Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.166
Filtrar
1.
J Law Med ; 27(4): 914-927, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880409

RESUMEN

Draft legislation has been approved by the Union Cabinet in India seeking to limit surrogacy to altruistic arrangements with intended parents who are either Indian citizens or couples residing outside the country but of Indian origin. This follows longstanding debates as to whether commercial surrogacy should be permitted. The primary argument against such arrangements has been the potential to exploit and cause harm to surrogate women. There is considerable literature on the exploitation debate, but little has been written about whether these transactions cause harm to surrogate women. Our article addresses this gap in the literature and develops a three-step framework using Mill's harm principle through which to assess whether harm has occurred. We apply this framework to a sample of women who provided surrogacy services in India between 2006 and 2015, the period just before the government moved to ban overseas couples from accessing commercial surrogacy.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Disentimientos y Disputas , Femenino , Humanos , India , Madres Sustitutas
2.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S54-S59, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737233

RESUMEN

In 2017, the court case over medical treatment of UK infant, Charlie Gard, reached global attention. In this article, I will analyze one of the more distinctive elements of the case. The UK courts concluded that treatment of Charlie Gard was not in his best interests and that it would be permissible to withdraw life-sustaining treatment. However, in addition, the court ruled that Charlie should not be transferred overseas for the treatment that his parents sought, even though specialists in Italy and the US were willing to provide that treatment. Is it ethical to prevent parents from pursuing life-prolonging treatment overseas for their children? If so, when is it ethical to do this? I will outline arguments in defense of obstructing transfer in some situations. I will argue, however, that this is only justified if there is good reason to think that the proposed treatment would cause harm.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Inutilidad Médica/ética , Transferencia de Pacientes/ética , Privación de Tratamiento/ética , Disentimientos y Disputas , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Malformaciones Arteriovenosas Intracraneales/terapia , Italia , Masculino , Inutilidad Médica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Turismo Médico/ética , Turismo Médico/legislación & jurisprudencia , Padres , Transferencia de Pacientes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Negativa al Tratamiento/ética , Negativa al Tratamiento/legislación & jurisprudencia , Texas , Traqueostomía/ética , Traqueostomía/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Privación de Tratamiento/legislación & jurisprudencia
3.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S70-S74, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737236

RESUMEN

The alleviation of suffering has always been central to the care of the sick. Yet as medical technology has advanced and life-sustaining treatments multiplied, medicine's capacity to both prevent and create suffering has grown exponentially. In pediatric medicine, the ability to stave off death with life-sustaining treatments allows children to survive but also to suffer in ways that are diverse and unprecedented. However, although parents and pediatric clinicians broadly agree that all children can suffer, there is little published literature in which researchers analyze or clarify the concept of pediatric suffering. This gap is worrisome, especially in light of growing concerns that the label of suffering is used to justify end-of-life decision-making and mask quality-of-life determinations for pediatric patients with profound neurologic impairment. Moreover, the awareness that some children can experience suffering but cannot communicate whether and how they are suffering creates a problem. Does the determination of suffering in a nonverbal child lie in the judgement of clinicians or parents? In this article, I will address several important questions related to the suffering of children through an analysis of two prevalent conceptualizations of pediatric suffering and suggest a possible avenue forward for future scholarship.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/ética , Percepción del Dolor/fisiología , Distrés Psicológico , Terminología como Asunto , Bibliometría , Niño , Preescolar , Disentimientos y Disputas , Humanos , Lactante , Inutilidad Médica/ética , Comunicación no Verbal/fisiología , Percepción del Dolor/ética , Calidad de Vida , Privación de Tratamiento/ética
5.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 77-91, jul. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192095

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este artículo es comprender cómo el CRISPR-Cas9 puede funcionar como una tecnología viable en la construcción del proyecto de parentalidad para promover el ejercicio de la libertad en el proceso de autonomía reproductiva. Sin embargo, a pesar de la posibilidad del uso en la línea germinal humana, se intentó investigar los límites y el alcance de esta percepción de libertad. Así, a través del uso de investigaciones documentales y bibliográficas, se buscaron datos sobre la viabilidad de la preservación del patrimonio genético como expresión de la diversidad en la humanidad. De esta forma, se percibió que es necesario superar pensamientos higienistas de limpiar "defectos", considerando que toda vida es digna de ser vivida


The scope of this paper was to understand how CRISPR-Cas9 can function as a viable technology in the construction of the parenting project in order to promote freedom in the process of procreative autonomy. However, regarding the possibility of its use to cause genetic manipulation in the human germline, we sought to ascertain the limits and scope of this perception of freedom. Thus, through the use of documentary and bibliographical method, data about the viability of the preservation of the genetic patrimony as an expression of the diversity in humanity was researched. Therefore, it was perceived as necessary to overcome the hygienist thoughts of cleaning up "defects", considering all life as worthy of being lived


L'objectiu del article era comprendre com CRISPR-CAS9 pot funcionar com una tecnologia viable en la construcció del projecte de parentalitat per promoure l'exercici de la llibertat en el procés d'autonomia reproductiva. No obstant això, tot I la possibilitat del seu ús en la línia germinal humana, es van intentar investigar els límits I l'abast d'aquesta percepció de llibertat. Així, a través de l'ús d'investigacions documentals I bibliogràfiques, es van buscar dades sobre la viabilitat de la preservació del patrimoni genètic com a expressió de la diversitat a la humanitat. D'aquesta manera, es va percebre que cal superar pensaments higienistes de netejar "defectes", considerant que tota vida és digna de ser viscuda


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Edición Génica/ética , Proteína 9 Asociada a CRISPR/genética , Bioética , Edición Génica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Humanos , Disentimientos y Disputas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Genoma Humano/genética , Genómica/ética , Personeidad
6.
J Clin Ethics ; 31(2): 136-142, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585657

RESUMEN

In the debate over clinicians' conscience, there is a greater ethical, legal, and scholarly focus on negative, rather than positive, claims of conscience. This asymmetry produces a seemingly unjustified double standard with respect to clinicians' conscience under the law. For example, a Roman Catholic physician working at a secular institution may refuse to provide physician-aid-in-dying on the basis of conscience, but a secular physician working at a Roman Catholic institution may not insist on providing physician-aid-in-dying on the basis of conscience. This article outlines arguments against this asymmetry and critiques them for failing to distinguish between positive claims of conscience as positive or negative rights. I suggest the asymmetry debate should be focused on whether positive claims of conscience as positive rights ought to enjoy the same protections as negative claims of conscience. Clarifying the debate in this way helps elucidate some of the best reasons for the asymmetry, which these arguments have not addressed. This article does not take a definitive position on whether the asymmetry is justified, but attempts to bring some focus to the debate by directing arguments against the asymmetry to address the significant differences between positive claims of conscience as positive rights and negative claims of conscience.


Asunto(s)
Conciencia , Disentimientos y Disputas , Médicos , Humanos , Negativa al Tratamiento
7.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(3): 56-63, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495330

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although medical dispute and other contentious cases involving patients and nurses have risen significantly in recent years, few studies have examined the litigation issues involved in nurse-patient disputes. PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the background, categories, and degrees of harm to patients and the judgments made by the courts. METHODS: Qualitative research was used. Cases of criminal, written judgments related to nurse practice negligence and recorded in district courts in Taiwan from 2008 to 2017 were selected. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 41 hospitals and 55 nurses were identified. The largest number of cases involved regional hospitals (36.6%), internal medicine departments (31.7%), general wards (46.3%), night shifts (40.0%), and staff nurses (85.5%). Four categories of independent nurse practice negligence were identified, including observation-evaluation, environmental security, physician notification, and nursing records. Negligent homicide (58.2%) was the most common court judgment and ten nurses (18.2%) were found guilty of the charges brought against them. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results of this study highlight for nurses the content of nurse practice negligence and the related judgments by the courts, which hopefully may guide nurses to avoid practice negligence in the future.


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Legislación de Enfermería , Mala Praxis/legislación & jurisprudencia , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Taiwán
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1172-1174, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601671

RESUMEN

The first case of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the Dominican Republic coincided with a period of political crisis. Distrust in governmental institutions shaped the critical phase of early response. Having a weak public health infrastructure and a lack of public trust, the Ministry of Health (MoH) began the fight against COVID-19 with a losing streak. Within 45 days of the first reported case, the political crisis and turmoil caused by "fake news" are limiting the capacity and success of the MoH response to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/ética , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/provisión & distribución , Azitromicina/provisión & distribución , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Desórdenes Civiles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Disentimientos y Disputas , República Dominicana/epidemiología , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/provisión & distribución , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Ivermectina/provisión & distribución , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/economía , Política , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública/tendencias , Confianza/psicología
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1172-1174, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-157069

RESUMEN

The first case of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the Dominican Republic coincided with a period of political crisis. Distrust in governmental institutions shaped the critical phase of early response. Having a weak public health infrastructure and a lack of public trust, the Ministry of Health (MoH) began the fight against COVID-19 with a losing streak. Within 45 days of the first reported case, the political crisis and turmoil caused by "fake news" are limiting the capacity and success of the MoH response to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/ética , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/provisión & distribución , Azitromicina/provisión & distribución , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Desórdenes Civiles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Disentimientos y Disputas , República Dominicana/epidemiología , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/provisión & distribución , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Ivermectina/provisión & distribución , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/economía , Política , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública/tendencias , Confianza/psicología
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e89, 2020 04 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349841

RESUMEN

My response to the commentaries focuses on four issues: (1) the diversity both within and between cultures of the many different faces of obligation; (2) the possible evolutionary roots of the sense of obligation, including possible sources that I did not consider; (3) the possible ontogenetic roots of the sense of obligation, including especially children's understanding of groups from a third-party perspective (rather than through participation, as in my account); and (4) the relation between philosophical accounts of normative phenomena in general - which are pitched as not totally empirical - and empirical accounts such as my own. I have tried to distinguish comments that argue for extensions of the theory from those that represent genuine disagreement.


Asunto(s)
Comprensión , Disentimientos y Disputas , Niño , Humanos
13.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(3): 294-310, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447989

RESUMEN

This article explores the antagonism between Sigmund Freud and the German neurologist and sexologist Albert Moll. When Moll, in 1908, published a book about the sexuality of children, Freud, without any grounds, accused him of plagiarism. In fact, Moll had reason to suspect Freud of plagiarism since there are many parallels between Freud's Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie and Moll's Untersuchungen über die Libido sexualis. Freud had read this book carefully, but hardly paid tribute to Moll's innovative thinking about sexuality. A comparison between the two works casts doubt on Freud's claim that his work was a revolutionary breakthrough. Freud's course of action raises questions about his integrity. The article also critically addresses earlier evaluations of the clash.


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas/historia , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Plagio , Psicoanálisis/historia , Sexología/historia , Austria , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1172-1174, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358952

RESUMEN

The first case of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the Dominican Republic coincided with a period of political crisis. Distrust in governmental institutions shaped the critical phase of early response. Having a weak public health infrastructure and a lack of public trust, the Ministry of Health (MoH) began the fight against COVID-19 with a losing streak. Within 45 days of the first reported case, the political crisis and turmoil caused by "fake news" are limiting the capacity and success of the MoH response to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/ética , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/provisión & distribución , Azitromicina/provisión & distribución , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Desórdenes Civiles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Disentimientos y Disputas , República Dominicana/epidemiología , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/provisión & distribución , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Ivermectina/provisión & distribución , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/economía , Política , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública/tendencias , Confianza/psicología
17.
N Engl J Med ; 382(15): 1392-1393, 2020 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268026
19.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 72-76, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250083

RESUMEN

Abstract: Objective To discuss the application value of CT scanning technology in cause of death determination of medical dispute cases. Methods From July 2017 to December 2018, postmortem CT imaging data of 12 medical dispute cases were collected. CT imaging diagnosis results and anatomy findings as well as differences between antemortem and postmortem CT diagnosis were compared. The advantages and disadvantages of CT routine tests of the cadavers in terms of the diagnosis of disease and damage were analyzed. Results The comparison between CT imaging diagnosis and anatomical findings showed that CT scans had advantages in the diagnosis of disease and damage with large differences in density changes, such as atelectasis, pneumonia, calcification, fracture and hemorrhage, etc. The comparison of CT diagnosis in antemortem and postmortem examination showed that the cadavers of medical dispute cases were well preserved and that postmortem CT scan was meaningful for the diagnosis of antemortem diseases. Conclusion Virtual anatomy technology has a relatively high application value in postmortem examination of medical dispute cases. It can provide effective information for the appraisers before the autopsy and can also provide a reference for cause of death analysis when the anatomy cannot be performed.


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas , Cambios Post Mortem , Autopsia , Cadáver , Humanos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
20.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(3): 311-324, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308035

RESUMEN

In the early 1960s, a climate of public condemnation of electroconvulsive therapy was emerging in the USA and Europe. In spite of this, the electroshock apparatus prototype, introduced in Rome in 1938, was becoming hotly contended. This article explores the disputes around the display of the electroshock apparatus prototype in the summer of 1964 and sheds new light on the triangle of personalities that shaped its future: Karl and William Menninger, two key figures of American psychiatry in Topeka; their competitor, Adalberto Pazzini, the founder of the Sapienza Museum of the History of Medicine in Rome; and, between them, Lucio Bini, one of the original inventors of ECT, who died unexpectedly that summer.


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas/historia , Terapia Electroconvulsiva/historia , Museos/historia , Terapia Electroconvulsiva/instrumentación , Diseño de Equipo/historia , Fundaciones/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Italia , Estados Unidos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA