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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-03-31.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53409

RESUMEN

Building Health Throughout the Life Course elucidates how health develops and changes throughout the life course, and how the use of the life course approach among public health practitioners can ensure that health as a human right is achieved for all individuals. It describes the life course vision of health that focuses not only on diseases and their consequences, but rather on achieving long, healthy, active, and productive lives. The book consists of three stand-alone parts. Part 1, “Concepts”, aims to illuminate the complexity of health through the understanding of the life course approach. It can be used to familiarize oneself with the evolution and meaning of the life course, which serves as a basis for effective public health practice. Part 2, “Implications”, identifies the implications for the operationalization of the life course approach in public health. It translates the technical language of the life course literature to understand how the application of the life course approach requires changes in health systems, policies, research, and practice. Part 3, “Application in Public Health”, identifies key opportunities to strengthen the adoption of the life course approach in public health practice. It describes concrete, evidence-based actions to improve health and well-being through the promotion and generation of skills throughout the life course. This book aims to help decision-makers and public health professionals to understand the life course meaning and concepts, which is essential to comprehend how health develops and changes throughout the life course. The book also describes how the life course model allows us to address health disparities by generating mechanisms to improve health and well-being by promoting the vision of health as the product of a series of experiences that contribute to or detract from health in the near and long term.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Salud Pública , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Personal de Salud , Estrategias Mundiales
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-03-24.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53368

RESUMEN

Construir la salud a lo largo del curso de vida explica la manera en que la salud se desarrolla y cambia a lo largo del curso de la vida, y cómo el uso del enfoque del curso de vida por los profesionales de la salud pública puede garantizar que todas las personas alcancen la salud como un derecho humano. Aquí se describe la visión del curso de vida en la salud que se centra no solo en las enfermedades y sus consecuencias, sino más bien en lograr una vida larga, saludable, activa y productiva. El libro consta de tres partes independientes. El propósito de la primera, sobre los conceptos, es arrojar luz sobre la complejidad de la salud mediante la comprensión del enfoque del curso de vida. Se puede utilizar para familiarizarse con la evolución y el significado del curso de vida, que sirve de base para una práctica eficaz de la salud pública. En la segunda parte, se describen las implicaciones para la operacionalización del enfoque del curso de vida en la salud pública. El lenguaje técnico de la bibliografía sobre el curso de vida se traduce a fin de entender que la aplicación del enfoque del curso de vida requiere cambios en los sistemas, las políticas, la investigación y la práctica en materia de salud. En la tercera parte sobre su aplicación en la salud pública, se muestran algunas oportunidades importantes para fortalecer la adopción del enfoque del curso de vida en la práctica de la salud pública y se describen algunas medidas concretas basadas en la evidencia para mejorar la salud y el bienestar a través de la promoción y generación de habilidades a lo largo del curso de vida. El propósito de este libro es ayudar a los responsables de las decisiones y los profesionales de la salud pública a comprender el significado del curso de vida y los conceptos relacionados, algo esencial para comprender la manera en que la salud se desarrolla y cambia a lo largo del curso de la vida. También se describe la manera en que el modelo del curso de vida nos permite abordar las disparidades en la salud mediante la generación de mecanismos para mejorar la salud y el bienestar, mediante la promoción de la visión de la salud como producto de una serie de experiencias que aportan o restan salud a corto y a largo plazo.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Estrategias Mundiales , Salud Pública
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2021-03-09. (OPAS-W/FPL/IM/21-0007).
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53357

RESUMEN

O Programa de Atenção Integrada para a Pessoa Idosa (ICOPE) foi desenvolvido pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) para atender às necessidades e demandas de saúde das populações idosas em todo o mundo. Em 2050, a proporção da população global com 60 anos ou mais quase dobrará. Nas Américas, a expectativa de vida aumentou 21,6 anos nas últimas seis décadas. No entanto, viver mais frequentemente significa enfrentar problemas de saúde acumulados durante a velhice. A transição demográfica afetará quase todos os aspectos da sociedade e criará novos e complexos desafios para os sistemas de saúde e assistência social. Portanto, é necessária uma abordagem transformadora na maneira como os sistemas de saúde e os serviços dentro deles são estruturados - para garantir cuidados de alta qualidade que sejam integrados, acessíveis e com foco nas necessidades e direitos das pessoas idosas. A atenção integrada, especialmente para as pessoas idosas e com condições crônicas de saúde, é amplamente aceita como um mecanismo para melhorar os resultados de saúde e a eficiência do sistema. O Manual ICOPE fornece orientações detalhadas para ajudar os profissionais de saúde e cuidadores da comunidade a colocar em prática a atenção integrada para a pessoa idosa, através do desenvolvimento de um plano de cuidados. Dessa forma, o manual auxilia na definição de metas centradas na pessoa e na integração de abordagens nos diferentes níveis de atenção. O plano de cuidados pode incluir várias intervenções para gerenciar declínios na capacidade intrínseca, fornecer assistência e apoio social, desenvolver capacidade para o automanejo e apoiar os cuidadores. A brochura ICOPE apresenta os destaques da abordagem ICOPE para facilitar a sua divulgação e favorecer uma ampla apresentação do método.


Asunto(s)
Anciano , Envejecimiento , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Dinámica Poblacional , Envejecimiento Saludable , Salud del Anciano , Personal de Salud , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Anciano , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva , Orientación , Psicoterapia , Remediación Cognitiva , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Geriatría , Incontinencia Urinaria , Sensación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Accidentes por Caídas , Prevención y Mitigación , Prevención de Accidentes
4.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 57-65, 2021 02.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728878

RESUMEN

The face-to-face between the world of law and the life sciences is heavy with implicit: fear that it will open the way to liberticidal confrontations or hope that it will be able to allay the social fears born of human intervention in living things. We therefore expect the law to organize a legal order capable of governing activities relating to the life sciences. However, this demand for legal protection and security appears to be excessive in relation to the capacities of the law. In fact, it expresses a social anxiety commensurate with the crisis that our civilization is going through.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Democracia , Jurisprudencia , Humanos , Política
5.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 42, 2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759005

RESUMEN

RNA is central to the COVID-19 pandemic-it shapes how the SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) behaves, and how researchers investigate and fight it. However, RNA has received relatively little attention in the history and philosophy of the life sciences. By analysing RNA biology in more detail, philosophers and historians of science could gain new and powerful tools to assess the current pandemic, and the biological sciences more generally.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , ARN , /genética , Humanos , Filosofía , /genética
6.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(3): 293-301, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692518

RESUMEN

Academic institutions play a central role in the biotech industry through technology licensing and the creation of startups, but few data are available on their performance and the magnitude of their impact. Here we present a systematic study of technology licensing by one such institution, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Using data on the 76 therapeutics-focused life sciences companies formed through MIT's Technology Licensing Office from 1983 to 2017, we construct several measures of impact, including MIT patents cited in the Orange Book, capital raised, outcomes from mergers and acquisitions, patents granted to MIT intellectual property licensees, drug candidates discovered and US drug approvals-a key benchmark of innovation in the biopharmaceutical industry. As of December 2017, Orange Book listings for four approved small-molecule drugs cite MIT patents, but another 31 FDA-approved drugs (excluding candidates acquired after phase 3) had some involvement of MIT licensees. Fifty-five percent of the latter were either a new molecular entity or a new biological entity, and 55% were granted priority review, an indication that they address an unmet medical need. The methodology described here may be a useful framework for other academic institutions to track outcomes of intellectual property in the therapeutics domain.


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Propiedad Intelectual , Concesión de Licencias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Biotecnología , Industria Farmacéutica , Massachusetts
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 680-688, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645166

RESUMEN

In the era of Internet +, teaching models in universities are undergoing changes due to the rapid development of information technology. Blended teaching, combining online with offline teaching, is being implemented and developed in universities. In order to reform teaching mode and improve teaching effect, the curriculum team carried out the exploration of blended teaching reform for the "Introduction to Life Sciences" for non-biology students. The course combined high-level MOOC (Massive Open Online Course), small class teaching, diversified platform and multi-dimensional teaching mode, built a multi-disciplinary collaborative teaching team, formed a multi-dimensional evaluation system focusing on process and ability, practiced the education concept of combining knowledge teaching and value leading, gained valuable practical experience, and achieved the expected teaching results. It can provide reference for the reform and construction of similar courses in other colleges and universities. The development of blended teaching expands the breadth and depth of teaching, stimulates students' interest and potential for learning, opens up students' thinking and perspective, cultivates students' scientific literacy and comprehensive ability, and plays a positive role in the cultivation of innovative and inter-disciplinary talents.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Estudiantes , Curriculum , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Universidades
9.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(1): 53-58, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464193

RESUMEN

Programming is an important skill for different areas of knowledge. While in the past, programming skills were much more related to fields of computer sciences and engineering, today, professionals from different areas benefit from the ability to write codes for different applications. Furthermore, programming stimulates logical thinking, which impacts other personal abilities. Health science students have limited exposure to programming during their studies. Aware of this and considering the prolonged time in social distancing in Brazil due to the SARS-COV2 pandemic in 2020, we organized an outreach course dedicated to teaching introductory concepts of programming for health science students. The activity was developed fully online using the Zoom web conference agent, lasting 12 wk (8 synchronous classes, 15 synchronous hours in total), and attended by 27 undergraduate and graduate students from two different universities. A collaborative problem-based learning and group-learning methodology were developed through asynchronous homework and mainly online synchronous activities. In this article, we describe our approach and provide some suggestions for replicating the course in other universities. We observed that the activities of the outreach course improved programming skills and confidence for most of the students. More importantly, it piqued their interest enough to motivate them to continue to practice writing and testing their programs. We concluded that an outreach course dedicated to programming promoted improvements in programming skills in health science students. Furthermore, the program was an opportunity to keep the students active in science while working from their homes during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/educación , Educación a Distancia , Informática/educación , Pandemias , Programas Informáticos , Estudiantes/psicología , Comunicación por Videocoferencia , Adulto , Brasil , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Adulto Joven
11.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 24, 2021 01 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479214

RESUMEN

While the biomedical community has published several "open data" sources in the last decade, most researchers still endure severe logistical and technical challenges to discover, query, and integrate heterogeneous data and knowledge from multiple sources. To tackle these challenges, the community has experimented with Semantic Web and linked data technologies to create the Life Sciences Linked Open Data (LSLOD) cloud. In this paper, we extract schemas from more than 80 biomedical linked open data sources into an LSLOD schema graph and conduct an empirical meta-analysis to evaluate the extent of semantic heterogeneity across the LSLOD cloud. We observe that several LSLOD sources exist as stand-alone data sources that are not inter-linked with other sources, use unpublished schemas with minimal reuse or mappings, and have elements that are not useful for data integration from a biomedical perspective. We envision that the LSLOD schema graph and the findings from this research will aid researchers who wish to query and integrate data and knowledge from multiple biomedical sources simultaneously on the Web.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información , Animales , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Semántica
12.
Neurosci Lett ; 743: 135317, 2021 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310061

RESUMEN

Multiple research studies have shown active learning can increase student performance, reduce fail rates, and increase the success of marginalized students in STEM. In this mini-review we discuss a simple framework for planning and implementing active learning in the classroom. We provide seven strategies to support faculty members who want to implement this framework, with five suggested teaching activities and two mechanisms of creating space in the lecture to use the activities. Each strategy is given with a foundational research paper describing the evidence that it improves learning, engagement and inclusion in the classroom. We include our own experiences using these strategies in large biology lectures that had segments devoted to neuroscience topics, but they are effective in smaller classes as well.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/educación , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Estudiantes , Humanos
13.
Trends Mol Med ; 27(2): 100-103, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334676

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic not only challenged deeply-rooted daily patterns but also put a spotlight on the role of computational modeling in science and society. Amid the impromptu upheaval of in-person education across the world, this article aims to articulate the need to train students in computational and systems biology using research-grade technologies.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Educación Médica/tendencias , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Humanos , Pandemias , Modelación Específica para el Paciente
14.
PLoS Biol ; 18(10): e3000913, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064730

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has motivated many open and collaborative analytical research projects with real-world impact. However, despite their value, such activities are generally overlooked by traditional academic metrics. Science is ultimately improved by analytical work, whether ensuring reproducible and well-documented code to accompany papers, developing and maintaining flexible tools, sharing and curating data, or disseminating analysis to wider audiences. To increase the impact and sustainability of modern science, it will be crucial to ensure these analytical activities-and the people who do them-are valued in academia.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Acceso a la Información , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Edición , Recompensa , Programas Informáticos , Universidades
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240123, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022014

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed a deluge of publications. For this cross-sectional study we compared the amount and reporting characteristics of COVID-19-related academic articles and preprints and the number of ongoing clinical trials and systematic reviews. To do this, we searched the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals by using appropriate combinations of medical subject headings (MeSH terms), and the COVID-19 section of the MedRxiv and BioRxiv archives up to 20 May 2020 (21 weeks). In addition, we searched Clinicaltrial.gov, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, EU Clinical Trials Register, and 15 other trial registers, as well as PROSPERO, the international prospective register of systematic reviews. The characteristics of each publication were extracted. Regression analyses and Z tests were used to detect publication trends and their relative proportions. A total of 3635 academic publications and 3805 preprints were retrieved. Only 8.6% (n = 329) of the preprints were already published in indexed journals. The number of academic and preprint publications increased significantly over time (p<0.001). Case reports (6% academic vs 0.9% preprints; p<0.001) and letters (17.4% academic vs 0.5% preprints; p<0.001) accounted for a greater share of academic compared to preprint publications. Differently, randomized controlled trials (0.22% vs 0.63%; p<0.001) and systematic reviews (0.08% vs 5%) made up a greater share of the preprints. The relative proportion of clinical studies registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and EU Clinical Trials Register was 57.9%, 49.5%, and 98.9%, respectively, most of which were still "recruiting". PROSPERO listed 962 systematic review protocols. Preprints were slightly more prevalent than academic articles but both were increasing in number. The void left by the lack of primary studies was filled by an outpour of immediate opinions (i.e., letters to the editor) published in PubMed-indexed journals. Summarizing, preprints have gained traction as a publishing response to the demand for prompt access to empirical, albeit not peer-reviewed, findings during the present pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Preimpresos como Asunto , Edición , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sistema de Registros , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Archivos , Bibliometría , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Pandemias , Revisión por Pares , Neumonía Viral/virología , PubMed
16.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(10): 761-764, 2020 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115555

RESUMEN

There are many reasons why Switzerland is a unique location for innovation: political stability, a stable and liberal economic system, outstanding infrastructure, excellent education, close links to foreign markets to name just a few examples. The chemical, pharma and life science industries are also a big driver of innovation. Multinationals' partnerships with small- and medium-sized businesses, research and educational institutions as well as university spin-offs make a great contribution in promoting Swiss innovation, notably also in food and nutrition.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Ecosistema , Alimentos , Industrias , Suiza
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e202092S2, 2020 10 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084763
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238372, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936821

RESUMEN

The success of a scientist depends on their production of scientific papers and the impact factor of the journal in which they publish. Because most major scientific journals are published in English, success is related to publishing in this language. Currently, 98% of publications in science are written in English, including researchers from English as a Foreign Language (EFL) countries. Colombia is among the countries with the lowest English proficiency in the world. Thus, understanding the disadvantages that Colombians face in publishing is crucial to reducing global inequality in science. This paper quantifies the disadvantages that result from the language hegemony in scientific publishing by examining the additional costs that communicating in English creates in the production of articles. It was identified that more than 90% of the scientific articles published by Colombian researchers are in English, and that publishing in a second language creates additional financial costs to Colombian doctoral students and results in problems with reading comprehension, writing ease and time, and anxiety. Rejection or revision of their articles because of the English grammar was reported by 43.5% of the doctoral students, and 33% elected not to attend international conferences and meetings due to the mandatory use of English in oral presentations. Finally, among the translation/editing services reviewed, the cost per article is between one-quarter and one-half of a doctoral monthly salary in Colombia. Of particular note, we identified a positive correlation between English proficiency and higher socioeconomic origin of the researcher. Overall, this study exhibits the negative consequences of hegemony of English that preserves the global gap in science. Although having a common language is important for science communication, generating multilinguistic alternatives would promote diversity while conserving a communication channel. Such an effort should come from different actors and should not fall solely on EFL researchers.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/normas , Lenguaje , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Escritura
19.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es9, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870091

RESUMEN

Transfer of knowledge from one context to another is one of the paramount goals of education. Educators want their students to transfer what they are learning from one topic to the next, between courses, and into the "real world." However, it is also notoriously difficult to get students to successfully transfer concepts. This issue is of particular concern in biology and the life sciences, for which transfer of concepts between disciplines is especially critical to understanding. Students not only struggle to transfer concepts like energy from chemistry to biology but also struggle to transfer concepts like chromosome structures in cell division within biology courses. This paper reviews the current research and understanding of transfer from cognitive psychology. We discuss how learner abilities, taught material, and lesson characteristics affect transfer and provide best practices for biology and life sciences education.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/educación , Biología/educación , Cognición , Curriculum , Humanos , Conocimiento , Estudiantes
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