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1.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(2): 235-246, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966704

RESUMEN

Objective To explore the effect of dexmedetomidine(Dex)on sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in neonatal rats through Wnt signaling pathway. Methods Sixty 7-day-old SD rats were assigned into five groups:control group(without any intervention),Dex group(intraperitoneal injection of 25 µg/kg Dex),sevoflurane group(3% sevoflurane treatment for 4 hours),sevoflurane+Dex group(inhalation of 3% sevoflurane after injection of 25 µg/kg Dex for 4 hours),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(Wnt inhibitor XAV393 and 25 µg/kg Dex were injected and 3% sevoflurane was inhaled for 4 hours).Three weeks later,Morris water maze was used to detect the cognitive function;TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons;neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining was conducted to detect the survival of hippocampal neurons;Western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.The expression of the factors involved in Wnt/GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathway was detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction,and Western blot. Results Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the escape latency of Dex group(t=0.304,P=0.768);the escape latency in sevoflurane group(t=5.823,P=0.002),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.188,P=0.010),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=5.784,P=0.002)was significantly prolonged.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.646,P=0.005)was significantly shortened.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.296,P=0.008)was prolonged.Compared with that in the control group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane group(t=5.179, P=0.004),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=2.309,P=0.043),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.871, P=0.003)decreased.Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.296,P=0.008)significantly increased.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=2.361, P=0.041)reduced.Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in Dex group(t=1.920,P=0.127),and the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane group,sevoflurane+Dex group,and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 16%(t=13.436,P=0.002),5%(t=7.752, P=0.001),and 11.5%(t=12.612,P=0.002),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex group and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group decreased by 11%(t=8.521,P=0.002)and 5.5%(t=3.123,P=0.036),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane+Dex group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 6.5%(t=6.250,P=0.003).Compared with that in the control group,the number of positive cells in 0.15 mm2 area did not show significant difference in Dex group(t=0.898,P=0.136)and sevoflurane+Dex group(t=0.203,P=1.519),and that in sevoflurane group and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group decreased by 31(t=4.702,P=0.009)and 26(t=3.948,P=0.014),respectively.Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the number of positive cells in sevoflurane+Dex group and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 17(t=3.415,P=0.018)and 5(P=0.001),respectively.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the number of positive cells in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group decreased by 12(t=3.010,P=0.039).Western blot was used to detect the gray values of caspase-3,Bax,and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus,which showed no significant difference between Dex group and control group(t=0.612,P=0.573; t=1.225,P=0.288;t=0.961,P=0.391).Compared with that in the control group,the expression of Bax(t=13.440,P=0.002;t=8.520,P=0.001; t=13.320,P=0.002)and caspase-3(t=9.860,P=0.001;t=6.120,P=0.004;t=11.620,P=0.003)were up-regulated and that of Bcl-2(t=7.671,P=0.002;t=2.880,P=0.045;t=6.280,P=0.003)was down-regulated in sevoflurane group,sevoflurane+DEX group,and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group.Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the expression of Bax(t=8.130,P=0.001)and caspase-3(t=7.120,P=0.002)was down-regulated and that of Bcl-2(t=6.201,P=0.003)was up-regulated in sevoflurane+Dex group.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the expression of Bax(t=7.310,P=0.002)and caspase-3(t=7.750,P=0.002)were up-regulated and that of Bcl-2(t=4.206,P=0.013)was down-regulated in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group.The mRNA expression levels of Wnt3a,GSK-3ß,and ß-catenin in hippocampus were detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction.The mRNA expression levels of Wnt3a,GSK-3ß,and ß-catenin in the control group did not differ significantly from those in Dex group(t=1.230,P=0.290;t=0.901,P=0.418;t=1.837,P=0.140);the mRNA expression levels of Wnt3a and ß-catenin in the control group did not differ significantly from those in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=1.102,P=0.332;t=1.030,P=0.361).Compared with that in the control group,the protein expression of Wnt3a and ß-catenin in sevoflurane group(t=5.790,P=0.004;t=7.130,P=0.002)and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=7.130,P=0.002; t=5.500,P=0.005)was down-regulated,and the GSK-3ß expression was up-regulated in sevoflurane group(t=4.800,P=0.009),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=2.940,P=0.045),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.100,P=0.042).Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the mRNA expression of Wnt3a(t=4.460,P=0.011)and ß-catenin(t=6.390,P=0.003)was up-regulated while that of GSK-3ß(t=4.160,P=0.004)was down-regulated in sevoflurane+Dex group.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the mRNA expression of Wnt3a(t=5.730,P=0.005)and ß-catenin(t=4.640,P=0.010)was down-regulated while that of GSK-3ß(t=3.240,P=0.117)was up-regulated in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group.Compared with that in the control group,the protein expression of Wnt3a and ß-catenin in Dex group(t=0.735,P=0.503;t=0.245,P=0.819)and sevoflurane+Dex group(t=1.623,P=0.180;t=1.159,P=0.311)did not differ significantly,while that in sevoflurane group(t=7.280,P=0.002; t=5.640,P=0.005)and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=7.240,P=0.002;t=4.970,P=0.008)was down-regulated. Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the protein levels of Wnt3a(t=6.410,P=0.003)and ß-catenin(t=4.640,P=0.015)were up-regulated in sevoflurane+Dex group.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the protein expression of Wnt3a(t=6.360,P=0.003)and ß-catenin(t=4.640,P=0.016)was down-regulated in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group.Compared with that in the control group,the expression(gray value)of P(ser9)-GSK-3ß/GSK-3ß in sevoflurane group(t=11.280,P=0.002),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=7.080,P=0.002),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=9.970,P=0.001)were down-regulated.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the expression of P(ser9)-GSK-3ß/GSK-3ß were up-regulated in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=8.310,P <0.001).Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the expression of P(ser9)-GSK-3ß/GSK-3ß in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group was down-regulated(t=5.510,P=0.005). Conclusion Dex can mediate Wnt/GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathway to inhibit sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in neonatal rats.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Dexmedetomidina , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Disfunción Cognitiva/inducido químicamente , Dexmedetomidina/farmacología , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3 beta , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Sevoflurano/toxicidad , Vía de Señalización Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo
2.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800577

RESUMEN

Nowadays, it is accepted that the regular practice of exercise and branched-chain amino acids supplementation (BCAAs) can benefit the immune responses in older persons, prevent the occurrence of physical frailty (PF), cognitive decline, and aging-related comorbidities. However, the impact of their combination (as non-pharmacological interventions) in albumin and the inflammatory markers is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a 40-week multifactorial intervention [MIP, multicomponent exercise (ME) associated or not with BCAAs] on plasma levels of inflammatory markers and albumin in frail older persons (≥75 years old) living at residential care homes (RCH). This study consisted of a prospective, naturalistic, controlled clinical trial with four arms of multifactorial and experimental (interventions-wahshout-interventions) design. The intervention groups were ME + BCAAs (n = 8), ME (n = 7), BCAAs (n = 7), and control group (n = 13). Lower limb muscle-strength, cognitive profile, and PF tests were concomitantly evaluated with plasma levels of albumin, anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) respectively], TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity at four different time-points: Baseline (T1), after 16 weeks of multifactorial intervention (T2), then after a subsequent 8 weeks washout period (T3) and finally, after an additional 16 weeks of multifactorial intervention (T4). Improvement of cognitive profile and muscle strength-related albumin levels, as well as reduction in the TNF-α levels were found particularly in ME plus BCAAs group. No significant variations were observed over time for TNF-α/IL-10 ratio or MPO activity. Overall, the study showed that MIP triggered slight alterations in the inflammatory and physical function of the frail older participants, which could provide independence and higher quality of life for this population.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos de Cadena Ramificada/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Fragilidad/prevención & control , Albúmina Sérica/metabolismo , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Biomarcadores/sangre , Cognición/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Citocinas/sangre , Femenino , Anciano Frágil , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Peroxidasa/sangre , Ensayos Clínicos Pragmáticos como Asunto , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida
3.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(3. Vyp. 2): 16-21, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908227

RESUMEN

Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PCI) is a common complication of stroke. PCI in most cases is associated with an increased risk of progression to dementia, with a progression rate of 8-15% per year. When post-stroke cognitive impairment reaches dementia, patients lose independence, professional and social maladjustment occurs, which, in turn, significantly worsen the quality of life and reduce the rehabilitation potential. According to many experimental and clinical studies, the inflammatory process has an important role in the development of PCI. Several previous studies have looked at the association between inflammatory markers and PCI, with some results conflicting with specific biomarkers. Based on the results of studies, inflammatory markers such as IL-8, IL-12 and ESR were closely associated with PCI, high ESR values are associated with worse cognitive impairment, especially memory. The relationship was not confirmed between the markers IFN-gamma, TNF-α and PCI. With regard to IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, CRP, the results obtained are not unambiguous. Thus, the inflammatory process in the development of PCI has an important role, including a series of complex reactions, the combined effect of which induces neuronal damage and loss of synapses that ultimately leads to cognitive impairment.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Biomarcadores , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 2): 31, 2021 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902457

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unsupervised learning can discover various unseen abnormalities, relying on large-scale unannotated medical images of healthy subjects. Towards this, unsupervised methods reconstruct a 2D/3D single medical image to detect outliers either in the learned feature space or from high reconstruction loss. However, without considering continuity between multiple adjacent slices, they cannot directly discriminate diseases composed of the accumulation of subtle anatomical anomalies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, no study has shown how unsupervised anomaly detection is associated with either disease stages, various (i.e., more than two types of) diseases, or multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. RESULTS: We propose unsupervised medical anomaly detection generative adversarial network (MADGAN), a novel two-step method using GAN-based multiple adjacent brain MRI slice reconstruction to detect brain anomalies at different stages on multi-sequence structural MRI: (Reconstruction) Wasserstein loss with Gradient Penalty + 100 [Formula: see text] loss-trained on 3 healthy brain axial MRI slices to reconstruct the next 3 ones-reconstructs unseen healthy/abnormal scans; (Diagnosis) Average [Formula: see text] loss per scan discriminates them, comparing the ground truth/reconstructed slices. For training, we use two different datasets composed of 1133 healthy T1-weighted (T1) and 135 healthy contrast-enhanced T1 (T1c) brain MRI scans for detecting AD and brain metastases/various diseases, respectively. Our self-attention MADGAN can detect AD on T1 scans at a very early stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), with area under the curve (AUC) 0.727, and AD at a late stage with AUC 0.894, while detecting brain metastases on T1c scans with AUC 0.921. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to physicians' way of performing a diagnosis, using massive healthy training data, our first multiple MRI slice reconstruction approach, MADGAN, can reliably predict the next 3 slices from the previous 3 ones only for unseen healthy images. As the first unsupervised various disease diagnosis, MADGAN can reliably detect the accumulation of subtle anatomical anomalies and hyper-intense enhancing lesions, such as (especially late-stage) AD and brain metastases on multi-sequence MRI scans.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802413

RESUMEN

Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a brain injury caused by oxygen deprivation to the brain due to birth asphyxia or reduced cerebral blood perfusion, and it often leads to lifelong limiting sequelae such as cerebral palsy, seizures, or mental retardation. HI remains one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and current therapies are limited. Hypothermia has been successful in reducing mortality and some disabilities, but it is only applied to a subset of newborns that meet strict inclusion criteria. Given the unpredictable nature of the obstetric complications that contribute to neonatal HI, prophylactic treatments that prevent, rather than rescue, HI brain injury are emerging as a therapeutic alternative. Nutraceuticals are natural compounds present in the diet or used as dietary supplements that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or antiapoptotic properties. This review summarizes the preclinical in vivo studies, mostly conducted on rodent models, that have investigated the neuroprotective properties of nutraceuticals in preventing and reducing HI-induced brain damage and cognitive impairments. The natural products reviewed include polyphenols, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, plant-derived compounds (tanshinones, sulforaphane, and capsaicin), and endogenous compounds (melatonin, carnitine, creatine, and lactate). These nutraceuticals were administered before the damage occurred, either to the mothers as a dietary supplement during pregnancy and/or lactation or to the pups prior to HI induction. To date, very few of these nutritional interventions have been investigated in humans, but we refer to those that have been successful in reducing ischemic stroke in adults. Overall, there is a robust body of preclinical evidence that supports the neuroprotective properties of nutraceuticals, and these may represent a safe and inexpensive nutritional strategy for the prevention of neonatal HI encephalopathy.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/prevención & control , Neuroprotección/efectos de los fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/uso terapéutico , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808633

RESUMEN

Previous studies indicated that Tai Chi might be an effective way to improve or prevent cognitive impairments in older populations. However, existing research does not provide clear recommendations about the optimal dose of Tai Chi practice, which is the most effective in improving cognitive function in older adults. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the dose-response relationship between Tai Chi and cognition in community-dwelling older adults. A total of 16 studies with 1121 subjects were included in this study. Meta-regression analyses of Tai Chi duration (Tai Chi session duration, Tai Chi practice duration per week, study duration, and Tai Chi practice duration for the entire study) on the study effect size (ES) were performed to examine the dose-response association of Tai Chi and cognition. The results showed that there was a positive effect of Tai Chi on cognitive function, but there were no statistically significant dose duration effects on cognition. The findings suggest that Tai Chi has beneficial effects on cognitive function, but a longer duration was not associated with larger effects. In order to establish evidence-based clinical interventions using Tai Chi, future research should clearly demonstrate intervention protocol, particularly the style and intensity of Tai Chi.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Tai Ji , Anciano , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25633, 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879740

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Our previous study demonstrated that patients with end-stage renal disease had decreased structural and functional brain connectivity, and there was a significant association between brain connectivity and cognitive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations of structural and functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis in neurologically asymptomatic patients with relatively early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD).We enrolled 18 neurologically asymptomatic patients with early CKD and 28 healthy controls. All the subjects underwent diffusion-tension imaging and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging. We calculated structural and functional connectivity based on diffusion-tension imaging and resting functional magnetic resonance imaging using a graph theoretical analysis. Then, we investigated differences of structural and functional connectivity between the CKD patients and the healthy controls.All the measures of structural connectivity were significantly different between the patients with CKD and healthy controls. The global efficiency, local efficiency, mean clustering coefficient, and small-worldness index were decreased, whereas the characteristic path length was increased in the patients with CKD compared with healthy controls. The structural betweenness centrality of the left calcarine and right posterior cingulum was also significantly different from that in healthy participants. However, all the measures of global functional connectivity in patients with CKD were not different from those in healthy controls. In patients with CKD, the functional betweenness centrality of the right insular cortex, right occipital pole, and right thalamus was significantly different from that in healthy participants.There are significant alterations of the global structural connectivity between the patients with CKD and the healthy subjects, whereas the global functional connectivity of the brain network is preserved. We find that the efficiency of the structural brain network is decreased in the patients with CKD.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Vías Nerviosas/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/diagnóstico por imagen , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/fisiopatología , Anciano , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vías Nerviosas/diagnóstico por imagen , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/psicología , Descanso/fisiología
9.
Science ; 372(6539): 235-236, 2021 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859020
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806244

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze which gait variables are the best for detecting cognitive impairment and to determine if age and gender can influence gait variations in older people. METHODS: 65 participants took part in this study (22 men and 43 women; age: 73.88 ± 9.56 years). We use the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to assess mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Gait speed (GS) and the complex gait test (CGT) were analyzed with photocells Witty (Microgate, Italia). The OptoGait system (Microgate, Italia) was used to analyze step length (SL) and step coefficient of variation (CV sl). RESULTS: There was a significant association between MoCA and SL (r = 0.420; p = 0.002), CV sl (r = -0.591; p < 0.001), and CGT (r = -0.406; p = 0.001). Instrumental activities of daily living showed significant association with SL (r = 0.563; p < 0.001); CV sl (r = -0.762; p < 0.001), CGT (r = -0.622; p < 0.001), and GS (r = 0.418; p < 0.001). CV sl showed the best results with MoCA when linear regression analysis was applied (R2 = 0.560; p = 0.007; Y = 23.669 - 0.320x). Participants older than 79 years showed lower MoCA scores and poorer gait parameters than people younger than 79 years. CONCLUSIONS: CV sl, SL, CGT, and GS make it possible to detect MCI in older people, especially when these variables are evaluated as a whole.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Disfunción Cognitiva , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Femenino , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806548

RESUMEN

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting patient functioning and quality of life. Aside from the motor symptoms of PD, cognitive impairment may occur at early stages of PD and has a substantial impact on patient emotional and physical health. Detecting these early signs through actual daily functioning while the patient is still functionally independent is challenging. We developed DailyCog-a smartphone application for the detection of mild cognitive impairment. DailyCog includes an environment that simulates daily tasks, such as making a drink and shopping, as well as a self-report questionnaire related to daily events performed at home requiring executive functions and visual-spatial abilities, and psychomotor speed. We present the detailed design of DailyCog and discuss various considerations that influenced the design. We tested DailyCog on patients with mild cognitive impairment in PD. Our case study demonstrates how the markers we used coincide with the cognitive levels of the users. We present the outcome of our usability study that found that most users were able to use our app with ease, and provide details on how various features were used, along with some of the difficulties that were identified.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Aplicaciones Móviles , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Enfermedad de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Calidad de Vida
12.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(1): 47-55, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899427

RESUMEN

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common neurodegenerative disease, is still unknown. It is difficult to determine the atrophy areas, especially for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at different stages of AD, which results in a low diagnostic rate. Therefore, an early diagnosis model of AD based on 3-dimensional convolutional neural network (3DCNN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. Firstly, the 3DCNN was used to train a base classifier for each region of interest (ROI). And then, the optimal combination of the base classifiers was determined with the GA. Finally, the ensemble consisting of the chosen base classifiers was employed to make a diagnosis for a patient and the brain regions with significant classification capability were decided. The experimental results showed that the classification accuracy was 88.6% for AD vs. normal control (NC), 88.1% for MCI patients who will convert to AD (MCIc) vs. NC, and 71.3% for MCI patients who will not convert to AD (MCInc) vs. MCIc. In addition, with the statistical analysis of the behavioral domains corresponding to ROIs (i.e. brain regions), besides left hippocampus, medial and lateral amygdala, and left para-hippocampal gyrus, anterior superior temporal sulcus of middle temporal gyrus and dorsal area 23 of cingulate gyrus were also found with GA. It is concluded that the functions of the selected brain regions mainly are relevant to emotions, memory, cognition and the like, which is basically consistent with the symptoms of indifference, memory losses, mobility decreases and cognitive declines in AD patients. All of these show that the proposed method is effective.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoz , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Redes Neurales de la Computación
13.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(1): 169-177, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899442

RESUMEN

With the wide application of deep learning technology in disease diagnosis, especially the outstanding performance of convolutional neural network (CNN) in computer vision and image processing, more and more studies have proposed to use this algorithm to achieve the classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN). This article systematically reviews the application progress of several classic convolutional neural network models in brain image analysis and diagnosis at different stages of Alzheimer's disease, and discusses the existing problems and gives the possible development directions in order to provide some references.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Redes Neurales de la Computación
14.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(2): 17-21, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861695

RESUMEN

"I am now eight-and-a-half months into my journey with long COVID … My symptoms include diagnosed post-COVID tachycardia and acute fatigue. I also have chest tightness and breathlessness from time to time; anxiety; muscle aches and pains, especially in the evening; memory loss; and insomnia."-38-year-old female from the U.K.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Pandemias , Adulto , Autoinmunidad , /etiología , /rehabilitación , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Fatiga/etiología , Femenino , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped/inmunología , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Disautonomías Primarias/etiología , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802961

RESUMEN

Older adults are particularly vulnerable to cognitive impairment with age, and gender differences are remarkable. However, there is very little evidence to identify both baseline cognitive and occupational gender differences prior to older adults' retirement to design more efficient personalized cognitive interventions. This descriptive observational study examined gender differences in initial cognitive performance in 367 older adults with subjective memory complaints from a primary healthcare center in Zaragoza (Spain). To evaluate initial cognitive performance, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC-35) and the set test were used to measure verbal fluency. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated, and cognitive and occupational differences were analyzed per gender. Men had higher educational and occupational levels, were older and more of them were married (p < 0.001) than women. Regarding cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes and cerebrovascular accidents were more frequent in women, while hypercholesterolemia and obesity were more frequent in men (p < 0.001). High blood pressure was more frequent in women, but not significantly so (p = 0.639). Global cognition was higher in men (p < 0.001) for attention, calculation, and language (p < 0.001). Verbal fluency was higher in women, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.105). These results could be generalized to other health centers in the province and other Spanish autonomous communities as their sociodemographic variables are similar. Individualized interventions that adapt to gender, cognitive and initial occupational performance should be developed and adapted to elderly populations living in the general community to maintain their cognitive capacity and prevent their cognitive impairment and the social health costs this would imply.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Disfunción Cognitiva , Anciano , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , España/epidemiología
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 236, 2021 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836660

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cognitive leisure activity, such as reading, playing mahjong or cards and computer use, is common among older adults in China. Previous studies suggest a negative correlation between cognitive leisure activity and cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between cognitive leisure activity and all-cause mortality has rarely been reported. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the relationships between cognitive leisure activity and all-cause mortality in a community-based older people cohort in China. METHODS: The current study sample comprised 4003 community residents aged ≥60 y who were enrolled in June 2015, and were followed up every year from 2015 to 2018. Reading, playing mahjong or cards and computer use were measured by questionnaires and summed into a cognitive leisure activity index (CLAI) score. Time-Dependent Cox Regression Model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to examine the association of cognitive leisure activity with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During the 4-year follow-up of 4003 participants, 208 (5.2%) deaths were registered. Of all participants, 66.8, 26.7, 6.1 and 0.35% reported CLAI scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A strong association was noted between the CLA score and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.54-0.97, P = 0.028). Stratified analysis suggested that a higher CLAI score was significantly associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality mainly among those who were male, aged ≥80 y, cognitively impaired, and not diagnosed with cancer (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cognitive leisure activity was positively associated with reduced risk of death from all cause among the older people in major city of China, which helped promote a comprehensive understanding of health characteristics at advanced ages.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Actividades Recreativas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad
17.
Biofactors ; 47(2): 232-241, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847020

RESUMEN

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Disfunción Cognitiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Fatiga/tratamiento farmacológico , Luteolina/uso terapéutico , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/virología , /fisiopatología , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Disfunción Cognitiva/fisiopatología , Disfunción Cognitiva/virología , Citocinas/genética , Fatiga/complicaciones , Fatiga/fisiopatología , Fatiga/virología , Humanos , Mastocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Mastocitos/virología , /patogenicidad
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 245, 2021 04 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salivary function has been suggested to be associated with cognitive impairment. However, the effect of salivary flow rate (SFR) on cognitive impairment remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether SFR is associated with cognitive impairment among Korean elders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 649 elders aged 65 and older in the Korean community-dwelling population. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini-Mental Status Examination. Unstimulated SFR was measured and dichotomized. Denture status, age, sex, education level, smoking, drinking, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity were considered confounders. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the adjusted association. Stratified analysis by sex and denture status was performed to clarify the effect modification. RESULTS: Participants without cognitive impairment showed a higher SFR level than those with cognitive impairment (0.81 mL/min for non-cognitive impairment versus 0.52 mL/min for cognitive impairment, p < 0.001). After controlling for confounders, participants with low SFR (< 0.3 mL/min) were more likely to have cognitive impairment by 1.5 times than participants with normal SFR (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.10). The association of low SFR with cognitive impairment was higher in women and dentate participants: about 10% higher in women (OR = 1.63, CI = 1.07-2.50) and about 22% higher in dentate participants (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.41-2.90). CONCLUSIONS: Salivary flow rate is independently associated with cognitive impairment among Korean elders. The association was modified in females and dentate elders. Physicians and dentists should consider low SFR and cognitive impairment as a risk factor between them in clinics.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Anciano , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800246

RESUMEN

Although a cognitive impairment such as dementia causes serious economic problems among older people, its impact on economic activities is unclear. This study investigated the actual conditions of economic activities and the current status of the financial support systems among people with dementia and caregivers. One hundred and five dyads participated in the survey. Each dyad consisted of an older person with Alzheimer's disease and their caregiver. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) were used to evaluate the cognitive functions of people with dementia. The caregivers were asked questions concerning the financial status of the household and their utilization of the financial support systems available to people with dementia. Average monthly care costs significantly increased according to the severity of dementia, while household income and spending incurred no significant changes. People with dementia experienced financial problems (including a large amount of erroneously purchased, unnecessary shopping), even though their assets were informally managed by their caregivers. Financial support systems such as adult guardianship and civil trust systems were rarely known and used. We proposed the propagation of the adult guardianship and civil trust systems and the development of contract guidelines for elderly customers including people with dementia.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cuidadores , Costo de Enfermedad , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803344

RESUMEN

Emotional processing, particularly facial expression recognition, is essential for social cognition, and dysfunction may be associated with poor cognitive health. In pathological ageing conditions, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which cognitive impairments are present, disturbed emotional processing and difficulty with social interactions have been documented. However, it is unclear how pathological ageing affects emotional processing and human social behaviour. The aim of this study is to provide insight into how emotional processing is affected in MCI and AD and whether this capacity can constitute a differentiating factor allowing the preclinical diagnosis of both diseases. For this purpose, an ecological emotional battery adapted from five subsets of the Florida Affect Battery was used. Given that emotion may not be separated from cognition, the affect battery was divided into subtests according to cognitive demand, resulting in three blocks. Our results showed that individuals with MCI or AD had poorer performance on the emotional processing tasks, although with different patterns, than that of controls. Cognitive demand may be responsible for the execution patterns of different emotional processing tests. Tasks with moderate cognitive demand are the most sensitive for discriminating between two cognitive impairment entities. In summary, emotional processing tasks may aid in characterising the neurocognitive deficits in MCI or AD. Additionally, identifying these deficits may be useful for developing interventions that specifically target these emotional processing problems.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Envejecimiento Saludable , Emociones , Florida , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
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