Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.120
Filtrar
2.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 41-55, 2021 02.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728877

RESUMEN

This contribution analyses the way in which the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights handle the concept of Human Dignity in cases that present bioethical stakes. As they do not comprehend it in the same way – ‘Dignity-Freedom’ on the one hand, ‘Dignity-Equality’ on the other – it implies differences of solutions in areas such as the definition of the human person, the right to personal autonomy, the right to health or even the right to a healthy environment. This comparative analysis also allows us to grasp better the limits that a too liberal reading of human rights can represent and to propose some means of improvement. That would involve a review of the equal dignity of human beings by the European Court, thanks to different tools that can be put into action without the Court’s being forced to reconsider the theoretical basis on which its whole system is founded.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bioética , Libertad , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Respeto , Humanos , Autonomía Personal , Estados Unidos
4.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(4): 523-527, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630106

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, Thanks giving ceremony to cadaver was different this year in two ways: the students were partially exposed to cadaveric dissections (for 7 months) and later learned Anatomy via online classes due to lockdown (for 5 months) and secondly it was not feasible to gather for the ceremony so virtual platform was preferred. The purpose of this study was to discern the gratitude for cadaver and to recognize the importance of cadaveric dissection from the reflection of students who experienced hybrid anatomy learning amidst COVID-19. METHODS: The study was conducted on 48 first year medical students who were admitted to the college in August 2019 and were willing to participate. An online invitation was sent to students to participate in virtual thanks giving to cadaver ceremony on the last day of their anatomy class (August 2020). RESULTS: Though the students partially studied gross anatomy with the aid of dissections on the cadaver; however, they expressed respect and gratitude to the silent mentor in the form of a card, poem, drawing or paragraph and shared it via google classroom platform. The students wished if they could continue their anatomy course in dissection hall as paused due to COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Reflection of these students may mark impact on future anatomy students who may or may not get the chance for dissections. The thanks-giving gesture will also help to bind medical science and humanity especially during the crisis of pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/educación , Disección/ética , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/ética , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Anatomía/ética , Discusiones Bioéticas , /transmisión , Cadáver , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Curriculum , Educación a Distancia/ética , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Humanismo , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Pandemias/prevención & control , Respeto
7.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(2): e115-e123, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358138

RESUMEN

Ambient intelligence is increasingly finding applications in health-care settings, such as helping to ensure clinician and patient safety by monitoring staff compliance with clinical best practices or relieving staff of burdensome documentation tasks. Ambient intelligence involves using contactless sensors and contact-based wearable devices embedded in health-care settings to collect data (eg, imaging data of physical spaces, audio data, or body temperature), coupled with machine learning algorithms to efficiently and effectively interpret these data. Despite the promise of ambient intelligence to improve quality of care, the continuous collection of large amounts of sensor data in health-care settings presents ethical challenges, particularly in terms of privacy, data management, bias and fairness, and informed consent. Navigating these ethical issues is crucial not only for the success of individual uses, but for acceptance of the field as a whole.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Ambiental , Discusiones Bioéticas , Manejo de Datos/ética , Atención al Paciente/ética , Telemedicina/ética , Telemetría/ética , Algoritmos , Recolección de Datos , Documentación/métodos , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Consentimiento Informado , Aprendizaje Automático , Atención al Paciente/métodos , Seguridad del Paciente , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Privacidad , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemetría/métodos , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles
8.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e47321, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1116094

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar a produção científica nacional e internacional, buscando as interfaces existentes entre os princípios bioéticos e os cuidados em saúde prestados ao fim da vida às pessoas idosas. Método: revisão integrativa, cuja busca ocorreu entre outubro e novembro de 2019 nas bases de dados Medline via Pubmed, Lilacs e Scopus com os descritores: "Palliative Care", "Aged" e "Bioethics" de 2014-2019. Resultados: a partir dos artigos selecionados, emergiram as seguintes categorias: condutas terapêuticas frente aos cuidados ao fim da vida; tomada de decisão nos cuidados ao fim da vida; e desafios nos cuidados ao fim da vida. Conclusão: destaca-se a relevância dos profissionais manterem o compromisso com a pessoa idosa e sua família de forma a considerar suas subjetividades e preferências e os instrumentalizar para que os cuidados sejam pautados em princípios bioéticos, para assim proporcionar um processo de morte e de morrer com dignidade.


Objective: to examine the Brazilian and international scientific production for connections between bioethical principles and the health care provided to older adults at the end of their lives. Method: between October and November 2019 this integrative review searched the Medline (Pubmed), Lilacs, and Scopus databases using the descriptors: "Palliative Care", "Aged", and "Bioethics" for the period 2014-2019. Results: the following categories emerged from the selected articles: therapeutic conducted with regard to end-of-life care; decision making on end-of-life care; and challenges in end-of-life care. Conclusion: of particular importance is for health professionals to uphold their commitment to older adults and their families, consider their subjectivities and preferences, and empower and equip them so that care is guided by bioethical principles in order to assure a dignified process of dying and death.


Objetivo: examinar la producción científica brasileña e internacional en busca de conexiones entre los principios bioéticos y la atención médica brindada a los adultos mayores al final de sus vidas. Método: entre octubre y noviembre de 2019, esta revisión integradora buscó en las bases de datos Medline (Pubmed), Lilacs y Scopus utilizando los descriptores: "Cuidados paliativos", "Envejecido" y "Bioética" para el período 2014-2019. Resultados: las siguientes categorías surgieron de los artículos seleccionados: terapéutico realizado con respecto a la atención al final de la vida; toma de decisiones sobre la atención al final de la vida; y desafíos en la atención al final de la vida. Conclusión: es de particular importancia que los profesionales de la salud mantengan su compromiso con los adultos mayores y sus familias, consideren sus subjetividades y preferencias, y los empoderen y equipen para que la atención se guíe por principios bioéticos para asegurar un proceso digno de muerte y muerte.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida/ética , Discusiones Bioéticas , Personeidad , Muerte , Relaciones Profesional-Familia/ética , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente/ética , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Valor de la Vida
9.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 425-438, nov. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191366

RESUMEN

La crisis sanitaria global que es la COVID-19 arroja al pensamiento hacia lugares incómodos. En el presente manuscrito sugiero que la filosofía pospandémica, de ahora en adelante, no puede ni podrá desentenderse del fenómeno de lo viviente, específicamente del viviente animal no humano. Precisamente, producto de la indiferencia de la cuestión animal, la filosofía ha creído por pretérita la tesis cartesiana del animal-máquina. Muy por el contrario, en este texto propongo que dicha comprensión del animal no tiene nada de arcaica, y que, provocada por el contexto pandémico, podría dar a lugar a lo que tentativamente es posible denominar "cartesianismo distópico". Ante esta consumación, cuya cristalización es el devenir (total) máquina del animal no humano, una bioética animal podría servir como vía para contravenir el cartesianismo distópico


The global health crisis that is the COVID-19 throws the thinking into uncomfortable places. In the present manuscript I suggest that post-pandemic philosophy, from now on, cannot and will not ignore the phenomenon of the living, specifically the living non-human animal. Precisely, as a result of the indifference of the animal question, philosophy has believed in the past the Cartesian thesis of the animal-machine. On the contrary, in this text we propose that such understanding of the animal is not archaic at all, and that, triggered by the pandemic context, could give rise to what can tentatively be called "dystopian Cartesianism". In front of this consummation, whose crystallization is the (total) machine becoming of the non-human animal, an animal bioethics could serve as a way to contravene the dystopian Cartesianism


La crisi sanitària global que és la COVID-19 llança el pensament cap a llocs incòmodes. En el present manuscrit suggereixo que la filosofia postpandèmica, d'ara endavant, no es pot ni es podrà desentendre del fenòmen del que és viu, específicament del vivent animal no humà. Precisament, producte de la indiferència de la qüestió animal, la filosofia ha cregut per pretèrita la tesi cartesiana de l'animal-màquina. Molt al contrari, en aquest text proposo que aquesta comprensió de l'animal no té res d'arcaica, I que, provocada pel context pandèmic, podria donar a lloc al que temptativament és possible anomenar "cartesianisme distòpic". Davant d'aquesta consumació, la cristal·lització del qual és l'esdevenir (total) màquina de l'animal no humà, una bioètica animal podria servir com a via per contravenir el cartesianisme distòpic


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Discusiones Bioéticas , Modelos Animales , Experimentación Animal/ética , Animales Domésticos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Comités de Atención Animal
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 206, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963672

RESUMEN

The intense global efforts are directed towards development of vaccines to halt the COVID-19 virus pandemic. There are 160 candidate vaccines under clinical trials across the world using different molecular targets and techniques. This race for the vaccine has several challenges and ethical issues like compressed timelines, generation and proper management of resources and finances, risks to the participating volunteers due to curtailed research trial processes, geopolitical contentions, misinformation through social media and parallel race with drugs. We feel that the fundamental principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice should not be violated in this hastened vaccine development process. We recommend constitute a Consortium on a global platform to formulate, provide and monitor a comprehensive ethical umbrella to the process of vaccine development.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Discusiones Bioéticas , Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Asignación de Recursos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Factores de Tiempo , Vacunas Virales/economía , Vacunas Virales/provisión & distribución
15.
Clin Ter ; 171(5): e407-e411, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901783

RESUMEN

The amazing and almost unimaginable advances that have unfolded over the past decades in biotechnologies (heritable germline editing in particular) have brought bioethical issues to the forefront, sparking public debate and increasing attention worldwide. Such mind-blowing progress has already resulted in major improvement and enhancements for humans, and holds the potential for even more. Technology and bioengineering have begun to take over in the life sciences industry. Man's capacity to genetically engineer the biological world is nothing short of mind-boggling in its current magnitude, and may even evolve, in a not too distant future, into attempts to fuse man and machine into a cohesive bioengineered entity; a "super human being", endowed with enhanced cognitive and physical capabilities and impervious to disease, may be not too far down the road. That will not come without caveats, however. In fact, scientific advancements at such an accelerated pace have already negatively affected our cultural, ethical, and legal values and our ability to harness the opportunities and face the dangers posed by such developments. As a matter of fact, science seems to consistently outpace public morals, ethics and policymaking, which calls for a high degree of caution and common answers.


Asunto(s)
Comienzo de la Vida Humana , Discusiones Bioéticas , Biotecnología/ética , Edición Génica/ética , Terapia Genética/ética , Humanos , Principios Morales , Formulación de Políticas
16.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(3): 119-126, jul.-sept. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192313

RESUMEN

La pandemia por COVID-19 ha suscitado problemas éticos y médico-legales, entre los que destaca la asignación equitativa de recursos sanitarios, sobre todo en relación a la priorización de pacientes y el racionamiento de recursos. El establecimiento de prioridades está siempre presente en los sistemas sanitarios y depende de la teoría de justicia aplicable en cada sociedad. El racionamiento de recursos ha sido necesario en la pandemia por COVID-19, por lo que se han publicado documentos de consenso para la toma de decisiones sustentadas en cuatro valores éticos fundamentales: maximización de los beneficios, tratar a las personas igualmente, contribuir en la creación de valor social y dar prioridad a la situación más grave. De ellos derivan recomendaciones específicas: maximizar beneficios; priorizar a los trabajadores de la salud; no priorizar la asistencia por orden de llegada; ser sensible a la evidencia científica; reconocer la participación en la investigación y aplicar los mismos principios a los pacientes COVID-19 que a los no-COVID-19


The COVID-19 pandemic has raised ethical and medico-legal problems, which include the equitable allocation of health resources, especially in relation to the prioritization of patients and the rationing of resources. Priority setting is always present in healthcare systems and depends on the theory of justice applicable in each society. Resource rationing has been necessary in the COVID-19 pandemic, and therefore consensus documents have been published for decision-making based on four fundamental ethical values: maximization of benefits, treating people equally, contributing to creating social value and giving priority to the worst off, from which specific recommendations derive: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not prioritize attendance on a first-come, first-served basis; be sensitive to scientific evidence; recognize participation in research and apply the same principles to COVID-19 patients as to non-COVID-19 patients


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Valor de la Vida , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/legislación & jurisprudencia , Selección de Paciente/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida/ética , Cuidados para Prolongación de la Vida/ética , Pandemias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Toma de Decisiones/ética , Discusiones Bioéticas , Revisión de Utilización de Recursos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Asignación de Recursos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Negativa al Tratamiento/ética , Negativa al Tratamiento/legislación & jurisprudencia
17.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817267

RESUMEN

In rare circumstances, children who have suffered traumatic brain injury from child abuse are declared dead by neurologic criteria and are eligible to donate organs. When the parents are the suspected abusers, there can be confusion about who has the legal right to authorize organ donation. Furthermore, organ donation may interfere with the collection of forensic evidence that is necessary to evaluate the abuse. Under those circumstances, particularly in the context of a child homicide investigation, the goals of organ donation and collection and preservation of critical forensic evidence may seem mutually exclusive. In this Ethics Rounds, we discuss such a case and suggest ways to resolve the apparent conflicts between the desire to procure organs for donation and the need to thoroughly evaluate the evidence of abuse.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/ética , Medicina Legal/ética , Homicidio/ética , Consentimiento Paterno/ética , Donantes de Tejidos/ética , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos/ética , Autopsia/ética , Discusiones Bioéticas , Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Preescolar , Familia , Medicina Legal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Masculino , Consentimiento Paterno/legislación & jurisprudencia , Padres , Síndrome del Bebé Sacudido/etiología , Donantes de Tejidos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos/legislación & jurisprudencia
19.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S3-S8, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737225

RESUMEN

One of the earliest controversies in the modern history of bioethics was known at the time as "the Hopkins Mongol case," involving an infant with Trisomy 21 and duodenal atresia whose parents declined to consent to surgery. Fluids and feeding were withheld, and the infant died of dehydration after 15 days. The child's short life had a profound impact on the author's career and that of several others and ultimately led to changes in the care of children and adults with disabilities and the way difficult end-of-life decisions are made in US hospitals today. It also contributed to the growth of the modern bioethics movement and scholarship focused on pediatric bioethics issues.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/ética , Síndrome de Down/terapia , Pediatría/ética , Privación de Tratamiento/ética , Comités Consultivos/ética , Discusiones Bioéticas/historia , Discusiones Bioéticas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niños con Discapacidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Síndrome de Down/historia , Atresia Esofágica/historia , Atresia Esofágica/terapia , Fundaciones , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Consentimiento Paterno/ética , Consentimiento Paterno/legislación & jurisprudencia , Padres , Pediatría/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuidado Terminal/ética , Privación de Tratamiento/legislación & jurisprudencia
20.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S13-S17, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737227

RESUMEN

Although parents are typically the most appropriate decision-makers for their children, there are limits to this authority. Medical providers may be ethically obligated to seek state intervention against a parental decision if the parent places a child at significant and imminent risk of serious harm. When parents make medical decisions for their children, they assess both the projected benefits and risks of their choices for their family. These assessments are impacted by uncertainty, which is a common feature of neonatal intensive care. The relative presence or absence of uncertainty may impact perceptions of parental decisions and a medical provider's decision to seek state intervention to overrule parents. In this article, we propose a model integrating prognostic uncertainty into pediatric decision-making that may aid providers in such assessments. We will demonstrate how to apply this model to 3 neonatal cases and propose that the presence of greater uncertainty ought to permit parents greater latitude to incorporate family values into their decision-making even if these decisions are contradictory to the recommendations of the medical team.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/ética , Padres , Incertidumbre , Familia , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiología , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos , Consentimiento Paterno/ética , Pronóstico , Estenosis de la Válvula Pulmonar/cirugía , Valores Sociales , Privación de Tratamiento/ética
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...