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1.
Med Educ ; 53(12): 1167-1168, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532838
2.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(9): 772-786, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403814

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Test whether a dissonance-based transdiagnostic eating disorder treatment reduces valuation of the thin beauty ideal and high-calorie binge foods, the intervention targets, and eating pathology relative to waitlist controls. METHOD: Women with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 eating disorders (N = 100) were randomized to an 8-week group-implemented Body Project Treatment (BPT) redesigned to encourage rapid symptom reduction or a waitlist control condition, completing functional MRI paradigms assessing neural response to thin models and binge foods, questionnaires, and diagnostic interviews at pretest and posttest. RESULTS: Compared to controls, BPT participants showed greater reductions in responsivity of regions involved in reward valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, caudate) to thin models but not binge foods, pursuit of the thin ideal (d = .72), palatability ratings of binge foods (d = .78), and greater increases in attractiveness ratings of average-weight models (d = .44), the intervention targets. BPT participants also showed significantly greater reductions in body dissatisfaction (d = .83), negative affect (d = .76), and eating disorder symptoms (d = .59), and marginally greater abstinence from binge eating and compensatory behaviors (39% vs. 21%) than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide novel evidence that BPT affected the hypothesized intervention targets and reduced variables that are putatively secondary to pursuit of the thin ideal, including body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and eating disorder symptoms. Symptom reductions were smaller than in past trials, suggesting that it may be optimal to reduce valuation of the thin ideal before asking participants to reduce disordered eating behaviors that are used to pursue this ideal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatología , Disonancia Cognitiva , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiopatología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/terapia , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiopatología , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Recompensa , Adulto , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Corteza Prefrontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219607, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295301

RESUMEN

Why do people who care about the environment adopt behaviours that are not consistent with their beliefs? Previous studies approach this as a case of cognitive dissonance, researchers looking into the strategies through which people reduce gaps between their attitudes and their behaviours. Here we start from the premise that there is no dissonance, and that people have consistent reasons of why they are doing what they are doing. The research task is then to shed light on these reasons. Using Q-methodology, a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach, we interviewed 42 environmentally-minded researchers asking them why they eat meat. Our interviewees were aware of and cared about the environmental and ethical impacts of meat eating, but reasoned that they eat meat because either technological, or political changes are more important than what they personally do, because of doubts about the impact of personal action in a complex world, or simply because they lack the determination to stop eating meat. Our analysis suggests that policies and messages that try to educate or guilt meat-eaters are unlikely to work with those well aware of the impacts of their actions.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Disonancia Cognitiva , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Preferencias Alimentarias/fisiología , Bienestar del Animal , Actitud , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efectos adversos , Principios Morales , Análisis de Componente Principal , Análisis de Regresión
5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218729, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242270

RESUMEN

Humans have a demonstrated tendency to copy or imitate the behavior and attitude of others and actively influence each other's opinions. In plenty of empirical contexts, publicly revealed opinions are not necessarily in line with internal opinions, causing complex social influence dynamics. We study to what extent hypocrisy is sustained during opinion formation and how hidden opinions change the convergence to consensus in a group. We build and analyze a modified version of the voter model with hypocrisy in a complete graph with a neutral competition between two alternatives. We compare the process from various initial conditions, varying the proportions between the two opinions in the external (revealed) and internal (hidden) layer. According to our results, hypocrisy always prolongs the time needed for reaching a consensus. In a complete graph, this time span increases linearly with group size. We find that the group-level opinion emerges in two steps: (1) a fast and directional process, during which the number of the two kinds of hypocrites equalizes; and (2) a slower, random drift of opinions. During stage (2), the ratio of opinions in the external layer is approximately equal to the ratio in the internal layer; that is, the hidden opinions do not differ significantly from the revealed ones at the group level. We furthermore find that the initial abundances of opinions, but not the initial prevalence of hypocrisy, predicts the mean consensus time and determines the opinions' probabilities of winning. These insights highlight the unimportance of hypocrisy in consensus formation under neutral conditions. Our results have important societal implications in relation to hidden voter preferences in polls and improve our understanding of opinion formation in a more realistic setting than that of conventional voter models.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Disonancia Cognitiva , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Opinión Pública
8.
Body Image ; 30: 26-34, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085488

RESUMEN

Adolescence represents a high-risk period for eating disorder development, and there is great need for effective prevention programs targeted at this population. The Body Project, a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, has robust literature showing reductions in body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms. However, many additional factors (i.e., comorbid symptoms, transdiagnostic factors) have not yet been examined in relation to the Body Project. Additionally, there is little known about how to most effectively and broadly disseminate this intervention. The current study (N = 332 adolescents) examines eating disorder symptoms, comorbidities, and transdiagnostic risk factors pre- and post-Body Project and at 1-month follow-up. This study is the first examination of the effectiveness of the Body Project implemented within school programming in southern, all-female high schools. Social appearance anxiety, physical and social anxiety sensitivity, rumination, worry, perfectionism, and guilt, but not depression, cognitive anxiety sensitivity, shame, or exercise dependence, decreased pre- to post-intervention and/or 1-month follow-up. These results support the effectiveness of the Body Project in addressing eating disorder symptoms and suggest it may aid in the prevention of comorbid conditions. Additionally, the effectiveness of the intervention was comparable to past investigations, supporting its use in schools across the United States.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal/psicología , Disonancia Cognitiva , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/prevención & control , Adolescente , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Instituciones Académicas
9.
Eat Disord ; 27(2): 183-204, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084425

RESUMEN

In the last few decades much effort has been devoted to developing prevention programs for eating disorders, as most individuals with these pathologies do not receive treatment and tend to become chronic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a cognitive dissonance and media literacy intervention aimed at preventing eating disorders in female adolescents. Eighty-eight female students (aged 12-17) from Argentina, participated in a 3-session program. Adolescents completed a baseline, post-intervention and a 6-month follow-up survey. A significant decrease in thin-ideal internalization, body image concerns, influence of advertising, drive for thinness and bulimic attitudes was found at post-intervention. In addition, the number of participants with disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors decreased at post-intervention. Results for body image concerns and drive for thinness were maintained at follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Adolescente , Argentina , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Disonancia Cognitiva , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Delgadez/psicología
10.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(1): 29-35, abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-182609

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the risk of eating disorders after a one-year follow-up of a dissonance-based eating disorders prevention program. The Body Project was implemented in a sample of male and female university students: 133, 110, and 74 at baseline, post-test, and follow-up respectively, and we tested the change in disordered eating behaviors (DEB) over time, and by levels of variables that according to the theoretical model lie on the path between the intervention and DEB, with one-way MANOVA analyses of repeated measures for the associations between internalization of the esthetic thin ideal, depressive symptoms, and DEB. The average value of DEB was 5.23 at pre-test, 3.45 at post-test, and 2.80 at follow-up. The model with DEB at each time point, as dependent variables, and internalization of the esthetic thin ideal and depressive symptoms, as independent variables, showed a significant effect of internalization of the esthetic thin ideal, F(2, 136) = 7.66, p = .0011, while there was no significant effect of depressive symptoms, F(2, 136) = 0.45, p = .6191, indicating that the intervention exerted its effect on DEB via the former variable. The intervention proved to produce effects after a one-year follow-up. These findings support the implementation of universal prevention programs using dissonance-based techniques


El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los cambios en el riesgo de desarrollar trastornos de la conducta alimentaria después de un año de seguimiento de un programa de prevención basado en la técnica de la disonancia cognitiva para trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. El Body Project fue implementado en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios, hombres y mujeres: 133, 110 y 74 en el pre-test, post-test y seguimiento, respectivamente. Se comprueba el cambio en las conductas alimentarias de riesgo (CAR) a lo largo del tiempo y según las variables que, de acuerdo con el modelo teórico, se encuentran entre la intervención y las CAR, con un análisis MANOVA de medidas repetidas para las asociaciones entre interiorización del ideal estético de delgadez, los síntomas depresivos y las CAR. El valor promedio de las CAR en el pre-test fue 5.23, 3.45 en el post-test y 2.80 en el seguimiento. El modelo de las CAR como variable dependiente e interiorización del ideal estético de delgadez y los síntomas depresivos como variables independientes mostró un efecto significativo de la internalización del ideal estético de delgadez, F(2, 136) = 7.66, p = .0011, mientras que no hubo un efecto significativo de los síntomas depresivos, F(2, 136) = 0.45, p = .6191, lo que indica que la intervención tuvo un efecto en las CAR por vía de la variable antecedente. Se mostró que la intervención produce efectos después de un año de seguimiento. Este hallazgo sustenta la implementación de programas universales de prevención que utilicen la técnica de disonancia cognoscitiva


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/prevención & control , Disonancia Cognitiva , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Servicios de Salud para Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de Varianza , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Psychol Aging ; 34(5): 709-713, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869928

RESUMEN

Does cognitive dissonance change as people age? Although cognitive dissonance has been one of the most widely studied theories in psychology, scant research has investigated the experience of dissonance over the life span and, to our knowledge, no prior research has investigated its effects in healthy older adults. The current study is the 1st empirical test of cognitive dissonance in an elderly population. We found that, consistent with dissonance theory, older adults showed effects of cognitive dissonance as measured by attitude differences in the direction of attitude-discrepant behavior in a classic induced compliance paradigm. Implications for the development of prohealth, dissonance-based interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Disonancia Cognitiva , Adaptabilidad , Emociones/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (235): 47-52, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183985

RESUMEN

La parálisis cerebral es un síndrome que asocia desórdenes del desarrollo del movimiento, la postura y el tono muscular, que causan limitaciones en las actividades y están acompañados de déficits sensitivos, cognitivos, de comunicación, de percepción, comportamiento, y crisis comiciales. El tratamiento debe ser preventivo, activo e interdisciplinar a nivel farmacológico, rehabilitador, psicoemocional y cognitivo. La exposición a ambientes sensoriales enriquecidos y programas de desarrollo temprano basados en la teoría de la neuroplasticidad, mejoran la función cognitiva y el crecimiento cerebral favoreciendo una atención rehabilitadora integral sobre los trastornos motores y los trastornos asociados, y lográndose mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y sus familias


Cerebral palsy is a syndrome that associates disorders of the development of movement, posture and muscle tone, which cause limitations in activities and are accompanied by sensory and cognitive failures, alterations of communication, perception, behavior, and epilepsy. The treatment must be preventive, active and interdisciplinary at the pharmacological, rehabilitation, psycho-emotional and cognitive levels. The exposure to enriched sensorial environments and early development programs based on the theory of neuroplasticity, improve cognitive function and brain growth, favoring comprehensive rehabilitative care on motor disorders and associated disorders, and improving the quality of life of affected people and their families


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Parálisis Cerebral/diagnóstico , Parálisis Cerebral/rehabilitación , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Plasticidad Neuronal/fisiología , Factores de Riesgo , Neuropsicología/métodos , Parálisis Cerebral/terapia , Psiquiatría Geriátrica/métodos , Psiquiatría Geriátrica/tendencias , Disonancia Cognitiva , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual
13.
Trials ; 20(1): 91, 2019 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700318

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The development of efficacious, cost-effective, and widely accessible programs for the prevention of eating disorders (EDs) is crucial in order to reduce the ED-related burden of illness. Programs using dissonance-based and cognitive behavioral approaches are most effective for the selective prevention of ED. Internet-based delivery is assumed to maximize the reach and impact of preventive efforts. However, the current evidence for Internet-based ED prevention is limited. The present trial evaluates the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two new interventions (based on dissonance theory and principles of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)) that are implemented as add-ons to the existing Internet-based ED prevention program ProYouth. METHODS: The trial is one of five sub-projects of the German multicenter consortium ProHEAD. It is a three-arm, parallel, randomized controlled superiority trial. Participants will be randomized to (1) the online program ProYouth (active control condition) or (2) ProYouth plus a structured dissonance-based module or (3) ProYouth plus a CBT-based chat group intervention. As part of ProHEAD, a representative school-based sample of N = 15,000 students (≥ 12 years) will be screened for mental health problems. N = 309 participants at risk for ED (assessed with the Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) and the Short Evaluation of Eating Disorders (SEED)) will be included in the present trial. Online assessments will be conducted at baseline, at end of intervention (6 weeks), at 6 months follow-up, and - as part of ProHEAD - at 12 and 24 months follow-up. The primary outcome is ED-related impairment (assessed with the Child version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (ChEDE-Q)) at the end of the intervention. Secondary outcomes include ED-related symptomatology at follow-up, ED-related stigma, ED-related help-seeking, and acceptance of and compliance with the interventions. For the health economic evaluation data on costs of the interventions, healthcare utilization and health-related quality of life will be assessed. DISCUSSION: This is the first study augmenting a flexible prevention approach such as ProYouth with structured evidence-based modules in order to overcome some of the key limitations in the current practice of ED prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), DRKS00014679 . Registered on 25 April 2018.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Infantil , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Conducta Alimentaria , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/prevención & control , Hábitos , Internet , Terapia Asistida por Computador/métodos , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Niño , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/economía , Disonancia Cognitiva , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Estudios de Equivalencia como Asunto , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/economía , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Femenino , Alemania , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Humanos , Internet/economía , Masculino , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Terapia Asistida por Computador/economía , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Behav Brain Res ; 363: 94-102, 2019 05 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710611

RESUMEN

When individuals are forced to choose between similarly preferable alternatives, a negatively arousing cognitive conflict occurs, and the preference attitudes toward the chosen and rejected alternatives diverge. This phenomenon, often referred to as "cognitive dissonance", is of interest in psychological and decision neuroscience research. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is involved in representing the cognitive conflict induced by difficult-choice tasks. Previous studies have shown age-related decline of the dACC function. However, whether the heightened activity of the dACC regarding cognitive conflict, and choice-induced preference change that behaviorally occur in young subjects also occur in the elderly is unclear. Furthermore, recent studies have noted substantial methodological flaw with the free-choice paradigm that often used in studies focusing on cognitive dissonance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a modified free-choice paradigm to formally test the effect of aging on choice-induced cognitive conflict. In the young participants, behavioral data confirmed the existence of cognitive conflict and preference change for the alternatives that they rejected in the difficult-choice trials. The imaging data revealed that the right dACC displayed an interaction effect associated with cognitive conflict. In contrast, we did not observe such effects in the elderly participants. These suggest a possibility that elderly people likely feel less cognitive dissonance.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Disonancia Cognitiva , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Mapeo Encefálico , Cognición , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Giro del Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagen , Giro del Cíngulo/fisiología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
15.
Body Image ; 28: 149-158, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716557

RESUMEN

Female athletes are at risk for eating disorders due to the experience and internalization of pressures regarding various aspects of their bodies, including weight and appearance. Evaluating programs that address psychosocial antecedents and may reduce female athletes' risk is critical. We examined Bodies in Motion, a program based on cognitive dissonance and mindful self-compassion principles that integrates components of social media. Female athletes across nine NCAA athletic departments were assigned to Bodies in Motion (n = 57) or a wait-list control group (n = 40). Athletic department personnel were trained in the standardized program. Data were collected at three time-points - baseline, post-program, and three to four months later. Using Holm's algorithm to control for multiple comparisons, repeated measures ANOVAs showed that, after program completion, Bodies in Motion athletes reported less thin-ideal internalization, as compared to the control athletes, over time. We also observed varying group trajectories in outcome responses upon visual inspection of profile plots. These findings serve as the basis for future research suggestions involving larger sample sizes and prolonged measurement of outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Disonancia Cognitiva , Atención Plena , Autoimagen , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Empatía , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Control Interno-Externo , Masculino , Apariencia Física , Adulto Joven
16.
Psychol Rep ; 122(1): 219-230, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29375027

RESUMEN

Although self-promotion (communicating one's past accomplishments and positive characteristics) is important for obtaining career and educational opportunities, women feel uncomfortable when doing it, which limits their self-promotion success. This study tested which of the three possible theoretical mechanisms explained women's limited self-promotion success: (1) cognitive dissonance, (2) stereotype threat, and (3) backlash avoidance. In this experiment, college women ( N = 123) wrote a scholarship application essay and the ownership of the essay was varied experimentally. The essays were evaluated by the authors themselves and independent judges. The results were most consistent with a backlash avoidance mechanism whereby women feel uncomfortable self-promoting due to perceived social consequences.


Asunto(s)
Disonancia Cognitiva , Autoevaluación , Conducta Social , Percepción Social , Mujeres , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven
17.
Laterality ; 24(3): 342-354, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198374

RESUMEN

The current study investigated the role of interhemispheric communication in selective exposure to information. Participants (N = 241) reported their attitude and attitude strength toward a controversial social topic, engaged in a selective exposure task, and completed the Poffenberger paradigm. As expected, participants demonstrated a moderate (d = 0.50) preference for attitude consistent information on the selective exposure task and attitude strength was a significant predictor of participants' information search tendencies. Furthermore, faster right-to-left interhemispheric transfer was also significantly associated with an increased preference for attitude consistent information. These findings highlight the potential role of the right hemispheric processes in the detection of cognitive inconsistency and in the implementation of dissonance reduction strategies.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Disonancia Cognitiva , Lateralidad Funcional , Aborto Incompleto , Encéfalo/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas Psicológicas , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción , Conducta Social
18.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 24(1): 4-13, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306831

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: It is supposed that both antidepressants and psychotherapies work in a manner consistent with cognitive theories of depression when changing negative affective and cognitive distortions. This study evaluated changes in cognitive distortions (i.e. systematic misinterpretations of new information) and affectivity in adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) after acute phase treatment with fluoxetine. METHODS: Twenty-five adolescents (mean age 15.10 years (SD = 1.19); 17 (68%) females) with MDD receiving fluoxetine were followed for 8 weeks. Clinician rating scales of MDD and self-reports of cognitive distortions and affectivity were completed before and after the treatment. RESULTS: Seven (28%) adolescents showed significant improvement in cognitive distortions, 11 (44%) showed a significant decrease in negative affect, and 15 (60%) showed a significant increase in positive affect. The responders to fluoxetine had significantly decreased level of negative affect (62.5%) and an increased level in positive affect (81.2%) compared to non-responders, whereas there were no differences between the two regarding changes in cognitive distortions. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with fluoxetine over 8 weeks led to reductions in cognitive distortions, with decreased negative and increased positive affect in adolescents with MDD. Improvements in affectivity levels closely corresponded to reductions in depressive symptoms and were greater than improvements in cognitive distortions.


Asunto(s)
Afecto/efectos de los fármacos , Disonancia Cognitiva , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Fluoxetina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Afecto/fisiología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Femenino , Fluoxetina/farmacología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/farmacología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
19.
Eat Behav ; 32: 111-116, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27825587

RESUMEN

Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention leads to decreases in risk factors for these disorders. Although controlled trials have demonstrated that targeted, manualized programs reduce eating disorder risk, concerns regarding implementation and dissemination remain. A primary concern is the difficulty in adapting programs for a high school setting for populations at highest risk: adolescents. This paper describes the REbeL Peer Education model and assesses the initial pilot trials of the intervention. The program is novel in that it utilizes a voluntary, self-selection model that is sustainable in a high school setting, and focuses on empowerment and effective cognitive dissonance based prevention activities. High school peer-educators self-selected into the semi-manualized dissonance based intervention. Group activities were peer led, designed to critique the thin ideal, and designed to empower macro (school and larger community wide) changes in the pilot trial (N=47) assess the effectiveness and feasibility of the intervention. Results of the initial pilot study revealed preliminary support for the feasibility of the program, increases in feelings of empowerment, and decreases in eating disorder cognitions and behaviors with moderate to large effect sizes. Feedback from participants indicated that the intervention was enjoyable, educational, and empowering. This study is the first to adapt dissonance-based prevention models to a semi-manualized, peer-led, prevention program integrated into high school settings.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/prevención & control , Educación en Salud/métodos , Modelos Educacionales , Grupo Paritario , Programas Voluntarios , Adolescente , Disonancia Cognitiva , Estudios de Factibilidad , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas
20.
J Neurosci ; 39(4): 718-726, 2019 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530856

RESUMEN

Hard decisions between equally valued alternatives can result in preference changes, meaning that subsequent valuations for chosen items increase and decrease for rejected items. Previous research suggests that this phenomenon is a consequence of cognitive dissonance reduction after the decision, induced by the mismatch between initial preferences and decision outcomes. In contrast, this functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking study with male and female human participants found that preferences are already updated online during the process of decision-making. Preference changes were predicted from activity in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus while making hard decisions. Fixation durations during this phase predicted both choice outcomes and subsequent preference changes. These preference adjustments became behaviorally relevant only for choices that were remembered and were in turn associated with hippocampus activity. Our results suggest that preferences evolve dynamically as decisions arise, potentially as a mechanism to prevent stalemate situations in underdetermined decision scenarios.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Most theories of decision-making assume that we always choose the best option available, based on a set of stable preferences. However, what happens for hard decisions when the available options are preferred equally? We show that in such stalemate situations, decision-makers adjust their preferences dynamically during the process of decision-making, and these preference adjustments are predicted by a left prefrontal-parietal network. We also show that eye movements during decision-making are predictive of the magnitude of the upcoming value change. Our results suggest that preferences are dynamic, adjusted every time a hard decision is made, prompting a re-evaluation of existing frameworks of decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeo Encefálico , Disonancia Cognitiva , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Femenino , Fijación Ocular/fisiología , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipocampo/fisiología , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Memoria/fisiología , Lóbulo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagen , Lóbulo Parietal/fisiología , Corteza Prefrontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Adulto Joven
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