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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 24, 2022 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045853

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an infectious disease characterized by multiple respiratory and extrapulmonary manifestations, including gastrointestinal symptoms. Although recent studies have linked gut microbiota to infectious diseases such as influenza, little is known about the role of the gut microbiota in COVID-19 pathophysiology. METHODS: To better understand the host-gut microbiota interactions in COVID-19, we characterized the gut microbial community and gut barrier function using metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches in 63 COVID-19 patients and 8 non-infected controls. Both immunohematological parameters and transcriptional profiles were measured to reflect the immune response in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Altered gut microbial composition was observed in COVID-19 patients, which was characterized by decreased commensal species and increased opportunistic pathogenic species. Severe illness was associated with higher abundance of four microbial species (i.e., Burkholderia contaminans, Bacteroides nordii, Bifidobacterium longum, and Blautia sp. CAG 257), six microbial pathways (e.g., glycolysis and fermentation), and 10 virulence genes. These severity-related microbial features were further associated with host immune response. For example, the abundance of Bu. contaminans was associated with higher levels of inflammation biomarkers and lower levels of immune cells. Furthermore, human-origin proteins identified from both blood and fecal samples suggested gut barrier dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. The circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein increased in patients with severe illness and were associated with circulating inflammation biomarkers and immune cells. Besides, proteins of disease-related bacteria (e.g., B. longum) were detectable in blood samples from patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the dysbiosis of the gut microbiome and the dysfunction of the gut barrier might play a role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 by affecting host immune homeostasis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Disbiosis , Homeostasis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Z Gastroenterol ; 60(1): 58-66, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042254

RESUMEN

Chronic alcohol consumption induces stress and damage in alcohol metabolising hepatocytes, which leads to inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. Besides these direct effects, alcohol disrupts intestinal barrier functions and induces gut microbial dysbiosis, causing translocation of bacteria or microbial products through the gut mucosa to the liver and, which induce inflammation indirectly. Inflammation is one of the key drivers of alcohol-associated liver disease progression from steatosis to severe alcoholic hepatitis. The current standard of care for the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone, aiming to reduce inflammation. Prednisolone, however improves only short-term but not long-term survival rates in those patients, and even increases the risk for bacterial infections. Thus, recent studies focus on the exploration of more specific inflammatory targets for the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis. These comprise, among others interference with inflammatory cytokines, modulation of macrophage phenotypes or targeting of immune cell communication, as summarized in the present overview. Although several approaches give promising results in preclinical studies, data robustness and ability to transfer experimental results to human disease is still not sufficient for effective clinical translation.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatías Alcohólicas , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Disbiosis , Humanos , Inflamación , Hígado
4.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(1): 107-119, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838246

RESUMEN

Advances in gene sequence technology and data analysis have enabled the detection and taxonomic identification of microorganisms in vivo based on their unique RNA or DNA sequences. Standard culture techniques can only detect those organisms that readily grow on artificial media in vitro. Culture-independent technology has been used to provide a more accurate assessment of the richness (total number of species) and diversity (relative abundance of each species) of microorganisms present in a prescribed location. The microbiome has been defined as the genes and genomes of all microbial inhabitants within a defined environment. Microorganisms within a microbiome interact with each other as well as with the host. A microbiome is dynamic and may change over time as conditions within the defined environment become altered. In oral health, neither gingivitis nor periodontitis is present, and the host and microbiome coexist symbiotically without evoking an inflammatory response. The circumstances that cause a shift from immune tolerance to a proinflammatory response remain unknown, and a unified, all-encompassing hypothesis to explain how and why periodontal disease develops has yet to be described. The purpose of this review is to clarify the current understanding of the role played by the oral microbiome in dogs and cats, describe how the microbiome changes in periodontal disease, and offer guidance on the utility of systemic antimicrobial agents in the treatment of periodontitis in companion animals.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Microbiota , Enfermedades Periodontales , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/tratamiento farmacológico , Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Disbiosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades Periodontales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Periodontales/veterinaria
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150368, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543792

RESUMEN

Glyphosate (GLY), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can result in gut microbiota dysbiosis intimately involving various diseases. The latest research has shown an association between gut microbiota alteration and defective spermatogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate whether GLY-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis contributed to male reproductive toxicity. Data showed that GLY-exposed rats exhibited male reproductive dysfunction, evidenced by impaired testis architectural structure, reduced sperm motility, together with increased sperm malformation ratio. 16S rDNA sequencing analysis indicated that GLY exposure altered the composition of gut commensal microbiota, of which the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla was significantly changed. Unexpectedly, the increased abundance of Prevotella_1 and Bacteroides genera was negatively correlated with sperm quality. Mechanistically, the pathological changes in GLY-exposed testis were accompanied by the increased interleukin (IL)-17A production, probably due to gut microbes-derived Th17 cell migration. Furthermore, activation of IL-17A signaling triggered testicular oxidative damage. Taken together, these findings uncover an underlying mechanistic scenario that gut microbiota dysbiosis-driven local IL-17A production is one reason responsible for male reproductive toxicity induced by GLY, which provides new insights into the male reproductive toxicity of GLY in mammals.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Disbiosis/inducido químicamente , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidad , Masculino , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Ratas , Motilidad Espermática
6.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118381, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673156

RESUMEN

Colon microenvironment and microbiota dysbiosis are closely related to various human metabolic diseases. In this study, a total of 72 healthy female mice were exposed to fluoride (F) (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L F-) in drinking water for 70 days. The effect of F on intestinal barrier and the diversity and composition in colon microbiota have been evaluated. Meanwhile, the relationship among F-induced colon microbiota alterations and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) expression and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) level also been assessed. The results suggested that F decreased the goblet cells number and glycoprotein expression in colon. And further high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing result demonstrated that F exposure induced the diversity and community composition of colonic microbiota significantly changes. Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis identified 11 predominantly characteristic taxa which may be the biomarker in response to F exposure. F-induced intestinal microbiota perturbations lead to the significantly decreased SCFAs levels in colon. Immunofluorescence results showed that F increased the protein expression of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 (P < 0.01) and disturbed the expression of interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and IL-22R (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, the increased expression of IL-17A and IL-22 cooperatively enhanced the mRNA expression of AMPs which response to F-induced microbiota perturbations. Collectively, destroyed microenvironment and disturbed AMPs are the primary reason of microbiota dysbiosis in colon after F exposure. Colonic homoeostasis imbalance would be helpful for finding the source of F-induced chronic systemic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Colon , Disbiosis/inducido químicamente , Femenino , Fluoruros , Ratones , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
7.
Gut ; 71(1): 78-87, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504491

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Effects of the diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis reach far beyond the gut. We aim to uncover the direct evidence involving the gut-testis axis in the aetiology of impaired spermatogenesis. DESIGN: An excessive-energy diet-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) sheep model was established. The testicular samples, host metabolomes and gut microbiome were analysed. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) confirmed the linkage between gut microbiota and spermatogenesis. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the number of arrested spermatogonia was markedly elevated by using 10× single-cell RNA-seq in the MetS model. Furthermore, through using metabolomics profiling and 16S rDNA-seq, we discovered that the absorption of vitamin A in the gut was abolished due to a notable reduction of bile acid levels, which was significantly associated with reduced abundance of Ruminococcaceae_NK4A214_group. Notably, the abnormal metabolic effects of vitamin A were transferable to the testicular cells through the circulating blood, which contributed to abnormal spermatogenesis, as confirmed by FMT. CONCLUSION: These findings define a starting point for linking the testicular function and regulation of gut microbiota via host metabolomes and will be of potential value for the treatment of male infertility in MetS.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Síndrome Metabólico/fisiopatología , Espermatogénesis/fisiología , Testículo/fisiología , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Animales , Ácidos y Sales Biliares/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Disbiosis/fisiopatología , Masculino , Metaboloma , Ovinos
8.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(1): 79-84, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928257

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This series of articles, titled The Vaginal Microbiome (VMB), written on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, aims to summarize the recent findings and understanding of the vaginal bacterial microbiota, mainly regarding areas relevant to clinicians specializing in vulvovaginal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of PubMed database was performed, using the search terms "vaginal microbiome" with "dysbiosis," "bacterial vaginosis," "cytolytic vaginosis," "desquamative inflammatory vaginitis," and "aerobic vaginitis." Full article texts were reviewed. Reference lists were screened for additional articles. RESULTS: The second article in this series focuses on vaginal dysbiotic conditions. Dysbiosis is a term describing imbalances in bacterial communities. Given that lactobacillus-dominated microbiota are thought to be the most optimal, vaginal dysbiosis is usually considered as lactobacilli-depleted VMB. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common vaginal dysbiotic condition, is a polymicrobial disorder, considered the leading cause for vaginal discharge in women worldwide. In addition, we review the VMB in other vaginal conditions associated with lactobacilli depletion: desquamative inflammatory vaginitis and aerobic vaginitis. We also discuss the controversial diagnosis of cytolytic vaginosis, related with lactobacilli overgrowth. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial vaginosis displays complex microbiology. The heterogeneity and diversity within the genus Gardnerella may impact the progression of BV. Bacterial biofilms may contribute to the etiology and persistence of BV, and various bacteria may affect its clinical presentation and pathogenicity. Lack of lactobacilli is not always accompanied by an overgrowth of anaerobes.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Vaginosis Bacteriana , Disbiosis , Femenino , Gardnerella , Humanos , Lactobacillus
9.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 53-65, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228203

RESUMEN

Over the last few decades, allergic diseases have been steadily increasing worldwide, a phenomenon that is not yet completely understood. Recent evidence, however, suggests that alterations in the microbiome may be a contributing factor. The microbiome refers to all microorganisms in a habitat including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Using modern sequencing technologies, we are now capable of detecting and analyzing the human microbiome in more detail than ever before. Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that a complex intestinal microbiome supports the development of the immune system during childhood, thus providing protection from allergic diseases, including food allergy. The microbiome becomes an important part of human physiology and forms dynamic relationships with our various barrier systems. For example, bacterial dysbiosis is a hallmark of atopic eczema and correlates with disease progression. Similarly, the lung and nasopharyngeal microbiome is altered in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. While these results are interesting, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and need to be investigated with functional studies. This review gives a short overview of the terminology and methods used in microbiome research before highlighting results concerning the lung, skin, and intestinal microbiome in allergic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos , Microbiota , Rinitis Alérgica , Disbiosis , Humanos
10.
FASEB J ; 36(1): e22100, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939244

RESUMEN

This study aims to elucidate the relationships between gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and psychological comorbidity in Crohn's disease (CD). We profiled the fecal microbiota composition and quantified the bile acid pool of 39 CD patients and 14 healthy controls using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant reductions in the secondary bile acids, LCA and DCA, were found in both the feces and serum samples of CD patients, while the concentration of 7-DHCA was particularly higher in the serum of CD patients with psychological disorders. The fecal levels of HDCA and 12-DHCA of the CD patients were inversely correlated with their Self-Rated Depression Scale (SDS) scores, whereas the serum level of 7-DHCA was positively correlated with the SDS scores. In addition, the fecal levels of TDCA, TLCA, and TßMCA showed a positive correlation with the Self-Rated Anxiety Scale (SAS) scores. The fecal microbiota biodiversity was particularly declined in CD patients with psychological disorders. An enrichment of Ruminococcus gnavus in CD patients may cause psychological disorders by affecting the microbiota-gut-brain axis via its ability to degrade the gut barrier, regulate the tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism, and modulate bile acid metabolism. In addition, the overabundant Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae in CD patients may contribute to psychological comorbidity via dysregulating their bile acids metabolism. Taken together, changes in the gut microbiota composition may cooperate with alterations in the bile acid metabolism that are involved in the development of psychological disorders in CD.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos y Sales Biliares/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Crohn , Disbiosis , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trastornos Mentales , Adulto , Enfermedad de Crohn/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Crohn/microbiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/psicología , Disbiosis/metabolismo , Disbiosis/microbiología , Disbiosis/psicología , Enterobacteriaceae/clasificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/metabolismo , Trastornos Mentales/microbiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología
11.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959809

RESUMEN

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease. The disease has a multifactorial aetiology, involving genetic, microbial as well as environmental factors. The disease pathogenesis operates at the host-microbe interface in the gut. The intestinal epithelium plays a central role in IBD disease pathogenesis. Apart from being a physical barrier, the epithelium acts as a node that integrates environmental, dietary, and microbial cues to calibrate host immune response and maintain homeostasis in the gut. IBD patients display microbial dysbiosis in the gut, combined with an increased barrier permeability that contributes to disease pathogenesis. Metabolites produced by microbes in the gut are dynamic indicators of diet, host, and microbial interplay in the gut. Microbial metabolites are actively absorbed or diffused across the intestinal lining to affect the host response in the intestine as well as at systemic sites via the engagement of cognate receptors. In this review, we summarize insights from metabolomics studies, uncovering the dynamic changes in gut metabolite profiles in IBD and their importance as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of disease. We focus on gut microbial metabolites as key regulators of the intestinal barrier and their role in the pathogenesis of IBD.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/microbiología , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Metabolómica , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Permeabilidad , Pronóstico
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948413

RESUMEN

Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) may improve symptoms in functional dyspepsia (FD) through duodenal eosinophil-reducing effects. However, the contribution of the microbiome to FD symptoms and its interaction with PPI remains elusive. Aseptic duodenal brushings and biopsies were performed before and after PPI intake (4 weeks Pantoprazole 40 mg daily, FD-starters and controls) or withdrawal (2 months, FD-stoppers) for 16S-rRNA sequencing. Between- and within-group changes in genera or diversity and associations with symptoms or duodenal factors were analyzed. In total, 30 controls, 28 FD-starters and 19 FD-stoppers were followed. Mucus-associated Porphyromonas was lower in FD-starters vs. controls and correlated with symptoms in FD and duodenal eosinophils in both groups, while Streptococcus correlated with eosinophils in controls. Although clinical and eosinophil-reducing effects of PPI therapy were unrelated to microbiota changes in FD-starters, increased Streptococcus was associated with duodenal PPI effects in controls and remained higher despite withdrawal of long-term PPI therapy in FD-stoppers. Thus, duodenal microbiome analysis demonstrated differential mucus-associated genera, with a potential role of Porphyromonas in FD pathophysiology. While beneficial effects of short-term PPI therapy were not associated with microbial changes in FD-starters, increased Streptococcus and its association with PPIeffects in controls suggest a role for duodenal dysbiosis after long-term PPI therapy.


Asunto(s)
Duodeno/microbiología , Disbiosis/inducido químicamente , Dispepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Duodeno/efectos de los fármacos , Disbiosis/microbiología , Dispepsia/microbiología , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Porphyromonas/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
13.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943813

RESUMEN

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious lung condition characterized by severe hypoxemia leading to limitations of oxygen needed for lung function. In this study, we investigated the effect of anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid, on Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-mediated ARDS in female mice. Single-cell RNA sequencing data showed that the lung epithelial cells from AEA-treated mice showed increased levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and tight junction proteins. MiSeq sequencing data on 16S RNA and LEfSe analysis demonstrated that SEB caused significant alterations in the microbiota, with increases in pathogenic bacteria in both the lungs and the gut, while treatment with AEA reversed this effect and induced beneficial bacteria. AEA treatment suppressed inflammation both in the lungs as well as gut-associated mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). AEA triggered several bacterial species that produced increased levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyrate. Furthermore, administration of butyrate alone could attenuate SEB-mediated ARDS. Taken together, our data indicate that AEA treatment attenuates SEB-mediated ARDS by suppressing inflammation and preventing dysbiosis, both in the lungs and the gut, through the induction of AMPs, tight junction proteins, and SCFAs that stabilize the gut-lung microbial axis driving immune homeostasis.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Araquidónicos/uso terapéutico , Endocannabinoides/uso terapéutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Tracto Gastrointestinal/patología , Pulmón/patología , Alcamidas Poliinsaturadas/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/microbiología , Animales , Ácidos Araquidónicos/farmacología , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ciego/patología , Separación Celular , Colon/efectos de los fármacos , Colon/patología , Análisis Discriminante , Disbiosis/complicaciones , Disbiosis/microbiología , Endocannabinoides/farmacología , Enterotoxinas , Femenino , Tracto Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Ganglios Linfáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Activación de Linfocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Neumonía/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía/microbiología , Alcamidas Poliinsaturadas/farmacología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/complicaciones , Linfocitos T/efectos de los fármacos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959740

RESUMEN

Nutritional deficiencies are common in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In patients, magnesium (Mg) deficiency is associated with disease severity, while in murine models, dietary Mg supplementation contributes to restoring mucosal function. Since Mg availability modulates key bacterial functions, including growth and virulence, we investigated whether the beneficial effects of Mg supplementation during colitis might be mediated by gut microbiota. The effects of dietary Mg modulation were assessed in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by monitoring magnesemia, weight, and fecal consistency. Gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S-rRNA based profiling on fecal samples. Mg supplementation improved microbiota richness in colitic mice, increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and reduced Enterobacteriaceae. KEEG pathway analysis predicted an increase in biosynthetic metabolism, DNA repair and translation pathways during Mg supplementation and in the presence of colitis, while low Mg conditions favored catabolic processes. Thus, dietary Mg supplementation increases bacteria involved in intestinal health and metabolic homeostasis, and reduces bacteria involved in inflammation and associated with human diseases, such as IBD. These findings suggest that Mg supplementation may be a safe and cost-effective strategy to ameliorate disease symptoms and restore a beneficial intestinal flora in IBD patients.


Asunto(s)
Colitis/microbiología , Colitis/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Magnesio/farmacología , Animales , Colitis/inducido químicamente , Sulfato de Dextran , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Disbiosis/microbiología , Disbiosis/terapia , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Deficiencia de Magnesio/microbiología , Deficiencia de Magnesio/terapia , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , ARN Ribosómico 16S
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 706970, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926314

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause gastrointestinal symptoms in the patients, but the role of gut microbiota in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we aim to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the composition and function of gut microbiota. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that significant shifts in microbiome composition and function were appeared in both SARS-CoV-2-infected asymptomatic and symptomatic cases. The relative abundance of Candidatus_Saccharibacteria was significantly increased, whereas the levels of Fibrobacteres was remarkably reduced in SARS-CoV-2-infected cases. There was one bacterial species, Spirochaetes displayed the difference between patients and asymptomatic cases. On the genus level, Tyzzerella was the key species that remarkably increased in both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. Analyses of genome annotations further revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in the significant 'functional dysbiosis' of gut microbiota, including metabolic pathway, regulatory pathway and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites etc. We also identified potential metagenomic markers to discriminate SARS-CoV-2-infected symptomatic and asymptomatic cases from healthy controls. These findings together suggest gut microbiota is of possible etiological and diagnostic importance for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Disbiosis , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenómica , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(11): 129-135, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932298

RESUMEN

There is a bi-directional connection between the gut microbiome and the brain. Changes in the composition of the microbiome affect emotions, behavior, and the stress response involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Depression and anxiety are often associated with dysbiosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Dysbiosis enhances stress response and low-grade systemic inflammation, and vice versa. This vicious circle may be responsible for the formation of depression. Antidepressants therapy should be accompanied by the elimination of dysbiosis. For these purposes diet, prebiotics, probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation can be used. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are considered. The manipulation of microbiome composition has been shown to have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of depression and anxiety.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Disbiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Prebióticos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959977

RESUMEN

Gut microbiota plays a significant role in the human body providing many beneficial effects on the host. However, its dysbiotic alterations may affect the tumorigenic pathway and then trigger the development of pancreatic cancer. This dysbiosis can also modulate the aggressiveness of the tumor, influencing the microenvironment. Because pancreatic cancer is still one of the most lethal cancers worldwide with surgery as the only method that influences prognosis and has curative potential, there is a need to search for other strategies which will enhance the efficiency of standard therapy and improve patients' quality of life. The administration of prebiotics, probiotics, next-generation probiotics (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila), synbiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation through multiple mechanisms affects the composition of the gut microbiota and may restore its balance. Despite limited data, some studies indicate that the aforementioned methods may allow to achieve better effect of pancreatic cancer treatment and improve therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/microbiología , Disbiosis/microbiología , Trasplante de Microbiota Fecal , Humanos , Prebióticos/administración & dosificación , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Simbióticos/administración & dosificación , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0253031, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910719

RESUMEN

Antibiotic treatment in early life influences gastrointestinal (GI) microbial composition and function. In humans, the resultant intestinal dysbiosis is associated with an increased risk for certain diseases later in life. The objective of this study was to determine the temporal effects of antibiotic treatment on the GI microbiome of young cats. Fecal samples were collected from cats randomly allocated to receive either amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 mg/kg q12h) for 20 days (AMC group; 15 cats) or doxycycline (10 mg/kg q24h) for 28 days (DOX group;15 cats) as part of the standard treatment of upper respiratory tract infection. In addition, feces were collected from healthy control cats (CON group;15 cats). All cats were approximately two months of age at enrolment. Samples were collected on days 0 (baseline), 20 or 28 (AMC and DOX, respectively; last day of treatment), 60, 120, and 300. DNA was extracted and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays were performed. Fecal microbial composition was different on the last day of treatment for AMC cats, and 1 month after the end of antibiotic treatment for DOX cats, compared to CON cats. Species richness was significantly greater in DOX cats compared to CON cats on the last day of treatment. Abundance of Enterobacteriales was increased, and that of Erysipelotrichi was decreased in cats of the AMC group on the last day of treatment compared to CON cats. The abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria was increased in cats of the DOX group on days 60 and 120 compared to cats of the CON group. Only minor differences in abundances between the treatment groups and the control group were present on day 300. Both antibiotics appear to delay the developmental progression of the microbiome, and this effect is more profound during treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and one month after treatment with doxycycline. Future studies are required to determine if these changes influence microbiome function and whether they have possible effects on disease susceptibility in cats.


Asunto(s)
Combinación Amoxicilina-Clavulanato de Potasio/farmacología , Bacterias , Doxiciclina/farmacología , Heces/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Gatos , Disbiosis/inducido químicamente , Disbiosis/microbiología , Disbiosis/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948234

RESUMEN

The majority of the epithelial surfaces of our body, and the digestive tract, respiratory and urogenital systems, are colonized by a vast number of bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoans, and viruses. These microbiota, particularly those of the intestines, play an important, beneficial role in digestion, metabolism, and the synthesis of vitamins. Their metabolites stimulate cytokine production by the human host, which are used against potential pathogens. The composition of the microbiota is influenced by several internal and external factors, including diet, age, disease, and lifestyle. Such changes, called dysbiosis, may be involved in the development of various conditions, such as metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto's thyroidis and Graves' disease; they can also play a role in nervous system disturbances, such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and depression. An association has also been found between gut microbiota dysbiosis and cancer. Our health is closely associated with the state of our microbiota, and their homeostasis. The aim of this review is to describe the associations between human gut microbiota and cancer, and examine the potential role of gut microbiota in anticancer therapy.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias/microbiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Central/microbiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Central/terapia , Disbiosis/microbiología , Disbiosis/terapia , Humanos , Enfermedades Metabólicas/microbiología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia
20.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960102

RESUMEN

The role of the microbiome in human aging is important: the microbiome directly impacts aging through the gastrointestinal system. However, the microbial impact on skin has yet to be fully understood. For example, cellular senescence is an intrinsic aging process that has been recently associated with microbial imbalance. With age, cells become senescent in response to stress wherein they undergo irreversible growth arrest while maintaining high metabolic activity. An accumulation of senescent cells has been linked to various aging and chronic pathologies due to an overexpression of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) comprised of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases, lipids and extracellular matrix components. In particular, dermatological disorders may be promoted by senescence as the skin is a common site of accumulation. The gut microbiota influences cellular senescence and skin disruption through the gut-skin axis and secretion of microbial metabolites. Metabolomics can be used to identify and quantify metabolites involved in senescence. Moreover, novel anti-senescent therapeutics are warranted given the poor safety profiles of current pharmaceutical drugs. Probiotics and prebiotics may be effective alternatives, considering the relationship between the microbiome and healthy aging. However, further research on gut composition under a senescent status is needed to develop immunomodulatory therapies.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Senescencia Celular/fisiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Salud , Envejecimiento Saludable/fisiología , Longevidad , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Envejecimiento de la Piel , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Piel , Envejecimiento/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Disbiosis , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Nutrición/fisiología
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