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1.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(9): 1-2, 2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601932

RESUMEN

Thrombolysis can be used to break down a pulmonary embolism more rapidly than standard anticoagulation. Its use has been confined to patients with massive pulmonary embolism and haemodynamic collapse, with disagreement over its role in submassive pulmonary embolism because of the risk of catastrophic bleeding.


Asunto(s)
Embolia Pulmonar , Disentimientos y Disputas , Fibrinolíticos , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 31(3): 223-246, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565743

RESUMEN

This paper presents a challenge to the view that benign 'white lies' may be therapeutic in dementia care and preferable to more truthful alternatives. Drawing on Sissela Bok and Bernard Williams, the paper develops three key points: first, that another person's dementia is not a reason to suspend one's customary reluctance to deceive others; second, that the commonly drawn contrast between benign deceit and blunt disclosure is too simple to frame arguments for the acceptability of deceit in dementia care; and third, truthful regard-regard for a person living with dementia as one for whom truth matters, as it does for oneself-is a foundation for beneficent concern that is neither infantilizing nor condescending. The paper proposes that a morally significant human bond is established through regard for another person as one for whom truth matters, just as it does for oneself, irrespective of another's dementia, and that within dementia care, the commission of deceit should be seen as an unsettling exception to a general principle of truthfulness.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Demencia , Relaciones Interpersonales , Obligaciones Morales , Personeidad , Respeto , Revelación de la Verdad/ética , Actitud , Beneficencia , Cuidadores , Disentimientos y Disputas , Emociones , Familia , Amigos , Humanos , Principios Morales , Apoyo Social , Valor de la Vida
5.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 229-242, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351205

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The present research examined whether concurrent expert testimony ("hot tubbing") and court-appointed testimony reduced adversarial allegiance in clinical experts' judgments compared with traditional adversarial expert testimony. HYPOTHESES: We predicted Hypothesis 1: Defense experts would render more not responsible judgments and lower ratings of criminal responsibility than would prosecution experts; Hypothesis 2: Adversarial allegiance effects on experts' judgments would be heightened for adversarial experts and attenuated for concurrent experts over time; Hypothesis 3: Adversarial and concurrent experts would report higher dissonance than would court-appointed experts and adversarial experts' ratings would increase over time, concurrent experts' ratings would decrease, and court-appointed experts' ratings would remain unchanged. METHOD: Clinicians and advanced clinical doctoral students conducted simulated criminal responsibility evaluations for the prosecution, defense, or court. We categorized participants as favoring the prosecution or defense based on their preexisting attitudes and randomly assigned them to the adversarial, concurrent, or court-appointed expert testimony conditions. Participants completed a dichotomous responsibility judgment, strength of responsibility ratings, and cognitive dissonance measure after initial evidence review (n = 93), report completion (n = 52), and testimony (n = 48). Concurrent experts generated a joint report outlining areas of agreement and disagreement before providing testimony. RESULTS: Concurrent testimony did not eliminate adversarial allegiance. Adversarial and concurrent experts' perceptions of responsibility did not significantly differ (d = .04, 95% CI [-.64, .71]) or change over time (ηp2 = .03); however, prosecution experts-across testimony types-rated the defendant as significantly more responsible than did defense experts (d = 1.87, 95% CI [1.06, 2.67]). Concurrent and adversarial experts did not differ in their reports and minimally differed in testimony content. CONCLUSIONS: Experts who initially favored the prosecution or defense showed adversarial allegiance regardless of expert testimony method, and we observed no attenuation of this bias over the course of their case involvement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Sesgo , Testimonio de Experto/métodos , Defensa por Insania , Juicio , Adulto , Disonancia Cognitiva , Disentimientos y Disputas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360089

RESUMEN

Indigenous peoples' environments can be easily disrupted by foreign investments, and disputes have occasionally occurred over the past few years. The objective of this research article is to examine if current international investment law, especially its investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism, could provide necessary protection to Indigenous rights. We searched all publicly available ISDS cases from 2000 to 2020, and selected 10 typical ones for comprehensive case study by using various research methods such as doctrinal legal research and comparative analysis. Our research revealed that Indigenous peoples' participation in the ISDS proceedings is legally restrained, time-consuming, and rarely favorably decided by the arbitral tribunals. Responsibility for such undesirable outcomes rests with all stakeholders involved in the process, while the consequences of post-arbitration tend to be "triple losing". These findings highlight the quest for a more sustainable international investment regime that promotes Indigenous peoples' wellbeing and environment protection. We argue that future reform could be promoted not only over ISDS procedural matters, but also by upgrading substantive rules in international investment agreements (IIAs), emphasizing free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC), and strengthening foreign investors' corporate social responsibilities (CSR).


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas , Pueblos Indígenas , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud , Grupos de Población , Responsabilidad Social
7.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 68(4): 6-13, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337698

RESUMEN

The steady and continued rise in medical-related disputes and lawsuits is one indicator of the myriad risks and challenges faced in today's nursing practice. When nurses become defendants, the lengthy litigation process and pressures that ensue greatly impact their professional and personal lives. Nursing practice dispute categories marked by particularly high severity and frequency over the past ten years include: (1) Failure to operate according to standard procedures, (2) Insufficient nursing sensitivity and negligent care, (3) Failure to communicate and deal with issues promptly and appropriately, (4) Beyond the scope of nursing practice, and (5) Falsification or alteration of nursing records. In this paper, the important duties of care in four major nursing practices are first summarized based on the relevant legal risks. Next, based on this, risk management procedures are prioritized, evidence-oriented nursing routine standards are set, and systematic analysis and management are conducted. In addition, to strengthen the legal awareness of nurses, nursing staffs, supervisors, and institutions must all understand clearly the three types of civil and criminal legal liabilities and their respective administrative responsibilities. Nurses should proactively work to handle the related legal risks and avoid the unpleasant consequences of civil liability in the realms of compensation, criminal punishment for negligent injury and homicide, and administrative disciplinary action.


Asunto(s)
Mala Praxis , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Disentimientos y Disputas , Humanos , Responsabilidad Legal , Gestión de Riesgos
8.
HEC Forum ; 33(3): 307-324, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415464

RESUMEN

This special issue of HEC Forum includes articles on a wide range of specific topics that make significant contributions to conscientious objection scholarship. In this commentary, it is not feasible to provide a comprehensive analysis of each of the articles; and I have not attempted to do so. Instead, for each article, I have selected specific issues and arguments on which to comment.


Asunto(s)
Conciencia , Disentimientos y Disputas , Edición/tendencias , Humanos , Edición/normas
10.
J Med Ethics ; 47(9): 595-598, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233956

RESUMEN

This paper gives an ethical argument for temporarily waiving intellectual property (IP) protections for COVID-19 vaccines. It examines two proposals under discussion at the World Trade Organization (WTO): the India/South Africa proposal and the WTO Director General proposal. Section I explains the background leading up to the WTO debate. Section II rebuts ethical arguments for retaining current IP protections, which appeal to benefiting society by spurring innovation and protecting rightful ownership. It sets forth positive ethical arguments for a temporary waiver that appeal to standing in solidarity and holding companies accountable. After examining built-in exceptions to existing agreements and finding them inadequate, the paper replies to objections to a temporary waiver and concludes, in section III, that the ethical argument for temporarily waiving IP protection for COVID-19 vaccines is strong.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Disentimientos y Disputas , Humanos , Propiedad Intelectual , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(8): 77-79, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313560
12.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 92, 2021 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327593

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, scientific experts advised governments for measures to be promptly taken; they also helped people to understand the situation. They carried out this role in the face of a worldwide emergency, when scientific understanding was still underway. Public scientific disputes also arose, creating confusion among people. This article highlights the importance of experts' epistemic stance under these circumstances. It suggests they should embrace the intellectual virtue of epistemic humility, regulating their epistemic behavior and communication accordingly. In so doing, they would also favour the functioning of the broad network of knowledge-based experts, which is required to properly address all the aspects of the global pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Comunicación en Salud/normas , Conocimiento , Medicina/normas , Ciencia/normas , Disentimientos y Disputas , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Incertidumbre
13.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 51(4): 32-33, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255357

RESUMEN

The question of whether activism should be overtly embraced as part of the bioethicist's role deserves serious consideration. Like others, we agree that bioethics is inescapably partisan; bioethical deliberation is based on trying to determine morally relevant features of situations and morally justifiable outcomes. Where disagreement arises is over the degree to which bioethicists should be activists. Meyers argues for a somewhat circumscribed role, limited to action on ethically concerning institutional matters, for those who are financially independent of the institutions. We take a broader view, arguing that some issues are so morally egregious that there is a duty to take a stand against them, even if the prospects of success are dim. There is a need for further debate, sharing of experiences, and analysis of case studies, to support bioethicists who take a stand.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Eticistas , Disentimientos y Disputas , Humanos
14.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 51(4): 36-37, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255359

RESUMEN

Activism is rare among clinical ethicists because the position of ethics consultant is constructed in a way that makes activism very difficult. Clinical ethicists have little formal power and few job protections; they work in organizations in which dissent is discouraged if not punished; and as institutional insiders, they often become blind to the injustices that outsiders protest against.


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas , Eticistas , Humanos
16.
Aggress Behav ; 47(5): 603-616, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120337

RESUMEN

We examine to what extent control behavior precipitates disputes involving adversaries in different social relationships. We hypothesize that disputes between intimate partners and illegal business partners are more likely than other disputes to involve control because they involve a higher level of interdependence between the participants. A sample of male inmates (n = 479) and nonoffenders (n = 206) were asked whether control behaviors (e.g., verbal commands) precipitated their most recent disputes (n = 1184). Bivariate probit regression models allowed us to examine mutual control as well as unilateral control. Disputes between intimate partners were more likely than disputes between adversaries in other relationships to be precipitated by mutual control, but not unilateral or one-sided control by men. Disputes between illegal business partners also predicted mutual control, but not unilateral control. Discussions of the motives for violence would benefit from consideration of the classic social psychological literature on power and influence.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Disentimientos y Disputas , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Violencia
17.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(2): 476-488, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255007

RESUMEN

Em entrevista à Reciis, a cientista Rose de Melo Rocha compreende seus estudos baseados em um conhecimento encarnado que se espraia por suas atuações como pesquisadora, professora e cidadã. Em sua trajetória intelectual, procura pensar a comunicação como um processo de vinculação com implicações afetuais e subjetivas em temas como culturas urbanas, juvenis e audiovisualidades. Tais temáticas se entrecruzam e se reencontram nos seus estudos recentes sobre corporalidades e dissidências sexuais e de gênero. Rose de Melo Rocha observa o entretenimento e, particularmente, o que denomina de artivismo musical de gênero como um campo de ruptura em relação à arte e a um posicionamento ativista que problematiza a política institucional. As cantoras Pabllo Vittar e Linn da Quebrada são pensadas como entradas protagônicas e dissidentes nas disputas audiovisuais, construindo outras audiovisualidades como projeções de utopias realizáveis. O que importa para a pesquisadora, e para os grupos nos quais se aliança, é ir além do discurso da resistência a fim de fortalecer o direito de existir, o direito à presença. Nesse sentido, defende um feminismo que não se restrinja a um essencialismo identitário. Rose de Melo Rocha é professora titular e pesquisadora do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação e Práticas de Consumo da Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing de São Paulo (ESPM/SP).


In an interview given to Reciis (Revista Eletrônica de Comunicação, Informação & Inovação em Saúde ­ Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health), Fiocruz, Brazil, the scientist Rose de Melo Rocha reveals how her studies are based on an embodied knowledge that spreads over her acting as reseacher, professor and citizen. In her intellectual trajectory, she searches for a thinking on communication as a bonding process that has 'affective' and subjective implications for themes such as urban and youthful cultures, and audiovisuals. Such thematic approaches intersect as well come together in her recent studies about corporality and sexual and gender dissidence. Rose de Melo Rocha observes the entertainment and particularly what she calls the 'gender musical artivism' and she see them as a field of rupture regarding the art and an activist posture that poses under discussion the institutional politics. The singers Pabllo Vittar and Linn da Quebrada are seen as emblematic protagonists and dissidents in audiovisual disputes, building others audiovisuals as projections of attainable utopias. What is important to the researcher and to groups with she has alliances is go beyond the discourse of resistance so that to strengthen the right to exist, the right to the presence. In this sense, she advocates a feminism that is not restricted to an identity essentialism. Rose de Melo Rocha is a professor and reseacher in the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação e Práticas de Consumo at Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing de São Paulo (ESPM/SP), Brazil.


En una entrevista concedida a Reciis (Revista Eletrônica de Comunicação, Informação & Inovação em Saúde ­ Revista Electrónica de Comunicación, Información & Innovación en Salud), Fiocruz, Brasil, la científica Rose de Melo Rocha revela cómo sus estudios se basan en un conocimiento encarnado que se extiende en sus actuaciones como investigadora, profesora universitaria y ciudadana. En su trayectoria intelectual busca pensar en la comunicación como un proceso de vinculación que tiene implicaciones 'afectivas' y subjetivas para temas como las culturas urbanas y juvenis y los audiovisuales. Estos enfoques temáticos se entrecruzan y se reencuentran en sus recientes estudios sobre corporalidad y disensiones sexuales y de género. Rose de Melo Rocha observa el entretenimiento y, en particular, el que ella denomina 'artvismo musical de género' y los ve como un campo de ruptura con respecto al arte y un posicionamiento activista que problematiza la política institucional. Las cantoras Pabllo Vittar and Linn da Quebrada son vistas como protagonistas y disidentes emblemáticas en disputas audiovisuales, construyendo otros audiovisuales como proyección de utopias realizables. El que es de importancia para la investigadora y para los grupos con los cuales ella tiene alianza es ir más allá del discurso de resistencia para que se fortalezca el derecho de existir, el derecho a la presencia. En este sentido, ella aboga por un feminismo que no se limite al esencialismo identitario. Rose de Melo Rocha es profesora universitaria y investigadora en el Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação e Práticas de Consumo de la Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing de São Paulo (ESPM/SP), Brasil.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Comunicación , Sexualidad , Feminismo , Identidad de Género , Recursos Audiovisuales , Disentimientos y Disputas , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Violencia de Género
18.
Ambix ; 68(2-3): 154-179, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058962

RESUMEN

The chair of chymiatria created at the University of Marburg was among the earliest academic initiatives aiming to integrate chymistry into the medical curriculum. If its practical applications in pharmacy and its relationship with patronage have been examined by historians, the theoretical part of the chymiatria programme still remains to be explored. In the form of student disputations and dissertations held or presided over by Heinrich Petraeus, a professor of medicine at Marburg and Johannes Hartmann's son-in-law, "chymiatric" essays expounded various medical issues. Centred on pathology, therapy, and physiology, these theoretical explanations proposed a "hermetic-dogmatic" interpretation merging the views of Paracelsus and Galen. This article examines these disputations and their stance concerning the living body, sickness, and treatment, and how they shaped the status of chymistry as an art and a science on the verge of institutionalisation.


Asunto(s)
Alquimia , Disentimientos y Disputas/historia , Historia de la Farmacia , Farmacia/métodos , Alemania , Historia de la Medicina , Historia del Siglo XVII , Universidades
19.
20.
Int J Drug Policy ; 92: 103265, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962834

RESUMEN

In 2014, newly-elected President Joko Widodo announced that Indonesia was facing a national 'emergency' due to high levels of drug use that necessitated harsh criminal justice responses, including the ultimate punishment of death. On April 29, 2015 Indonesia executed eight prisoners condemned to death for drug-related offences, including seven foreigners, eliciting widespread international criticism. This commentary explores the strategies employed and obstacles faced by national anti-death penalty advocates that opposed the 2015 executions, primarily focusing on their efforts between 2015 and 2017. We begin by highlighting existing political narratives that make the death penalty an attractive option for the Indonesian government, before discussing key approaches employed as part of anti-death penalty efforts. It is hoped that a better understanding of existing efforts to promote abolition and the challenges associated with these approaches will help inform a more systematic and evidence-based approach to policy, practice, and discourse on the death penalty for drug-related offences in Indonesia.


Asunto(s)
Pena de Muerte , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Disentimientos y Disputas , Gobierno , Humanos , Indonesia , Políticas
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