 10% to 30%, 3% to 23%, and 0% to 9% for phase 1, 2, and 3, respectively) fed until 11 kg BW and then fed a common phase 4 diet (0% whey permeate) until 25 kg BW in a 48-d feeding trial. Feed intake and BW were measured at the end of each phase. In exp. 2, 1,200 nursery pigs at 7.50 kg BW were allotted to six treatments (10 pens/treatment) with increasing levels of whey permeate from 0% to 18.75% fed until 11 kg BW. Feed intake and BW were measured during 11 d. Six pigs per treatment (1 per pens) were euthanized to collect the jejunum to evaluate tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-beta 1, mucin 2, histomorphology, digestive enzyme activity, crypt cell proliferation rate, and jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota. Data were analyzed using contrasts in the MIXED procedure and a broken-line analysis using the NLIN procedure of SAS. In exp. 1, increasing whey permeate had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on feed efficiency (G:F; maximum: 1.35 at 18.3%) in phase 1. Increasing whey permeate linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG; 292 to 327 g/d) and G:F (0.96 to 1.04) of pigs in phase 2. In exp. 2, increasing whey permeate linearly increased (P < 0.05) ADG (349 to 414 g/d) and G:F (0.78 to 0.85) and linearly increased (P < 0.05) crypt cell proliferation rate (27.8% to 37.0%). The breakpoint from a broken-line analysis was obtained at 13.6% whey permeate for maximal G:F. Increasing whey permeate tended to change IL-8 (quadratic, P = 0.052; maximum: 223 pg/mg at 10.9%), to decrease Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes (P = 0.073, 1.59 to 1.13), to increase (P = 0.089) Bifidobacteriaceae (0.73% to 1.11%), and to decrease Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.091, 1.04% to 0.52%) and Streptococcaceae (P = 0.094, 1.50% to 0.71%) in the jejunal mucosa. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of whey permeate increased the growth of nursery pigs from 7 to 11 kg BW. Pigs grew most efficiently with 13.6% whey permeate. Improvement in growth performance is partly attributed to stimulating intestinal immune response and enterocyte proliferation with positive changes in jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota in nursery pigs.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Lactosa , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Leche , Porcinos , Suero Lácteo
3.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523182

RESUMEN

Based on results of a recent meta-analysis, we hypothesized that increased dietary Val, Ile, or Trp could correct possible amino acid interactions because of excess Leu in diets containing high levels of corn protein, namely dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). A total of 1,200 pigs (PIC TR4 × (Fast LW × PIC L02); initially 33.6 ± 0.6 kg) were used in a 103-d study. The 6 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal (SBM)-DDGS-based as follows: (1) high SBM and low level of l-Lys HCl (HSBM), (2) high l-Lys HCl and moderate Ile, Val, Trp (AA above NRC 2012 estimates; NC), (3) moderate l-Lys HCl and high Ile, Val, and Trp (PC), and PC with either increased (4) L-Val (PC+Val), (5) L-Ile (PC+Ile), or (6) L-Trp (PC+Trp). Pigs fed the NC diet were predicted to have the poorest average daily gain (ADG), the PC diet to be intermediate, and pigs fed the HSBM, PC+Val, PC+Ile, and PC+Trp have the same and highest predicted ADG. In the grower period (34 to 90 kg), ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for the pigs fed HSBM and PC+Val diets than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed HSBM were more (Ρ < 0.05) efficient (G:F) than the NC and PC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. In the finisher period (90 to 136 kg), ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for pigs fed PC+Ile than that of the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed PC+Val had greater (Ρ < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. However, PC+Ile pigs were more (Ρ < 0.05) efficient than PC+Val with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Overall, ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for pigs fed HSBM, PC+Val, and PC+Ile diets than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed the PC+Val diet had greater (Ρ < 0.05) ADFI than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. No differences were detected between treatments for overall G:F or other carcass characteristics. In conclusion, increasing Val or Ile in high l-Lys-HCl-DDGS-based diets improved growth performance compared with pigs fed diets containing high levels of l-Lys HCl without added Val and Ile. These results present evidence that the recently developed meta-analysis can predict the relative differences in overall ADG for pigs fed the NC, PC, PC+Val, and PC+Ile diets; however, the predicted G:F was less accurate. The data demonstrate that the negative effects of high Leu concentrations in corn-DDGS-based diets can be reversed by increasing the ratios of Val and Ile relative to Lys.


Asunto(s)
Isoleucina/administración & dosificación , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Triptófano/administración & dosificación , Valina/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Zea mays
4.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523183

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of processing index (PI) of barley grain and dietary undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) concentration on dry matter (DM) intake, chewing activity, ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, total tract digestibility, gastrointestinal barrier function, and blood metabolites of finishing beef heifers. The PI was measured as the density after processing expressed as a percentage of the density before processing, and a smaller PI equates to a more extensively processed. Six ruminally cannulated heifers (average body weight, 715 ± 29 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with three PI (65%, 75%, and 85%) × 2 uNDF concentration (low and high; 4.6% vs. 5.6% of DM) factorial arrangement. The heifers were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of 10% barley silage (low uNDF), or 5% silage and 5% straw (high uNDF), 87% dry-rolled barley grain, and 3% mineral and vitamin supplements. Interactions (P < 0.01) of PI × uNDF were observed for DM intake, ruminating and total chewing time, and DM digestibility in the total digestive tract. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM), starch, and crude protein (CP) did not differ (P > 0.14) between low and high uNDF diets, but intakes of NDF and acid detergent fiber were greater (P = 0.01) for high uNDF diets regardless of barley PI. Heifers fed high uNDF diets had longer (P = 0.05) eating times (min/d or min/kg DM) and tended (P = 0.10) to have longer total chewing times (min/kg DM) than those fed low uNDF diets. Additionally, heifers sorted (P = 0.01) against long particles (>19 mm) for high uNDF diets but not for low uNDF diets. Altering PI of barley grain did not affect (P > 0.12) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar percentages of individual VFA, or duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6. Total VFA concentration was less (P = 0.01), acetate percentage was greater (P = 0.01), and duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6 was less (P = 0.05) for high compared with low uNDF diets. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP was greater (P = 0.02) for low vs. high uNDF diets with PI of 65% and 75%, with no difference between low and high uNDF diets at PI of 85%. Blood metabolites and gastrointestinal tract barrier function were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by the treatments. These results suggest that increasing dietary uNDF concentration is an effective strategy to improve ruminal pH status in finishing cattle, regardless of the extent of grain processing, whereas manipulating the extent of barley processing did not reduce the risk of ruminal acidosis.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión/fisiología , Hordeum , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos/fisiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Fermentación , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Masticación , Nutrientes , Rumen/química , Rumen/metabolismo
5.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528019

RESUMEN

Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide consisting of d-glucose with α,α-1,1 linkage, was evaluated as a functional material to improve the gut environment in preweaned calves. In experiment 1, 173 calves were divided into two groups; the trehalose group was fed trehalose at 30 g/animal/d with milk replacer during the suckling period, and the control group was fed nonsupplemented milk replacer. Medication frequency was lower in the trehalose group (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, calves (n = 20) were divided into two groups (control group [n = 10] and trehalose group [n = 10]) based on their body weight and reared under the same feeding regimens as in experiment 1. Fresh feces were collected from individual animals at the beginning of the trial (average age 11 d), 3 wk after trehalose feeding (experimental day 22), and 1 d before weaning, and the fecal score was recorded daily. Fecal samples were analyzed for fermentation parameters and microbiota. The fecal score was significantly lower in the trehalose group than in the control group in the early stage (at an age of 14 to 18 d; P < 0.05) of the suckling period. Calves fed trehalose tended to have a higher proportion of fecal butyrate on day 22 than calves in the control group (P = 0.08). Population sizes of Clostridium spp. were significantly lower (P = 0.036), whereas those of Dialister spp. and Eubacterium spp. tended to be higher in the feces of calves in the trehalose group on day 22 (P = 0.060 and P = 0.083). These observations indicate that trehalose feeding modulated the gut environment and partially contributed to the reduction in medication frequency observed in experiment 1.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Heces/microbiología , Microbiota , Leche , Trehalosa/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Diarrea/epidemiología , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Incidencia , Destete
6.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529342

RESUMEN

High dietary protein may increase susceptibility of weaned pigs to enteric pathogens. Dietary supplementation with functional amino acids (FAA) may improve growth performance of pigs during disease challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary protein content and FAA supplementation above requirements for growth on performance and immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella. Sixty-four mixed-sex weanling pigs (13.9 ± 0.82 kg) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with low (LP) or high protein (HP) content and basal (AA-) or FAA profile (AA+; Thr, Met, and Trp at 120% of requirements) as factors. After a 7-d adaptation period, pigs were inoculated with either a sterile saline solution (CT) or saline solution containing Salmonella Typhimurium (ST; 3.3 × 109 CFU/mL). Growth performance, body temperature, fecal score, acute-phase proteins, oxidant/antioxidant balance, ST shedding score in feces and intestinal colonization, fecal and digesta myeloperoxidase (MPO), and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) were measured pre- and postinoculation. There were no dietary effects on any measures pre-inoculation or post-CT inoculation (P > 0.05). Inoculation with ST increased body temperature and fecal score (P < 0.05), serum haptoglobin, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), PUN, and fecal MPO, and decreased serum albumin and plasma reduced glutathione (GSH):oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared with CT pigs (P < 0.05). ST-inoculation reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) vs. CT pigs (P < 0.05) but was increased by AA+ vs. AA- in ST pigs (P < 0.05). Serum albumin and GSH:GSSG were increased while haptoglobin and SOD were decreased in ST-inoculated pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). PUN was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs postinoculation (P < 0.05). Fecal ST score was increased in ST-inoculated pigs on days 1 and 2 postinoculation and declined by day 6 (P < 0.05) in all pigs while the overall score was reduced in AA+ vs. AA- pigs (P < 0.05). Cecal digesta ST score was higher in HP vs. LP-fed pigs and were lower in AA+ compared with AA- fed pigs in the colon (P < 0.05). Fecal and digesta MPO were reduced in ST pigs fed AA+ vs. AA- (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate a positive effect of FAA supplementation, with minimal effects of dietary protein, on performance and immune status in weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Salmonella typhimurium , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Destete
7.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530108

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to examine the conservation process and feed value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages. In exp. 1, we evaluated the fermentation pattern and aerobic stability of TMR silages containing different protein and lipid supplementations. In exp. 2, we compared the performance of finishing beef heifers fed those TMR silages. In both experiments, treatments were as follows: ensiled TMR with urea (U); ensiled TMR without a protein supplement at ensiling, but soybean meal supplemented at feeding to balance diet crude protein (CP) in exp. 2 (SMnf; where the acronym nf indicates nonfermented); ensiled TMR with soybean meal (SM); and ensiled TMR with rolled soybean grain (SG). Thirty-two Nellore heifers (313 ± 8.8 kg shrunk body weight [SBW]) were blocked by initial SBW, housed in individual pens, and enrolled in exp. 2 for 82 d. In exp. 1, treatment without a protein supplement (SMnf) had a lower content of CP, soluble CP, NH3-N, pH, and Clostridium count compared with U (P ≤ 0.03). Lactic acid concentrations tended to be reduced for SMnf compared with U (P = 0.09). Ethanol concentration was reduced in SG compared with SM (P < 0.01). 1,2-Propanediol concentration was increased in SMnf compared with U (P < 0.01), reduced in SM compared with SMnf (P = 0.02), and increased in SG compared with SM (P = 0.02). Dry matter (DM) loss during fermentation was low and similar among treatments (~3.7%). All silages remained stable during 10 d of aerobic exposure after feed out. Considering fermentation traits, such as pH (≤4.72), NH3-N (<10% of N, except for U treatment), butyric acid (<0.05 % DM), and DM losses (<3.70% DM), all silages can be considered well conserved. In exp. 2, diets were isonitrogenous because soybean meal was added to SMnf before feeding. Compared with SM, cattle fed SG made more meals per day (P = 0.04) and tended to have a decreased intermeal interval (P = 0.09). DM intake, average daily gain, final SBW, hot carcass weight, Biceps femoris fat thickness, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were increased for SG compared with SM (P ≤ 0.05). In brief, TMR silages exhibited an adequate fermentation pattern and high aerobic stability. The supplementation of true protein did not improve animal performance, whereas the addition of soybean grain as a lipid source improved the performance of finishing cattle fed TMR silages.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Ensilaje , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Fermentación , Lípidos , Rumen/metabolismo , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
8.
Food Chem ; 346: 128958, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418418

RESUMEN

The enrichment and transformation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) enriched phospholipids for eggs deserve attention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the comparative effects of DHA and EPA enriched phospholipids and triacylglycerols on egg fortification by determining the fatty acid composition of egg yolk after intervention with fish oil (15 g/kg) and krill oil (15 and 30 g/kg) for three consecutive weeks. The results indicated that laying hens could incorporate over 300 mg DHA and EPA into one egg. Greater retention efficiency of DHA and EPA in eggs was observed in fish oil supplementation compared with krill oil at equivalent dietary levels. DHA and EPA were prone to locate at the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine. Consequently, fish oil possessed high DHA content and conversion rate, and krill oil could raise the proportion of DHA-containing phospholipids in eggs.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/análisis , Huevos/análisis , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análisis , Animales , Pollos , Cromatografía de Gases , Suplementos Dietéticos , Yema de Huevo/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/química , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación
9.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394016

RESUMEN

Although pork producers typically aim to optimize growth rates, occasionally it is necessary to slow growth, such as when harvest facility capacity is limited. In finishing pigs, numerous dietary strategies can be used to slow growth so pigs are at optimal slaughter body weights when harvest facility capacity and/or access is restored. However, the impact of these diets on pork carcass quality is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dietary strategies to slow growth in late finishing pigs and evaluate their effects on carcass composition and pork quality. Mixed-sex pigs (n = 897; 125 ± 2 kg BW) were randomly allotted across 48 pens and assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments (n = 8 pens/treatment): (1) Control diet representative of a typical finisher diet (CON); (2) diet containing 3% calcium chloride (CaCl2); (3) diet containing 97% corn and no soybean meal (Corn); (4) diet deficient in isoleucine (LowIle); (5) diet containing 15% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from soybean hulls (15% NDF); and (6) diet containing 20% NDF from soybean hulls (20% NDF). Over 42 d, pen body weights and feed disappearance were collected. Pigs were harvested in 3 groups (14, 28, and 42 d on feed) and carcass data collected. From the harvest group, 1 loin was collected from 120 randomly selected carcasses (20 loins/treatment) to evaluate pork quality traits. Overall, ADG was reduced in CaCl2, Corn, and 20% NDF pigs compared with CON pigs (P < 0.001). However, ADFI was only reduced in CaCl2 and 20% NDF pigs compared with CON (P < 0.001). Feed efficiency was reduced in CaCl2 and Corn pigs compared with CON (P < 0.001). Hot carcass weights were reduced in CaCl2 pigs at all harvest dates (P < 0.001) and were reduced in Corn and 20% NDF pigs at days 28 and 42 compared with CON pigs (P < 0.001). In general, CaCl2 and 20% NDF diets resulted in leaner carcasses, whereas the Corn diet increased backfat by 42 d on test (P < 0.05). Loin pH was reduced and star probe increased in CaCl2 pigs compared with CON pigs (P < 0.05); no treatments differed from CON pigs regarding drip loss, cook loss, color, firmness, or marbling (P ≥ 0.117). Overall, these data indicate that several dietary strategies can slow finishing pig growth without evidence of behavioral vices. However, changes to carcass composition and quality were also observed, indicating quality should be taken into consideration when choosing diets to slow growth.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Carne de Cerdo , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Composición Corporal , Dieta/veterinaria
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 814-824, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480561

RESUMEN

The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is an endangered mustelid native to North America. Gastroenteritis is a documented cause of morbidity and mortality in managed individuals, particularly by infectious agents. Fecal cytology is an inexpensive and rapid test that can help guide clinical management strategies for animals with enteritis; however, normal parameters have not been established in black-footed ferrets. The objective of this study was to characterize fecal cytological findings of 50 fecal samples from 18 black-footed ferrets that received two different diet types (ground meat versus whole prey) and that were visibly judged to be normal or abnormal. This study also tested for the presence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all abnormal and a subset of normal fecal samples. Significantly higher spore-forming bacteria and yeast prevalence were present in normal feces from individuals following the meat-based compared with the whole-prey diet. Samples from individuals with abnormal feces had significantly more spore-forming bacteria than normal feces, regardless of diet. Normal feces had higher diplococci and spore-forming bacteria compared with domestic canine and feline standards. A single abnormal fecal sample was positive for enterotoxin and originated from the only animal requiring treatment. Results indicate that low numbers of spore-forming bacteria can be found in fecal samples from clinically normal black-footed ferrets. Fecal cytology shows significantly increased spore-formers in clinically abnormal ferrets and in clinically normal ferrets following a ground meat-based diet.


Asunto(s)
Clostridium perfringens , Enterotoxinas/química , Heces/microbiología , Hurones/microbiología , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Heces/química , Femenino , Masculino
11.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507284

RESUMEN

As a novel oilseed crop in Florida, Brassica carinata has the capacity of producing high-quality jet biofuel, with a protein-dense meal (~40% crude protein; CP) obtained as a by-product of oil extraction. Characterization of the meal protein is limited, yet necessary for formulation of beef cattle diets; therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine ruminal and postruminal digestibility of protein from B. carinata. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (473 ± 119 kg) were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, in which in situ ruminal and postruminal degradability of nutrients were evaluated. The three-step in vitro procedure was used to compare CP and amino acid (AA) degradation in B. carinata meal pellets (BCM) with that of cottonseed meal (CSM), dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and soybean meal (SBM). In situ bags were incubated in the rumen for 0 to 96 hr, with the undegraded supplement remaining after 16 hr subjected to serial in vitro enzymatic solutions. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal rate of degradation of dry matter, organic matter, and CP was greatest (P ˂ 0.01; 10.9, 11.3, and 11.5 %/h, respectively) for SBM. Rumen degradable protein (RDP) content did not differ (P = 0.20; 47.8% and 55.1%, respectively) between CSM and DDGS, but was decreased (P ˂ 0.01) compared with SBM and BCM, which did not differ (P = 0.99; 72.3% and 71.8% RDP, respectively). Compared with DDGS, SBM had greater (P < 0.01) intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (RUP). Intestinally absorbable digestible protein (IADP) was greatest (P < 0.01) for CSM, with SBM and BCM having the least IADP. Total tract digestibility of CP (TTDP) was greater (P < 0.01) for SBM compared with CSM and DDGS. The contribution of RUP to intestinally absorbable AA was 7.2 and 3.1 g of lysine and methionine per kilogram of CP in BCM, respectively. The evaluation of B. carinata meal as protein supplemented for cattle consuming a forage-based diet resulted in 71.8% RDP and 97.1% TTDP, thus indicating its viability as a high-quality protein supplement for beef cattle.


Asunto(s)
Brassica , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Brassica/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión , Fermentación , Florida , Rumen/metabolismo
12.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507290

RESUMEN

Objectives of this study were to evaluate apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and purine derivative (PD) excretion in dairy heifers limit-fed diets containing wet brewer's grains (WBG) treated with salt. A 12-wk replicated 4 × 4 Latin square was conducted using 8 Holstein heifers of 224.5 ± 19.4 d of age, and body weight (BW) of 219.2 ± 28.1 kg (mean ± SD). Fresh WBG were treated with 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% salt and stored for 4 d before being fed. Salt was added either to the WBG or separately to equalize the amount of salt in the diet. The diet contained 9% grass silage, 47% corn silage, 19% corn meal, 17.6% WBG and salt, 2% soybean meal, and 3% mineral mix. Diets were formulated to be limit-fed at 2.15% of BW, provide 14% crude protein (CP) and 2.27 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg of dry matter (DM). Heifers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily during the collection week while BW was recorded once a week. Urine and fecal samples were collected during the last 4 d of the collection period. Acid insoluble ash was used as an internal marker to determine apparent nutrient digestibility. Weight loss of WBG during storage was determined from days 1 to 11 and initial and final yeast and mold counts were determined. Final yeast counts were similar among treatments while final mold counts tended to be lesser (P = 0.07) for the 0.8% and 1.6% salt treatments. Urinary volume was similar among treatments while allantoin (P = 0.14), and uric acid (P < 0.01) and total PD excretion tended to increase (P = 0.13) quadratically. DMI was varied by treatment (linear, quadratic, and cubic effects P < 0.01). Heifers fed the 0.8% treatment had the least DMI. Nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) digestibility linearly decreased (P < 0.04) as salt increased. Digestibilities of DM, and organic matter (OM), tended to decrease (P < 0.10) with increasing levels of salt added to WBG. Fat digestibility was quadratic with the greatest value for the 1.6% treatment. Treating WBG with salt reduced its deterioration based on lesser mold counts for the 0.8% and 1.6% treatments. These treatments had resulted in greater fat digestibility and tended to have increased PD excretion suggesting improved microbial protein synthesis.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Nutrientes , Purinas , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511410

RESUMEN

Human-grade (HG) pet foods are commercially available, but they have not been well studied. Our objective was to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of HG pet foods and evaluate their effects on fecal characteristics, microbiota, and metabolites, serum metabolites, and hematology of dogs. Twelve dogs (mean age = 5.5 ± 1.0; BW = 11.6 ± 1.6 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design (n = 12/treatment). The diets included 1) Chicken and Brown Rice Recipe (extruded; Blue Buffalo); 2) Roasted Meals Tender Chicken Recipe (fresh; Freshpet); 3) Beef and Russet Potato Recipe (HG beef; JustFoodForDogs); and 4) Chicken and White Rice Recipe (HG chicken; JustFoodForDogs). Each period consisted of 28 d, with a 6-d diet transition phase, 16 d of consuming 100% of the diet, a 5-d phase for fecal collection, and 1 d for blood collection. All data were analyzed using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS 9.4. Dogs fed the extruded diet required a higher (P < 0.05) daily food intake (dry matter basis, DMB) to maintain BW. The ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), energy, and acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) were greater (P < 0.05) in dogs fed the HG diets than those fed the fresh diet, and greater (P < 0.05) in dogs fed the fresh diet than those fed the extruded diet. Crude protein ATTD was lower (P < 0.05) for dogs fed the extruded diet than those fed all other diets. Dogs fed the extruded diet had greater (P < 0.05) fecal output (as-is; DMB) than dogs fed fresh (1.5-1.7 times greater) or HG foods (2.0-2.9 times greater). There were no differences in fecal pH, scores, and metabolites, but microbiota were affected by diet. Dogs fed HG beef had higher (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and lower (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Firmicutes than dogs fed the fresh or HG chicken diets. The Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes phyla were unchanged (P > 0.05), but diet modified the relative abundance of nearly 20 bacterial genera. Similar to previous reports, these data demonstrate that the fecal microbiota of dogs fed HG or fresh diets is markedly different than those consuming extruded diets, likely due to ingredient, nutrient, and processing differences. Serum metabolites and hematology were not greatly affected by diet. In conclusion, the HG pet foods tested resulted in significantly reduced fecal output, were highly digestible, maintained fecal characteristics, serum chemistry, and hematology, and modified the fecal microbiota of dogs.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Microbiota , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Perros , Heces , Tracto Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Nutrientes
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515465

RESUMEN

As a novel oilseed crop in Florida, Brassica carinata has the capacity of producing high-quality jet biofuel, with a protein-dense meal (~40% crude protein; CP) obtained as a by-product of oil extraction. Characterization of the meal protein is limited, yet necessary for formulation of beef cattle diets; therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine ruminal and postruminal digestibility of protein from B. carinata. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (473 ± 119 kg) were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, in which in situ ruminal and postruminal degradability of nutrients were evaluated. The three-step in vitro procedure was used to compare CP and amino acid (AA) degradation in B. carinata meal pellets (BCM) with that of cottonseed meal (CSM), dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and soybean meal (SBM). In situ bags were incubated in the rumen for 0 to 96 hr, with the undegraded supplement remaining after 16 hr subjected to serial in vitro enzymatic solutions. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal rate of degradation of dry matter, organic matter, and CP was greatest (P ˂ 0.01; 10.9, 11.3, and 11.5 %/h, respectively) for SBM. Rumen degradable protein (RDP) content did not differ (P = 0.20; 47.8% and 55.1%, respectively) between CSM and DDGS, but was decreased (P ˂ 0.01) compared with SBM and BCM, which did not differ (P = 0.99; 72.3% and 71.8% RDP, respectively). Compared with DDGS, SBM had greater (P < 0.01) intestinal digestibility of rumen undegradable protein (RUP). Intestinally absorbable digestible protein (IADP) was greatest (P < 0.01) for CSM, with SBM and BCM having the least IADP. Total tract digestibility of CP (TTDP) was greater (P < 0.01) for SBM compared with CSM and DDGS. The contribution of RUP to intestinally absorbable AA was 7.2 and 3.1 g of lysine and methionine per kilogram of CP in BCM, respectively. The evaluation of B. carinata meal as protein supplemented for cattle consuming a forage-based diet resulted in 71.8% RDP and 97.1% TTDP, thus indicating its viability as a high-quality protein supplement for beef cattle.


Asunto(s)
Brassica , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Brassica/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión , Fermentación , Florida , Rumen/metabolismo
15.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515466

RESUMEN

Objectives of this study were to evaluate apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and purine derivative (PD) excretion in dairy heifers limit-fed diets containing wet brewer's grains (WBG) treated with salt. A 12-wk replicated 4 × 4 Latin square was conducted using 8 Holstein heifers of 224.5 ± 19.4 d of age, and body weight (BW) of 219.2 ± 28.1 kg (mean ± SD). Fresh WBG were treated with 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% salt and stored for 4 d before being fed. Salt was added either to the WBG or separately to equalize the amount of salt in the diet. The diet contained 9% grass silage, 47% corn silage, 19% corn meal, 17.6% WBG and salt, 2% soybean meal, and 3% mineral mix. Diets were formulated to be limit-fed at 2.15% of BW, provide 14% crude protein (CP) and 2.27 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg of dry matter (DM). Heifers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily during the collection week while BW was recorded once a week. Urine and fecal samples were collected during the last 4 d of the collection period. Acid insoluble ash was used as an internal marker to determine apparent nutrient digestibility. Weight loss of WBG during storage was determined from days 1 to 11 and initial and final yeast and mold counts were determined. Final yeast counts were similar among treatments while final mold counts tended to be lesser (P = 0.07) for the 0.8% and 1.6% salt treatments. Urinary volume was similar among treatments while allantoin (P = 0.14), and uric acid (P < 0.01) and total PD excretion tended to increase (P = 0.13) quadratically. DMI was varied by treatment (linear, quadratic, and cubic effects P < 0.01). Heifers fed the 0.8% treatment had the least DMI. Nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) digestibility linearly decreased (P < 0.04) as salt increased. Digestibilities of DM, and organic matter (OM), tended to decrease (P < 0.10) with increasing levels of salt added to WBG. Fat digestibility was quadratic with the greatest value for the 1.6% treatment. Treating WBG with salt reduced its deterioration based on lesser mold counts for the 0.8% and 1.6% treatments. These treatments had resulted in greater fat digestibility and tended to have increased PD excretion suggesting improved microbial protein synthesis.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Nutrientes , Purinas , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
16.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515472

RESUMEN

Dietary fish oil supplementation provides n-3 long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids for supporting fish growth and metabolism and enriching fillet with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; c22:6n-3). Two experiments were performed as a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments for 16 wk to determine effects and mechanisms of replacing 0%, 50%, and 100% fish oil with DHA-rich microalgae in combination with synthetic vs. microalgal source of astaxanthin in plant protein meal (PM)- or fishmeal (FM)- based diets for juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (22 ± 0.26 g) were stocked at 17/tank and 3 tanks/diet. The 100% fish oil replacement impaired (P < 0.0001) growth performance, dietary protein and energy utilization, body indices, and tissue accumulation of DHA and EPA in both diet series. The impairments were associated (P < 0.05) with upregulation of hepatic gene expression related to growth (ghr1and igf1) and biosynthesis of DHA and EPA (fads6 and evol5) that was more dramatic in the FM than PM diet-fed fish, and more pronounced on tissue EPA than DHA concentrations. The source of astaxanthin exerted interaction effects with the fish oil replacement on several measures including muscle total cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, replacing fish oil by the DHA-rich microalgae produced more negative metabolic responses than the substitution of synthetic astaxanthin by the microalgal source in juvenile rainbow trout fed 2 types of practical diets.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Aceites de Pescado , Xantófilas
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515476

RESUMEN

The present study evaluated enteric CH4 production, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), and rumen fermentation in feedlot cattle supplemented with increasing concentrations of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP). A total of 100 crossbred steers (body weight, 421 ± 11 kg) was randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n = 25/treatment): control (no 3-NOP) or low (100 mg/kg DM), medium (125 mg/kg DM), and high (150 mg/kg DM) doses of 3-NOP. The study was comprised of 28 d of adaptation followed by three 28-d periods, with CH4 measured for 7 d per period and cattle remaining on their respective diets throughout the 112-d study. Each treatment group was assigned to a pen, with the cattle and diets rotated among pens weekly to allow the animals to access the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system stationed in one of the pens for CH4 measurement. Measured concentration (mg/kg DM) of 3-NOP in the total diet consumed (basal diet + GEM pellet) was 85.6 for low, 107.6 for medium, and 124.5 for high doses of 3-NOP. There was a treatment × period interaction (P < 0.001) for DMI; compared with control, the DMI was less for the low and high doses in period 1, with no differences thereafter. Compared with control (10.78 g/kg DMI), CH4 yield (g/kg DMI) was decreased (P < 0.001) by 52%, 76%, and 63% for low, medium, and high doses of 3-NOP, respectively. A treatment × period effect (P = 0.048) for CH4 yield indicated that the low dose decreased in efficacy from 59% decrease in periods 1 and 2 to 37% decrease in period 3, while the efficacy of the medium and high doses remained consistent over time. Irrespective of dose, hydrogen emissions increased by 4.9-fold (P < 0.001), and acetate:propionate ratio in rumen fluid decreased (P = 0.045) with 3-NOP supplementation, confirming that other hydrogen-utilizing pathways become more important in the CH4-inhibited rumen. The study indicates that supplementation of corn-based finishing diets with 3-NOP using a medium dose is an effective CH4 mitigation strategy for commercial beef feedlots with a 76% decrease in CH4 yield. Further research is needed to determine the effects of 3-NOP dose on weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle at a commercial scale.


Asunto(s)
Metano , Zea mays , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Propanoles , Rumen
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515482

RESUMEN

The effect of hay type on the microbiome of the equine gastrointestinal tract is relatively unexplored. Our objective was to characterize the cecal and fecal microbiome of mature horses consuming alfalfa or Smooth Bromegrass (brome) hay. Six cecally cannulated horses were used in a split-plot design run as a crossover in two periods. The whole plot treatment was ad libitum access to brome or alfalfa hay fed over two 21-d acclimation periods with subplots of sampling location (cecum and rectum) and sampling hour. Each acclimation period was followed by a 24-h collection period where cecal and fecal samples were collected every 3 h for analysis of pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Fecal and cecal samples were pooled and sent to a commercial lab (MR DNA, Shallowater, TX) for the amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq. The main effects of hay on VFA, pH, and taxonomic abundances were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4 with fixed effects of hay, hour, location, period, and all possible interactions and random effect of horse. Alpha and beta diversities were analyzed using the R Dame package. Horses fed alfalfa had greater fecal than cecal pH (P ≤ 0.05), whereas horses fed brome had greater cecal than fecal pH (P ≤ 0.05). Regardless of hay type, total VFA concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the cecum than in feces, and alfalfa resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.05) VFA concentrations than brome in both sampling locations. Alpha diversity was greater (P ≤ 0.05) in fecal compared with cecal samples. Microbial community structure within each sampling location and hay type differed from one another (P ≤ 0.05). Bacteroidetes were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the cecum compared with the rectum, regardless of hay type. Firmicutes and Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the feces compared with cecal samples of alfalfa-fed horses. In all, fermentation parameters and bacterial abundances were impacted by hay type and sampling location in the hindgut.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Microbiota , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Ciego/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Heces , Fermentación , Caballos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/metabolismo
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515485

RESUMEN

Resistant starch (RS) is fermentable by gut microbiota and effectively modulates fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in pigs, mice, and humans. RS may have similar beneficial effects on the canine gut but has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% dietary RS (Hi-maize 260) on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, fermentative end-product concentrations, and microbiota of healthy adult dogs. An incomplete 5 × 5 Latin square design with seven dogs and five experimental periods was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0 to 17 adaptation; days 18 to 21 fresh and total fecal collection) and each dog serving as its own control. Seven dogs (mean age = 5.3 yr; mean body weight = 20 kg) were randomly allotted to one of five treatments formulated to be iso-energetic and consisting of graded amounts of 100% amylopectin cornstarch, RS, and cellulose and fed as a top dressing on the food each day. All dogs were fed the same amount of a basal diet throughout the study, and fresh water was offered ad libitum. The basal diet contained 6.25% RS (dry matter [DM] basis), contributing approximately 18.3 g of RS/d based on their daily food intake (292.5 g DM/d). Data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. The treatments included 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of an additional RS source. Because Hi-maize 260 is approximately 40% digestible and 60% indigestible starch, the dogs received the following amounts of RS daily: 0% = 18.3 g (18.3 + 0 g), 1% = 20.1 g (18.3 + 1.8 g), 2% = 21.9 g (18.3 + 3.6 g), 3% = 23.7 g (18.3 + 5.4 g), and 4% = 25.5 g (18.3 + 7.2 g). Apparent total tract DM, organic matter, crude protein, fat, and gross energy digestibilities and fecal pH were linearly decreased (P < 0.05) with increased RS consumption. Fecal output was linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increased RS consumption. Fecal scores and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations were not affected by RS consumption. Although most of the fecal microbial taxa were not altered, Faecalibacterium were increased (P < 0.05) with increased RS consumption. The decrease in fecal pH and increase in fecal Faecalibacterium would be viewed as being beneficial to gastrointestinal health. Although our results seem to indicate that RS is poorly and/or slowly fermentable in dogs, the lack of observed change may have been due to the rather high level of RS contained in the basal diet.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Digestión , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Perros , Heces , Ratones , Nutrientes , Almidón , Porcinos
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493259

RESUMEN

The objective was to evaluate the effects of a specific strain of live yeast (LY) on growth performance, fermentation parameters, feed efficiency, and bacterial communities in the rumen of growing cattle fed low-quality hay. In experiment (exp.) 1, 12 Droughtmaster bull calves (270 ± 7.6 kg initial body weight [BW]) were blocked by BW into two groups, allocated individually in pens, and fed ad libitum Rhodes grass hay (8.4% of crude protein [CP]) and 300 g/bull of supplement (52% CP) without (Control) or with LY (8 × 109 colony-forming unit [CFU]/d Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Lallemand Inc., Montreal, Canada) for 28 d, followed by 7 d in metabolism crates. Blood and rumen fluid were collected before feeding and 4 h after feeding. In exp. 2, for assessment of growth performance, 48 Charbray steers (329 ± 20.2 kg initial BW) were separated into two blocks by initial BW and randomly allocated into 12 pens. The steers were fed Rhodes grass hay (7.3% CP) and 220 g/steer of supplement (60% CP) without or with LY (8 × 109 CFU/d) for 42 d, after a 2-wk adaptation period. In exp. 1, fiber digestibility was calculated from total fecal collection, and, in exp 2, indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was used as a marker. Inclusion of LY increased (P = 0.03) NDF intake by 8.3% in exp. 1, without affecting total tract digestibility. No changes were observed in microbial yield or in the efficiency of microbial production. There was a Treatment × Time interaction (P < 0.01) for the molar proportion of short-chain fatty acids, with LY increasing propionate before feeding. Inclusion of LY decreased rumen ammonia 4 h after feeding (P = 0.03). The addition of LY reduced rumen bacterial diversity and the intraday variation in bacterial populations. Relative populations of Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia varied over time (P < 0.05) only within the Control group. At the genus level, the relative abundance of an unclassified bacterial genus within the order Clostridiales, a group of cellulolytic bacteria, was reduced from 0 to 4 h after feeding in the Control group (P = 0.02) but not in the LY group (P = 1.00). During exp. 2, LY tended to increase average daily gain (ADG) (P = 0.08) and feed efficiency (P = 0.10), with no effect on NDF intake or digestibility. In conclusion, S. cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 reduced the intraday variation of rumen bacteria and increased the amount of NDF digested per day. These observations could be associated with the tendency of increased ADG and feed efficiency in growing cattle fed a low-quality forage.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Canadá , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Digestión , Fermentación , Masculino , Rumen/metabolismo
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