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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1317: 163-179, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945137

RESUMEN

Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in digitising museum collections. Among the objects of interest are anatomical and pathological specimens found in medical museums. As researchers increasingly produce digital replicas of these preparations, ways of integrating these resources into the medical curriculum must be explored. This article takes a medical humanities approach to this topical question, comparing the historic use of anatomical specimens to modern intentions, and exploring the potential for using digital anatomy to help integrate humanities into the curriculum. The use of anatomical specimens by William Hunter (1718-1783), whose collection is now kept at the Hunterian in the University of Glasgow, provides a key historic focus. The teaching intentions for his private courses of anatomy are examined, to investigate how specimens were used in an eighteenth-century "curriculum". The motivations behind digitisation and the use of digital anatomy in modern curriculums are then examined and compared. Many of these motivations are shared with Hunter's: the desire to maintain a unique anatomical resource, the need to provide multisensory engagement in learning, and a desire to attempt to show "natural" anatomy without the interference of human processes. The balance between fostering empathy and maintaining detachment is also key for both. Using digital replicas of historic specimens to teach anatomy also opens up a unique opportunity to educate students in the medical humanities in a fully integrated way. Understanding the full story of the specimens they use, as explored in the first half of the article, allows students to place themselves, their dissection subjects, and healthcare as a whole in a historical context. As well as fostering empathy in the dissection lab, the stories behind the specimens can be used to introduce key humanities topics, including ethics, institutional bias, and social aspects of health and disease. It is essential that this potential is explored now while digital anatomy is still a relatively young field, and therefore collaborations between anatomists and medical humanities practitioners can be built and included from the ground up.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Mano , Disección , Humanos , Motivación , Museos
2.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843927

RESUMEN

Tumor enrichment in low tumor content tissues, those below 20% tumor content depending on the method, is required to generate quality data reproducibly with many downstream assays such as next generation sequencing. Automated tissue dissection is a new methodology that automates and improves tumor enrichment in these common, low tumor content tissues by decreasing the user-dependent imprecision of traditional macro-dissection and time, cost, and expertise limitations of laser capture microdissection by using digital image annotation overlay onto unstained slides. Here, digital hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) annotations are used to target small tumor areas using a blade that is 250 µm2 in diameter in unstained formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) or fresh frozen sections up to 20 µm in thickness for automated tumor enrichment prior to nucleic acid extraction and whole exome sequencing (WES). Automated dissection can harvest annotated regions in low tumor content tissues from single or multiple sections for nucleic acid extraction. It also allows for capture of extensive pre- and post-harvest collection metrics while improving accuracy, reproducibility, and increasing throughput with utilization of fewer slides. The described protocol enables digital annotation with automated dissection on animal and/or human FFPE or fresh frozen tissues with low tumor content and could also be used for any region of interest enrichment to boost adequacy for downstream sequencing applications in clinical or research workflows.


Asunto(s)
Disección/métodos , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Neoplasias/cirugía , Animales , Humanos
3.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 27(1): 17-23, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825724

RESUMEN

AIM: The purpose of this study was to specify the anatomy of the deep femoral artery and deep femoral vein within the femoral triangle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on the data of anatomical dissection of vessels in the area of the upper third of the femur (20 specimens ) and ultrasonographic duplex angioscanning of patients undergoing routine examination of the vascular system (40 patients, 50 lower extremities). Ultrasonography was performed using linear and convex transducers (frequency 3-13 and 3-5 MHz). RESULTS: In the majority of cases, the deep femoral artery originated from the common femoral artery: in 100% of cases in anatomical dissection and in 98% according to the findings of ultrasound duplex angioscanning. Two trunks of the deep femoral artery were revealed in 14% of cases. The findings of ultrasound duplex angioscanning and those of anatomical dissection demonstrated a high origin of the deep femoral artery in 8% and 10% of cases, respectively. In the majority of cases, the deep femoral artery originated from the posterior surface of the common femoral artery: in 46% of cases on ultrasound duplex angioscanning and in 60% of cases in anatomical dissection; along the posterior lateral surface: in 36% according to the data of ultrasound duplex angioscanning and in 40% on dissection. The origin of the deep femoral artery from the medial surface of the common femoral artery was encountered in 8% cases and in 6% of cases was associated with formation of an atypical saphenofemoral junction. One patient was found to have the origin of one of the trunks of the deep femoral artery from the anterior surface of the common femoral artery. Two trunks of the deep femoral vein were revealed in 84% of cases. The proximal trunk flowed into the femoral vein from the lateral surface immediately beneath the ostium of the deep femoral artery, and the distal trunk - 1-1.5 cm lower from the posterior medial side of the femoral vein. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of variant anatomy of deep femoral vessels is very important for decreasing the risk of iatrogenic lesions during surgical manipulations and false-negative results of diagnostic manipulations. If possible, it is always necessary to preoperatively assess variant anatomy of deep femoral vessels (real-time assessment of topography of vessels by means of ultrasound duplex angioscanning, preoperative marking of vessels).


Asunto(s)
Vena Femoral , Extremidad Inferior , Disección , Arteria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagen , Vena Femoral/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Ultrasonografía
4.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645569

RESUMEN

Eye disorders affect millions of people worldwide, but the limited availability of human tissues hinders their study. Mouse models are powerful tools to understand the pathophysiology of ocular diseases because of their similarities with human anatomy and physiology. Alterations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), including changes in morphology and function, are common features shared by many ocular disorders. However, successful isolation and culture of primary mouse RPE cells is very challenging. This paper is an updated audiovisual version of the protocol previously published by Fernandez-Godino et al. in 2016 to efficiently isolate and culture primary mouse RPE cells. This method is highly reproducible and results in robust cultures of highly polarized and pigmented RPE monolayers that can be maintained for several weeks on Transwells. This model opens new avenues for the study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying eye diseases. Moreover, it provides a platform to test therapeutic approaches that can be used to treat important eye diseases with unmet medical needs, including inherited retinal disorders and macular degenerations.


Asunto(s)
Disección , Cultivo Primario de Células/métodos , Epitelio Pigmentado de la Retina/citología , Animales , Bioensayo , Diferenciación Celular , Polaridad Celular , Separación Celular , Impedancia Eléctrica , Células Epiteliales/citología , Humanos , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Fagocitosis , Factores de Tiempo
5.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645587

RESUMEN

Taste buds are collections of taste-transducing cells specialized to detect subsets of chemical stimuli in the oral cavity. These transducing cells communicate with nerve fibers that carry this information to the brain. Because taste-transducing cells continuously die and are replaced throughout adulthood, the taste-bud environment is both complex and dynamic, requiring detailed analyses of its cell types, their locations, and any physical relationships between them. Detailed analyses have been limited by tongue-tissue heterogeneity and density that have significantly reduced antibody permeability. These obstacles require sectioning protocols that result in splitting taste buds across sections so that measurements are only approximated, and cell relationships are lost. To overcome these challenges, the methods described herein involve collecting, imaging, and analyzing whole taste buds and individual terminal arbors from three taste regions: fungiform papillae, circumvallate papillae, and the palate. Collecting whole taste buds reduces bias and technical variability and can be used to report absolute numbers for features including taste-bud volume, total taste-bud innervation, transducing-cell counts, and the morphology of individual terminal arbors. To demonstrate the advantages of this method, this paper provides comparisons of taste bud and innervation volumes between fungiform and circumvallate taste buds using a general taste-bud marker and a label for all taste fibers. A workflow for the use of sparse-cell genetic labeling of taste neurons (with labeled subsets of taste-transducing cells) is also provided. This workflow analyzes the structures of individual taste-nerve arbors, cell type numbers, and the physical relationships between cells using image analysis software. Together, these workflows provide a novel approach for tissue preparation and analysis of both whole taste buds and the complete morphology of their innervating arbors.


Asunto(s)
Coloración y Etiquetado , Papilas Gustativas/citología , Animales , Recuento de Células , Disección , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Inmunohistoquímica , Ratones , Microscopía Confocal , Neuronas/citología , Paladar (Hueso)/citología , Paladar (Hueso)/inervación
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(9): 647-653, 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685047

RESUMEN

Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different methods to construct animal models of aortic arch dissection (AAD), and explore safe and effective methods for constructing AAD animal models. Methods: Twenty-four healthy mongrel dogs were divided into 4 groups by random number table (n=6). Group A: Venous incision needle high pressure water flow impact method; Group B: Venous incision needle non-high pressure water flow impact method; Group C: Transarterial sheath non-high pressure water flow impact method; Group D: Two-way balloon expansion combined with elastase perfusion method. Imaging examinations were performed immediately and 7 days after operation, aortic tissue biopsy and pathological staining were performed 15 days after operation to observe the formation of AAD. The operation time, aortic blood flow block time, model construction success rate, dissection tear length, postoperative survival rate and survival time of four groups of experimental dogs were collected to compare the effectiveness and safety of different construction methods. Results: There were no significant difference of the gender, age and weight between four groups of experimental dogs (all P>0.05). The operation time of four groups of experimental dogs were (111.6±8.0), (168.0±17.4), (164.4±13.9), (202.8±21.5)min, and the difference was statistically significant (F=39.973, P<0.001). The operation time of group A was significantly lower than group B, C and D (all P<0.001). The aortic blood flow block time of four groups of experimental dogs were (5.2±1.8), (19.6±3.8), (20.6±3.9), and (18.6±3.0) min, and the difference was statistically significant (all P<0.001). The aortic blood flow block time of group A was significantly lower than group B, C and D (F=27.598, P<0.001). The four groups of experimental dogs had 5, 5, 4, and 1 model were successfully constructed, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.008). The successful rate of model construction in group A was significantly higher than that in group D (P=0.040). The dissection tear length of four groups were (14.4±3.0), (11.3±4.2), (7.0±2.3), (4.7±0.6) cm,and the difference was statistically significant (F=8.103, P=0.003). The dissection tear length of group A was significantly longer than group C, D (all P<0.05). The postoperative survival time were 15.0(10.0, 15.0), 5.0(3.0, 10.0), 3.5(1.5, 4.8), 10.0(2.8, 15.0) days, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=7.825,P=0.036). The postoperative survival time of group A was significantly higher than group B, C (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the survival rate of the four groups (P=1.000). The pathological staining results showed that the elastic fiber at the tearing point of AAD was destroyed, and the elastic fiber on the outer wall of the false cavity was over-stretched, which was consistent with the pathological changes of aortic dissection. Conclusion: Transvenous incision needle high-pressure water flow impact modeling method is easy to operate. The aortic blood flow block time is short, the dissection tear length is wide, and the postoperative survival time is long, can be used as the preferred method of animal AAD model construction.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma Disecante , Aneurisma de la Aorta Torácica , Implantación de Prótesis Vascular , Aneurisma Disecante/cirugía , Animales , Aorta Torácica , Aneurisma de la Aorta Torácica/cirugía , Disección , Perros , Humanos , Modelos Animales
8.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (4): 58-63, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759470

RESUMEN

Case report is devoted to successful pancreatectomy for cancer of terminal part of common bile duct in a patient with heterotaxy syndrome. The main difficulties during dissection of pancreaticoduodenal complex arose due to anatomical disorientation and the lack of standard topographic and anatomical landmarks. Preoperative computed tomography with assessment of visceral vessel anatomy is essential in all patients with biliopancreaticoduodenal tumors. If heterotaxy syndrome is suspected, additional examination is required to detect other potential abnormalities and prepare for unusual situation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Conducto Colédoco , Síndrome de Heterotaxia , Pancreaticoduodenectomía , Conducto Colédoco/irrigación sanguínea , Conducto Colédoco/diagnóstico por imagen , Conducto Colédoco/cirugía , Neoplasias del Conducto Colédoco/complicaciones , Neoplasias del Conducto Colédoco/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias del Conducto Colédoco/cirugía , Disección , Duodeno/irrigación sanguínea , Duodeno/diagnóstico por imagen , Duodeno/cirugía , Síndrome de Heterotaxia/complicaciones , Síndrome de Heterotaxia/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Heterotaxia/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Páncreas/irrigación sanguínea , Páncreas/diagnóstico por imagen , Páncreas/cirugía , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Circulación Esplácnica , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
9.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720117

RESUMEN

The newborn rabbit is a useful animal model for various pathologies and procedures. Airway management of the rabbit is complex due to its anatomical characteristics, which is further complicated in the case of the newborn. Of the different methods of advanced airway management, endotracheal intubation is less aggressive than tracheostomy, and is more feasible than supraglottic management given the lack of supraglottic devices of such a small size. As direct glottis visualization is very difficult in animals this size, this blind intubation model is presented as an effective alternative, especially for experiments requiring prolonged anesthesia. Using this method, we performed blind intubations with a 90% success rate.


Asunto(s)
Intubación Intratraqueal , Anestesia , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Disección , Femenino , Conejos , Ventiladores Mecánicos
10.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720125

RESUMEN

Microglia are the mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), which play key roles in maintaining homeostasis and regulating the inflammatory process in the CNS. To study the microglial biology in vitro, primary microglia show great advantages compared to immortalized microglial cell lines. However, microglia isolation from the postnatal mouse brain is relatively less efficient and time-consuming. In this protocol, we provide a quick and easy-to-follow method to isolate primary microglia from the neonatal mouse brain. The overall steps of this protocol include brain dissection, primary brain cell culture, and microglia isolation. Using this approach, researchers can obtain primary microglia with high purity. In addition, the harvested primary microglia were able to respond to the lipopolysaccharides challenge, indicating they retained their immune function. Collectively, we developed a simplified approach to efficiently isolate primary microglia with high purity, which facilitates a wide range of microglial biology investigations in vitro.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/citología , Separación Celular/métodos , Microglía/citología , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Células Cultivadas , Disección , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Microglía/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25262, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761725

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a locally aggressive tumor and has the potential to be fatal because of distant metastasis. Immunotherapy targeting either programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has recently shown a curative effect on multiple cancers including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. Although the immunotherapy has been applied in sarcoma, there is little information about the efficiency to treat metastatic MFS. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old male presented to the clinic with a mass in the left thigh. Mass resection and ligament replacement surgery were performed. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed as high-grade MFS (federation nationale des centres de lutte contre le cancer, Grade 3) with pulmonary metastasis. INTERVENTIONS: In the past few years, he was treated with surgery, chemoradiotherapy, and Anlotinib (an angiogenesis inhibitor), but the metastatic lesion continued to progress. About 40% to 50% of tumor cells in his pulmonary tissues were showed positive PD-L1 expression and his tumor mutational burden was 215Muts. Thus, he received Camrelizumab (PD-1 inhibitor). OUTCOMES: Six months after the initiating immunotherapy of Camrelizumab, the size of pulmonary lesions showed marked shrinkage, indicating a partial response. After a follow-up of 18 months, the patient remained in good condition without progressive disease. CONCLUSION: This case described here demonstrated that immunotherapy of PD-1 inhibitor is a promising treatment option for refractory MFS with PD-L1 positive or tumor mutational burden -high, which could contribute to effective tumor response.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mixosarcoma , Receptor de Muerte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inhibidores , Neoplasias de los Tejidos Blandos , Adulto , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Disección/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/inmunología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundario , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Mixosarcoma/patología , Mixosarcoma/cirugía , Clasificación del Tumor , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Supervivencia sin Progresión , Neoplasias de los Tejidos Blandos/patología , Neoplasias de los Tejidos Blandos/cirugía , Muslo/patología , Muslo/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 293, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740930

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is associated with extensive axillary dissection. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) based on breast lymphatics level (BLL) was proposed to minimize the surgical extent for node-positive breast cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 156 consecutive sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) or clinically node-positive (cN+) patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with indocyanine green and methylene blue (MB). The SLNs were injected with 0.1 ml MB before removal, and a standard ALND was subsequently performed. The nodes adjacent to the blue-stained axillary lymph nodes from the breast (bALNs) were sent for pathological examination separately by resecting serial tissue every 0.5 cm away from the marginal blue-stained bALNs. Then, a pilot study comparing ALND based on BLL and standard ALND was performed. RESULTS: BLL were successfully identified in 20 SLN+ (100%) and 134 cN+ (98.5%) patients. The median number of BLL was four, ranging from three to six. A horizontal line 1.0 cm away from the superior blue-stained bALN and a vertical line 1.0 cm away from the medial blue-stained bALN formed BLL II, III, and IV. All of the additional positive nodes were within 1.0 cm of the blue-stained bALNs. The minimized axillary dissection should resect upwards from the lowest BLL that contains the first confirmed negative blue-stained bALNs. In the pilot study, no patient developed axillary recurrence. CONCLUSION: The ALND surgical procedure based on BLL could minimize the surgical extent for pathological node-positive breast cancer patients and potentially reduce the BCRL rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800014247 .


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático/normas , Linfedema/cirugía , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Ganglio Linfático Centinela/diagnóstico por imagen , Axila , Mama/patología , Mama/cirugía , Neoplasias de la Mama/complicaciones , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Disección , Femenino , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/administración & dosificación , Cuidados Intraoperatorios/métodos , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático/efectos adversos , Metástasis Linfática/diagnóstico , Metástasis Linfática/patología , Metástasis Linfática/terapia , Linfedema/diagnóstico , Linfedema/etiología , Mastectomía/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos , Ganglio Linfático Centinela/patología , Ganglio Linfático Centinela/cirugía , Biopsia del Ganglio Linfático Centinela
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722914

RESUMEN

Isolated dissection of one of the mesenteric arteries without concurrent involvement of the aorta is a rare clinical entity and an unusual cause of abdominal pain. It usually involves one artery, most commonly the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) followed by the coeliac artery. We are reporting a rare case where both coeliac and SMA were showing dissection. We are reporting a case of 60-year-old hypertensive male who came with worsening abdominal pain for 5 days; CT scan showed coeliac and SMA dissection without any imaging evidence of intestinal ischaemia. He was successfully managed medically with bowel rest and anticoagulation. Two weeks of follow-up CT scan showed no progression or thrombus formation. For complicated cases, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of a visceral artery or open surgical exploration or hybrid approach is required. However, for stable uncomplicated cases, medical therapy alone is sufficient.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma Disecante , Arteria Mesentérica Superior , Isquemia Mesentérica , Aneurisma Disecante/complicaciones , Aneurisma Disecante/diagnóstico por imagen , Arteria Celíaca/diagnóstico por imagen , Disección , Humanos , Masculino , Arteria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico por imagen , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779596

RESUMEN

Neuronal and vascular structures of the retina in physiologic and pathologic conditions can be better visualized and characterized by using intact whole retina imaging techniques compared to conventional retinal flat mount preparations and sections. However, immunofluorescent imaging of intact whole retina is hindered by the opaque coatings of the eyeball, i.e., sclera, choroid, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the light scattering properties of retinal layers that prevent full thickness high resolution optical imaging. Chemical bleaching of the pigmented layers and tissue clearing protocols have been described to address these obstacles; however, currently described methods are not suitable for imaging endogenous fluorescent molecules such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) in intact whole retina. Other approaches bypassed this limitation by surgical removal of pigmented layers and the anterior segment of the eyeball allowing intact eye imaging, though the peripheral retina and hyaloid structures were disrupted. Presented here is an intact whole retina and vitreous immunofluorescent imaging protocol that combines surgical dissection of the sclera/choroid/retina pigment epithelium (RPE) layers with a modified tissue clearing method and light sheet fluorescent microscopy (LSFM). The new approach offers an unprecedented view of unperturbed vascular and neuronal elements of the retina as well as the vitreous and hyaloid vascular system in pathologic conditions.


Asunto(s)
Coroides/cirugía , Disección/métodos , Microscopía Fluorescente/métodos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Retina/cirugía , Esclerótica/cirugía , Animales , Receptor 1 de Quimiocinas CX3C/metabolismo , Coroides/diagnóstico por imagen , Coroides/metabolismo , Ratones , Retina/diagnóstico por imagen , Retina/metabolismo , Esclerótica/diagnóstico por imagen , Esclerótica/metabolismo
17.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645583

RESUMEN

Recording of the electrical activity from one of the smallest cells of a mammalian organism- a sperm cell- has been a challenging task for electrophysiologists for many decades. The method known as "spermatozoan patch clamp" was introduced in 2006. It has enabled the direct recording of ion channel activity in whole-cell and cell-attached configurations and has been instrumental in describing sperm cell physiology and the molecular identity of various calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and proton ion channels. However, recording from single spermatozoa requires advanced skills and training in electrophysiology. This detailed protocol summarizes the step-by-step procedure and highlights several 'tricks-of-the-trade' in order to make it available to anyone who wishes to explore the fascinating physiology of the sperm cell. Specifically, the protocol describes recording from human and murine sperm cells but can be adapted to essentially any mammalian sperm cell of any species. The protocol covers important details of the application of this technique, such as isolation of sperm cells, selection of reagents and equipment, immobilization of the highly motile cells, formation of the tight (Gigaohm) seal between a recording electrode and the plasma membrane of the sperm cells, transition into the whole-spermatozoan mode (also known as break-in), and exemplary recordings of the sperm cell calcium ion channel, CatSper, from six mammalian species. The advantages and limitations of the sperm patch clamp method, as well as the most critical steps, are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Membrana Celular/fisiología , Fenómenos Electrofisiológicos , Espermatozoides/fisiología , Animales , Calcio/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Tamaño de la Célula , Disección , Fenómenos Electrofisiológicos/efectos de los fármacos , Flagelos/efectos de los fármacos , Flagelos/fisiología , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Transporte Iónico/efectos de los fármacos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Técnicas de Placa-Clamp , Perfusión , Progesterona/farmacología , Soluciones , Espermatozoides/citología , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653868

RESUMEN

We describe a case of retrovesical liposarcoma in a male patient with concurrent COVID-19. A 50-year-old man had lower urinary tract symptoms and dull pain along his right gluteus. Due to COVID-19 infection, management was delayed. During self-isolation, the patient developed urinary retention and his pain level was an eight on the Visual Analogue Scale. A urinary catheter and an epidural catheter were inserted without any difficulty. Abdominal-pelvic MRI revealed a retrovesical mass suspected of liposarcoma with clear borders from surrounding organs. Following two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests, we proceeded with surgery. Histopathology was dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Postoperatively, the patient suffered reactivation of COVID-19, and he was eventually discharged after two consecutive negative results on the PCR test on Post Operative Day (POD)-10. Retrovesical dedifferentiated liposarcoma is rare and considered as high-grade liposarcoma. Although surgery may exacerbate COVID-19 infection, surgical resection of symptomatic high-grade sarcoma is prioritised and performed as soon as no infection detected.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Liposarcoma , Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior , Neoplasias Pélvicas , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos/métodos , Retención Urinaria , /terapia , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante/métodos , Disección/métodos , Humanos , Liposarcoma/patología , Liposarcoma/fisiopatología , Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior/diagnóstico , Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior/etiología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Neoplasias Pélvicas/patología , Neoplasias Pélvicas/fisiopatología , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Resultado del Tratamiento , Retención Urinaria/diagnóstico , Retención Urinaria/etiología
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