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3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 686, 2021 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271870

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Associations between community-level risk factors and COVID-19 incidence have been used to identify vulnerable subpopulations and target interventions, but the variability of these associations over time remains largely unknown. We evaluated variability in the associations between community-level predictors and COVID-19 case incidence in 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts from March to October 2020. METHODS: Using publicly available sociodemographic, occupational, environmental, and mobility datasets, we developed mixed-effect, adjusted Poisson regression models to depict associations between these variables and town-level COVID-19 case incidence data across five distinct time periods from March to October 2020. We examined town-level demographic variables, including population proportions by race, ethnicity, and age, as well as factors related to occupation, housing density, economic vulnerability, air pollution (PM2.5), and institutional facilities. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) associated with these predictors and compared these values across the multiple time periods to assess variability in the observed associations over time. RESULTS: Associations between key predictor variables and town-level incidence varied across the five time periods. We observed reductions over time in the association with percentage of Black residents (IRR = 1.12 [95%CI: 1.12-1.13]) in early spring, IRR = 1.01 [95%CI: 1.00-1.01] in early fall) and COVID-19 incidence. The association with number of long-term care facility beds per capita also decreased over time (IRR = 1.28 [95%CI: 1.26-1.31] in spring, IRR = 1.07 [95%CI: 1.05-1.09] in fall). Controlling for other factors, towns with higher percentages of essential workers experienced elevated incidences of COVID-19 throughout the pandemic (e.g., IRR = 1.30 [95%CI: 1.27-1.33] in spring, IRR = 1.20 [95%CI: 1.17-1.22] in fall). Towns with higher proportions of Latinx residents also had sustained elevated incidence over time (IRR = 1.19 [95%CI: 1.18-1.21] in spring, IRR = 1.14 [95%CI: 1.13-1.15] in fall). CONCLUSIONS: Town-level COVID-19 risk factors varied with time in this study. In Massachusetts, racial (but not ethnic) disparities in COVID-19 incidence may have decreased across the first 8 months of the pandemic, perhaps indicating greater success in risk mitigation in selected communities. Our approach can be used to evaluate effectiveness of public health interventions and target specific mitigation efforts on the community level.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Medio Social , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/etnología , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Movimiento/fisiología , Pandemias , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo , Poblaciones Vulnerables/etnología , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205125

RESUMEN

There are large socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related harm. The alcohol harm paradox (AHP) is the consistent finding that lower socioeconomic groups consume the same or less as higher socioeconomic groups yet experience greater rates of harm. To date, alcohol researchers have predominantly taken an individualised behavioural approach to understand the AHP. This paper calls for a new approach which draws on theories of health inequality, specifically the social determinants of health, fundamental cause theory, political economy of health and eco-social models. These theories consist of several interwoven causal mechanisms, including genetic inheritance, the role of social networks, the unequal availability of wealth and other resources, the psychosocial experience of lower socioeconomic position, and the accumulation of these experiences over time. To date, research exploring the causes of the AHP has often lacked clear theoretical underpinning. Drawing on these theoretical approaches in alcohol research would not only address this gap but would also result in a structured effort to identify the causes of the AHP. Given the present lack of clear evidence in favour of any specific theory, it is difficult to conclude whether one theory should take primacy in future research efforts. However, drawing on any of these theories would shift how we think about the causes of the paradox, from health behaviour in isolation to the wider context of complex interacting mechanisms between individuals and their environment. Meanwhile, computer simulations have the potential to test the competing theoretical perspectives, both in the abstract and empirically via synthesis of the disparate existing evidence base. Overall, making greater use of existing theoretical frameworks in alcohol epidemiology would offer novel insights into the AHP and generate knowledge of how to intervene to mitigate inequalities in alcohol-related harm.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(2): 109, 2021 Jun 14.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231981

RESUMEN

In this letter, the authors respond to the comment received, arguing that the main contribution of their article was to show that the place of habitual residence, as well as the sex and age of the individual, determine the main causes of mortality among Mexican older adults.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 154, 2021 07 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215274

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Israel's containment of the first wave of Covid-19 was relatively successful. Soon afterwards, however, in the summer months, a harsher pandemic wave developed, resulting in many more seriously ill and dead Israelis. Israel was the world's first country to impose a second general lockdown. The present study outlines the early months of Israel's second pandemic wave, until the imposition of the second general lockdown, and their impact on various communities. The investigation is conducted in conjunction with five sociodemographic variables: population density, socioeconomic status, rate of elderly population, minority status (Jewish / Arab identity) and religiosity (Ultra-Orthodox vs. other Jewish communities). METHODS: The analysis is based on a cross sectional study of morbidity rates, investigated on a residential community basis. Following the descriptive statistics, we move on to present a multivariate analysis to explore associations between the five aforementioned sociodemographic variables and Covid-19 morbidity in Israel in the early second pandemic wave vs. the first Covid-19 outbreak. RESULTS: Both the descriptive statistics and regressions show morbidity rates to be significantly and positively associated with communities' population density and significantly and negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES) and the size of elderly population. These results differ from Wave I morbidity, which was not significantly associated with SES. Another difference vis-a-vis Wave I is the rise of morbidity in Arab communities that led to the disappearance of the previously observed significant negative association of morbidity with minority (Arab) status. Exceptional morbidity was found in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities. CONCLUSION: The second wave of Covid-19 in Israel has profoundly affected marginalized communities characterized by high residential density, low SES and minority status. Other marginalized and disempowered communities have also been badly hit. While acknowledging the potential contribution of various possible causes, we highlight the policy response of Israel's government during the early weeks of the second Covid-19 outbreak, suggesting that the severe second wave might possibly be associated with belated, undecided government response during this period.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Pandemias , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Árabes/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Judíos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Morbilidad/tendencias , Densidad de Población , Religión , Clase Social
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202168

RESUMEN

Investigating the spatial distribution patterns of disease and suspected determinants could help one to understand health risks. This study investigated the potential risk factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in the continental United States. We collected death cases of COVID-19 from 3108 counties from 23 January 2020 to 31 May 2020. Twelve variables, including demographic (the population density, percentage of 65 years and over, percentage of non-Hispanic White, percentage of Hispanic, percentage of non-Hispanic Black, and percentage of Asian individuals), air toxins (PM2.5), climate (precipitation, humidity, temperature), behavior and comorbidity (smoking rate, cardiovascular death rate) were gathered and considered as potential risk factors. Based on four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector) provided by the novel Geographical Detector technique, we assessed the spatial risk patterns of COVID-19 mortality and identified the effects of these factors. This study found that population density and percentage of non-Hispanic Black individuals were the two most important factors responsible for the COVID-19 mortality rate. Additionally, the interactive effects between any pairs of factors were even more significant than their individual effects. Most existing research examined the roles of risk factors independently, as traditional models are usually unable to account for the interaction effects between different factors. Based on the Geographical Detector technique, this study's findings showed that causes of COVID-19 mortality were complex. The joint influence of two factors was more substantial than the effects of two separate factors. As the COVID-19 epidemic status is still severe, the results of this study are supposed to be beneficial for providing instructions and recommendations for the government on epidemic risk responses to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Afroamericanos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207130

RESUMEN

Varying dimensions of social, environmental, and economic vulnerability can lead to drastically different health outcomes. The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-19) pandemic exposes how the intersection of these vulnerabilities with individual behavior, healthcare access, and pre-existing conditions can lead to disproportionate risks of morbidity and mortality from the virus-induced illness, COVID-19. The available data shows that those who are black, indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) bear the brunt of this risk; however, missing data on race/ethnicity from federal, state, and local agencies impedes nuanced understanding of health disparities. In this commentary, we summarize the link between racism and COVID-19 disparities and the extent of missing data on race/ethnicity in critical COVID-19 reporting. In addition, we provide an overview of the current literature on missing demographic data in the US and hypothesize how racism contributes to nonresponse in health reporting broadly. Finally, we argue that health departments and healthcare systems must engage communities of color to co-develop race/ethnicity data collection processes as part of a comprehensive strategy for achieving health equity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
9.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(3): 6596, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252284

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Face masks are widely recommended as a COVID-19 prevention strategy. State mask mandates have generally reduced the spread of the disease, but decisions to wear a mask depend on many factors. Recent increases in case rates in rural areas following initial outbreaks in more densely populated areas highlight the need to focus on prevention and education. Messaging about disease risk has faced challenges in rural areas in the past. While surges in cases within some communities are likely an impetus for behavior change, rising case rates likely explain only part of mask-wearing decisions. The current study examined the relationship between county-level indicators of rurality and mask wearing in the USA. METHODS: National data from the New York Times' COVID-19 cross-sectional mask survey was used to identify the percentage of a county's residents who reported always/frequently wearing a mask (2-14 July 2020). The New York Times' COVID-19 data repository was used to calculate county-level daily case rates for the 2 weeks preceding the mask survey (15 June - 1 July 2020), and defined county rurality using the Index of Relative Rurality (n=3103 counties). Multivariate linear regression was used to predict mask wearing across levels of rurality. The model was adjusted for daily case rates and other relevant county-level confounders, including county-level indicators of age, race/ethnicity, gender, political partisanship, income inequality, and whether each county was subject to a statewide mask mandate. RESULTS: Large clusters of counties with high rurality and low mask wearing were observed in the Midwest, upper Midwest, and mountainous West. Holding daily case rates and other county characteristics constant, the predicted probability of wearing a mask decreased significantly as counties became more rural (β=-0.560; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Upticks in COVID-19 cases and deaths in rural areas are expected to continue, and localized outbreaks will likely occur indefinitely. The present findings highlight the need to better understand the mechanisms underlying perceptions of COVID-19 risk in rural areas. Dissemination of scientifically correct and consistent information is critical during national emergencies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Máscaras/tendencias , Población Rural/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117060, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259847

RESUMEN

Importance: Socioeconomic factors in the disparities in COVID-19 outcomes have been reported in studies from the US and other Western countries. However, no studies have documented national- or subnational-level outcome disparities in Asian countries. Objective: To assess the association between regional COVID-19 outcome disparities and socioeconomic characteristics in Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study collected and analyzed confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths (through February 13, 2021) as well as population and socioeconomic data in all 47 prefectures in Japan. The data sources were government surveys for which prefecture-level data were available. Exposures: Prefectural socioeconomic characteristics included mean annual household income, Gini coefficient, proportion of the population receiving public assistance, educational attainment, unemployment rate, employment in industries with frequent close contacts with the public, household crowding, smoking rate, and obesity rate. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rate ratios (RRs) of COVID-19 incidence and mortality by prefecture-level socioeconomic characteristics. Results: All 47 prefectures in Japan (with a total population of 126.2 million) were included in this analysis. A total of 412 126 confirmed COVID-19 cases (326.7 per 100 000 people) and 6910 deaths (5.5 per 100 000 people) were reported as of February 13, 2021. Elevated adjusted incidence and mortality RRs of COVID-19 were observed in prefectures with the lowest household income (incidence RR: 1.45 [95% CI, 1.43-1.48] and mortality RR: 1.81 [95% CI, 1.59-2.07]); highest proportion of the population receiving public assistance (1.55 [95% CI, 1.52-1.58] and 1.51 [95% CI, 1.35-1.69]); highest unemployment rate (1.56 [95% CI, 1.53-1.59] and 1.85 [95% CI, 1.65-2.09]); highest percentage of workers in retail industry (1.36 [95% CI, 1.34-1.38] and 1.45 [95% CI, 1.31-1.61]), transportation and postal industries (1.61 [95% CI, 1.57-1.64] and 2.55 [95% CI, 2.21-2.94]), and restaurant industry (2.61 [95% CI, 2.54-2.68] and 4.17 [95% CI, 3.48-5.03]); most household crowding (1.35 [95% CI, 1.31-1.38] and 1.04 [95% CI, 0.87-1.24]); highest smoking rate (1.63 [95% CI, 1.60-1.66] and 1.54 [95% CI, 1.33-1.78]); and highest obesity rate (0.93 [95% CI, 0.91-0.95] and 1.17 [95% CI, 1.01-1.34]) compared with prefectures with the most social advantages. Among potential mediating variables, higher smoking rate (RR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.33-1.78) and obesity rate (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) were associated with higher mortality RRs, even after adjusting for prefecture-level covariates and other socioeconomic variables. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found a pattern of socioeconomic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes in Japan that was similar to that observed in the US and Europe. National policy in Japan could consider prioritizing populations in socially disadvantaged regions in the COVID-19 response, such as vaccination planning, to address this pattern.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Clase Social , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Aglomeración , Escolaridad , Empleo , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad , Ocupaciones , Pandemias , Asistencia Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253854, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260594

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We identify socioeconomic disparities by region in cancer morbidity and mortality in England for all-cancer and type-specific cancers, and use incidence data to quantify the impact of cancer diagnosis delays on cancer deaths between 2001-2016. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtain population cancer morbidity and mortality rates at various age, year, gender, deprivation, and region levels based on a Bayesian approach. A significant increase in type-specific cancer deaths, which can also vary among regions, is shown as a result of delay in cancer diagnoses. Our analysis suggests increase of 7.75% (7.42% to 8.25%) in female lung cancer mortality in London, as an impact of 12-month delay in cancer diagnosis, and a 3.39% (3.29% to 3.48%) increase in male lung cancer mortality across all regions. The same delay can cause a 23.56% (23.09% to 24.30%) increase in male bowel cancer mortality. Furthermore, for all-cancer mortality, the highest increase in deprivation gap happened in the East Midlands, from 199 (186 to 212) in 2001, to 239 (224 to 252) in 2016 for males, and from 114 (107 to 121) to 163 (155 to 171) for females. Also, for female lung cancer, the deprivation gap has widened with the highest change in the North West, e.g. for incidence from 180 (172 to 188) to 272 (261 to 282), whereas it has narrowed for prostate cancer incidence with the biggest reduction in the South West from 165 (139 to 190) in 2001 to 95 (72 to 117) in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis reveals considerable disparities in all-cancer and some type-specific cancers with respect to socioeconomic status. Furthermore, a significant increase in cancer deaths is shown as a result of delays in cancer diagnoses which can be linked to concerns about the effect of delay in cancer screening and diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health interventions at regional and deprivation level can contribute to prevention of cancer deaths.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico Tardío/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Intestinales/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Próstata/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Preescolar , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254127, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242275

RESUMEN

Pundits and academics across disciplines note that the human toll brought forth by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States (U.S.) is fundamentally unequal for communities of color. Standing literature on public health posits that one of the chief predictors of racial disparity in health outcomes is a lack of institutional trust among minority communities. Furthermore, in our own county-level analysis from the U.S., we find that counties with higher percentages of Black and Hispanic residents have had vastly higher cumulative deaths from COVID-19. In light of this standing literature and our own analysis, it is critical to better understand how to mitigate or prevent these unequal outcomes for any future pandemic or public health emergency. Therefore, we assess the claim that raising institutional trust, primarily scientific trust, is key to mitigating these racial inequities. Leveraging a new, pre-pandemic measure of scientific trust, we find that trust in science, unlike trust in politicians or the media, significantly raises support for COVID-19 social distancing policies across racial lines. Our findings suggest that increasing scientific trust is essential to garnering support for public health policies that lessen the severity of the current, and potentially a future, pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , COVID-19 , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Pandemias , Distanciamiento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Confianza , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05015, 2021 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221360

RESUMEN

Background: People from racial minority groups in western countries experience disproportionate socioeconomic and structural determinants of health disadvantages. These disadvantages have led to inequalities and inequities in health care access and poorer health outcomes. We report disproportionate disparities in prevalence, hospitalisation, and deaths from COVID-19 by racial minority populations. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of relevant databases to identify studies reporting on prevalence, hospitalisations, and deaths from COVID-19 by race groups between 01 January 2020 - 15 April 2021. We grouped race categories into Blacks, Hispanics, Whites and Others. Random effects model using the method of DerSimonian and Laird were fitted, and forest plot with respective ratio estimates and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each race category, and subgroup meta-regression analyses and the overall pooled ratio estimates for prevalence, hospitalisation and mortality rate were presented. Results: Blacks experienced significantly higher burden of COVID-19: prevalence ratio 1.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59-1.99), hospitalisation ratio 1.87 (95% CI = 1.69-2.04), mortality ratio 1.68 (95% CI = 1.52-1.83), compared to Whites: prevalence ratio 0.70 (95% CI = 0.0.64-0.77), hospitalisation ratio 0.74 (95% CI = 0.65-0.82), mortality ratio 0.82 (95% CI = 0.78-0.87). Also, Hispanics experienced a higher burden: prevalence ratio 1.78 (95% CI = 1.63-1.94), hospitalisation ratio 1.32 (95% CI = 1.08-1.55), mortality ratio 0.94 (95% CI = 0.84-1.04) compared to Whites. A higher burden was also observed for Other race groups: prevalence ratio 1.43 (95% CI = 1.19-1.67), hospitalisation ratio 1.12 (95% CI = 0.89-1.35), mortality ratio 1.06 (95% CI = 0.89-1.23) compared to Whites. The disproportionate burden among Blacks and Hispanics remained following correction for publication bias. Conclusions: Blacks and Hispanics have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19. This is deeply concerning and highlights the systemically entrenched disadvantages (social, economic, and political) experienced by racial minorities in western countries; and this study underscores the need to address inequities in these communities to improve overall health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/etnología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Mortalidad/etnología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Hospitalización , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(28): 991-996, 2021 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264909

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has disproportionately affected non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) and Hispanic persons in the United States (1,2). In North Carolina during January-September 2020, deaths from COVID-19 were 1.6 times higher among Black persons than among non-Hispanic White persons (3), and the rate of COVID-19 cases among Hispanic persons was 2.3 times higher than that among non-Hispanic persons (4). During December 14, 2020-April 6, 2021, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (NCDHHS) monitored the proportion of Black and Hispanic persons* aged ≥16 years who received COVID-19 vaccinations, relative to the population proportions of these groups. On January 14, 2021, NCDHHS implemented a multipronged strategy to prioritize COVID-19 vaccinations among Black and Hispanic persons. This included mapping communities with larger population proportions of persons aged ≥65 years among these groups, increasing vaccine allocations to providers serving these communities, setting expectations that the share of vaccines administered to Black and Hispanic persons matched or exceeded population proportions, and facilitating community partnerships. From December 14, 2020-January 3, 2021 to March 29-April 6, 2021, the proportion of vaccines administered to Black persons increased from 9.2% to 18.7%, and the proportion administered to Hispanic persons increased from 3.9% to 9.9%, approaching the population proportion aged ≥16 years of these groups (22.3% and 8.0%, respectively). Vaccinating communities most affected by COVID-19 is a national priority (5). Public health officials could use U.S. Census tract-level mapping to guide vaccine allocation, promote shared accountability for equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccines with vaccine providers through data sharing, and facilitate community partnerships to support vaccine access and promote equity in vaccine uptake.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/etnología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/métodos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , North Carolina/epidemiología , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(28): 985-990, 2021 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264911

RESUMEN

COVID-19 vaccination is critical to ending the COVID-19 pandemic. Members of minority racial and ethnic groups have experienced disproportionate COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality (1); however, COVID-19 vaccination coverage is lower in these groups (2). CDC used data from CDC's Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD)* to assess disparities in vaccination coverage among persons aged ≥16 years by race and ethnicity during December 14, 2020-May 15, 2021. Measures of coverage included receipt of ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose (i.e., receipt of the first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines or 1 dose of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine [Johnson & Johnson]) and full vaccination (receipt of 2 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines or 1 dose of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine). Among 9.6 million persons aged ≥16 years enrolled in VSD during December 14, 2020-May 15, 2021, ≥1-dose coverage was 48.3%, and 38.3% were fully vaccinated. As of May 15, 2021, coverage with ≥1 dose was lower among non-Hispanic Black (Black) and Hispanic persons (40.7% and 41.1%, respectively) than it was among non-Hispanic White (White) persons (54.6%). Coverage was highest among non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) persons (57.4%). Coverage with ≥1 dose was higher among persons with certain medical conditions that place them at higher risk for severe COVID-19 (high-risk conditions) (63.8%) than it was among persons without such conditions (41.5%) and was higher among persons who had not had COVID-19 (48.8%) than it was among those who had (42.4%). Persons aged 18-24 years had the lowest ≥1-dose coverage (28.7%) among all age groups. Continued monitoring of vaccination coverage and efforts to improve equity in coverage are critical, especially among populations disproportionately affected by COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/etnología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 02.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212940

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The preventive measures to be taken in the face of a new epidemic require knowledge of the number of infected and which groups are most vulnerable. To know the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in the city of Madrid and its 21 districts in the first 4 months of the epidemic and its relationship with some socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional ecological study (39,270 cases). The 39,270 cases diagnosed from the beginning of the pandemic until June 26, 2020, published by the Comunidad de Madrid in were studied. In the districts, the distribution of gross and fair incidence is related to the ones of the independent variables (Municipal Statistics and Estudio de Salud 2018, Madrid Salud). The Incidence and the r and r2 coefficients, obtained with the factors and the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model, are studied. RESULTS: The city of Madrid presents a cumulative incidence of COVID-19, which is double the national one (100), with a Standardized Cumulative Incidence Ratio (RIAE) of 204.59 per 100. The districts with the most RIAE were those in the southeast, all>240 per 100. In the districts, the per capita household rate, the per capita income, and the mortality rate from infectious diseases in men reached high and inverse correlations with RIAE (all r>-0.3). The RLM model with these 3 indicators predicts 30% of the RIAES. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between material wealth and the risk of COVID-19 infection is inverse. The knowledge in the districts of per capita income, household rate and mortality rate due to infectious diseases in men reduces the uncertainty about the accumulated incidence by 30%.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Pandemias , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ciudades/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , España/epidemiología
18.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(1): 20-25, jun. 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1254767

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Comparar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise, que residiam na cidade onde realizavam o tratamento com aqueles que residiam em outros municípios do estado de Sergipe. Método: trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo e comparativo, realizado em uma clínica de diálise em Sergipe. A amostra foi composta por 170 pacientes adultos, em tratamento hemodialítico com condições cognitivas para responder ao formulário. O desfecho qualidade de vida foi mensurado por meio da versão brasileira do Kidney Disease and Quality-Of-Life Short-Form (KDQOL-SF). Dados sociodemográficos e de acesso ao serviço foram consideradas variáveis dependentes para comparação entre os grupos. Resultados: Independente da procedência e características sociodemográficas dos participantes, baixos escores de qualidade de vida foram encontrados em todos os componentes da avaliação, especialmente médias inferiores a 50. Por outro lado, percebeu-se que os pacientes provenientes do interior apresentaram maiores escores de qualidade de vida. Conclusão: pacientes do sexo masculino, com idade média de 40 anos, com maior escolaridade e procedentes do interior apresentaram melhores escores para qualidade de vida. (AU)


Objective: To compare the quality of life of patients undergoing hemodialysis, who lived in the city where they underwent treatment with those who lived in other municipalities in the state of Sergipe. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative study, carried out in a dialysis clinic in Sergipe. The sample consisted of 170 adult patients undergoing hemodialysis with cognitive conditions to respond to the form. The quality of life outcome was measured using the Brazilian version of Kidney Disease and Quality-Of-Life Short-Form (KDQOL-SF). Sociodemographic and service access data were considered dependent variables for comparison between groups. Results: Regardless of the origin and sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, low scores for quality of life were found in all components of the assessment, especially means below 50. On the other hand, it was noticed that patients from the countryside had higher quality scores of life. Conclusion: Male patients, with an average age of 40 years, with higher education and coming from the interior had better scores for quality of life. (AU)


Objetivo: Comparar la calidad de vida de los pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis, que vivían en la ciudad donde se sometieron a tratamiento con los que vivían en otros municipios del estado de Sergipe. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal, descriptivo y comparativo, realizado en una clínica de diálisis en Sergipe. La muestra consistió en 170 pacientes adultos sometidos a hemodiálisis con condiciones cognitivas para responder a la forma. El resultado de la calidad de vida se midió utilizando la versión brasileña de la enfermedad renal y la forma corta de la calidad de vida (KDQOL-SF). Los datos sociodemográficos y de acceso al servicio se consideraron variables dependientes para la comparación entre grupos. Resultados: Independientemente del origen y las características sociodemográficas de los participantes, se encontraron puntajes bajos para la calidad de vida en todos los componentes de la evaluación, especialmente los medios por debajo de 50. Por otro lado, se observó que los pacientes del campo tenían puntajes de calidad más altos. de la vida. Conclusión: Los pacientes varones, con una edad promedio de 40 años, con educación superior y provenientes del interior, obtuvieron mejores puntajes de calidad de vida. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Diálisis Renal , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Fallo Renal Crónico
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062806

RESUMEN

Studies documenting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) racial/ethnic disparities in the United States were limited to data from the initial few months of the pandemic, did not account for changes over time, and focused primarily on Black and Hispanic minority groups. To fill these gaps, we examined time trends in racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 infection and mortality. We used the Veteran Health Administration's (VHA) national database of veteran COVID-19 infections over three time periods: 3/1/2020-5/31/2020 (spring); 6/1/2020-8/31/2020 (summer); and 9/1/2020-11/25/2020 (fall). We calculated COVID-19 infection and mortality predicted probabilities from logistic regression models that included time period-by-race/ethnicity interaction terms, and controlled for age, gender, and prior diagnosis of CDC risk factors. Racial/ethnic groups at higher risk for COVID-19 infection and mortality changed over time. American Indian/Alaskan Natives (AI/AN), Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders experienced higher COVID-19 infections compared to Whites during the summertime. There were mortality disparities for Blacks in springtime, and AI/ANs, Asians, and Hispanics in summertime. Policy makers should consider the dynamic nature of racial/ethnic disparities as the pandemic evolves, and potential effects of risk mitigation and other (e.g., economic) policies on these disparities. Researchers should consider how trends in disparities change over time in other samples.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Grupos Étnicos , Hawaii , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: e13-e19, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061560

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and the simultaneous increased focus on structural racism and racial/ethnic disparities across the United States have shed light on glaring inequities in U.S. health care, both in oncology and more generally. In this article, we describe how, through the lens of fundamental ethical principles, an ethical imperative exists for the oncology community to overcome these inequities in cancer care, research, and the oncology workforce. We first explain why this is an ethical imperative, centering the discussion on lessons learned during 2020. We continue by describing ongoing equity-focused efforts by ASCO and other related professional medical organizations. We end with a call to action-all members of the oncology community have an ethical responsibility to take steps to address inequities in their clinical and academic work-and with guidance to practicing oncologists looking to optimize equity in their research and clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Oncología Médica/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Racismo/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Equidad en Salud/ética , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/ética , Humanos , Oncología Médica/ética , Oncología Médica/organización & administración , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Salud Pública/ética , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Racismo/ética , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Estados Unidos
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