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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 246, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821337

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of drugs and endocrine disrupters in water supplies and in water for human consumption. Twelve sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy and dry season at four sampling points in the Bolonha Complex, in the city of Belém, northern region of Brazil: Bolonha reservoir (catchment) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Bolonha (filtered water chamber, treated water tank, and washing water from the filters). The determination of the compounds was performed by solid phase extraction followed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results confirmed the anthropic influence that the reservoir and WTP-Bolonha have been suffering, as consequence of the discharge of domestic sewage in natura. Among 25 microcontaminants analyzed, 12 were quantified in raw water and 10 in treated water. The antiallergic Loratadine (LRT) was the contaminant that occurred most frequently in all sample points, having been poorly removed (median 12%) in the conventional treatment used. Losartana (LST), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) also occurred very frequently in raw water with concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 194 ng L-1. Although such contaminants occurred in treated water in concentrations varying from 4.0 to 135 ng L-1, the estimated margin of exposure ranged from 55 to 3333 times which indicates low risk of human exposure to such contaminants through ingestion of treated water.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Brasil , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145239, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736361

RESUMEN

Estrogenic substances are today among the contaminants of emerging concern. Besides naturally occurring estrogens, other natural and synthetic substances can mimic a hormonal action due to their structural resemblance to hormones, possibly affecting the endocrine system of living organisms. Estrogens have been detected in inland water bodies such as influents and effluents of waste water treatment plants as well as in rivers, but data on their distribution and variability in the marine ecosystem are still limited. Surface water samples obtained during two research cruises on the northern shelf of the South China Sea (SCS) near the Pearl River Estuary, in September 2018 and in August 2019, were investigated for estrogenic substances, namely estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), genistein (GEN), daidzein (DAI) and zearalenone (ZEN). Among the target analytes, the natural hormones E1 and E2, as well as the synthetic EE2, were the most abundant with maximum concentrations of 1.1 ng L-1, 0.7 ng L-1 and 0.6 ng L-1, respectively. Of substances produced by plants and fungi, GEN, DAI and ZEN, only GEN was detected (1.2 ng L-1). High concentrations occurred predominantly close to the coast, which was also reflected in the calculated estradiol equivalent quotients (up to 1.4 ng L-1). In general, the distribution of estrogenic substances observed in both years shows a regional and inter-annual variability consistent with the modeled surface current data for the SCS. Regarding single estrogenic compounds and estradiol equivalents, marine organisms in the northern SCS might be exposed to high potential risk.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Ecosistema , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estradiol/análisis , Estrógenos/análisis , Estrona/análisis , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145296, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736423

RESUMEN

A solar-driven advanced oxidation process at a lab scale was studied for the degradation and mineralization of the known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), bisphenol A (BPA). Preliminary tests were performed varying the irradiation source, BPA/H2O2 ratio, temperature, initial H2O2 concentration, initial solution pH, and initial BPA concentration, then, the operational conditions of the UV-solar/H2O2 were optimized by a response surface methodology (RSM), providing the following responses: UV-solar/H2O2 process at pH 3.0, [BPA]0 = 25 mg L-1, [H2O2] = 350 mg L-1, T = 50 °C, achieving BPA degradation of 77.4% and BPA mineralization of 38.2%, H2O2 consumption of 230 mg L-1. From the optimized condition, different pH ranges were tested (3.0; 5.0; 7.0; 9.0; and 11.0), where, at solution pH 5.0 the best removal rates were achieved (89.2% BPA degradation and 49.0% BPA mineralization). The BPA amount in solution was monitored by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and a study of the intermediate reaction by-products was performed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, highlighting the lower amount of by-products identified when the solution pH 5.0 was employed, rather than the solution pH 3.0. Genotoxicity tests with Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and cytotoxicity tests with Allium cepa were performed aiming to evaluate errors in the cells and nuclear abnormalities of the tested organisms induced by BPA raw samples, as well as by the BPA samples treated by the UV-solar/H2O2 process. Therefore, the bio-toxicity levels for an animal and a vegetal bio-indicator were reduced by applying a renewable source of energy as the irradiation source for the UV/H2O2 process, representing an efficient and eco-friendly alternative for BPA treatment in aqueous solutions.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/análisis , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/toxicidad , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Oxidación-Reducción , Estrés Oxidativo , Fenoles , Rayos Ultravioleta , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
4.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116853, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740605

RESUMEN

In the last few decades, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have taken significant roles in creating harmful effects to aquatic organisms. Many proposed treatment applications are time consuming, expensive and focus mainly on waste water treatment plants (WWTP), which are indeed a major aquatic polluting source. Nonetheless, the marine environment is the ultimate sink of many pollutants, e.g. EDCs, and has been largely neglected mainly due to the challenge in treating such salty and immense open natural ecosystems. In this study we describe the bromination and the yet unpresented degradation process of high concentrations (5 mg/L) of phenolic EDCs, by the marine red macroalgaeGracilaria sp. As shown, 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), a well-known contraceptive drug, and one of the most persistent phenol EDCs in the environment, was eliminated from both the medium and tissues of the macroalga, in addition to the degradation of all metabolites as verified by the nil estrogenic activity recorded in the medium. Validation of the proposed bromination-degradation route was reinforced by identifying Bisphenol A (BPA) brominated degradation products only, following 168H of incubation in the presence of Gracilaria sp. As demonstrated in this assay for EE2, BPA and finally for paracetamol, it is likely that the phenol scavenging activity is nonspecific and, thus, possibly even a wider scope of various other phenol-based pollutants might be treated in coastal waters. As far as we know, Gracilaria sp. is the only marine sessile organism able of degrading various phenol based pollutants. The worldwide distribution of many Gracilaria species and their wide aquaculture knowhow, suggest that bioremediation based on these seaweeds is a possible cost effective progressive solution to the treatment of a wide scope of phenols at the marine environment.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Gracilaria , Algas Marinas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Compuestos de Bencidrilo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Ecosistema , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Fenol , Fenoles/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112241, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711611

RESUMEN

The occurrence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been determined in two widely consumed fish species from Persian Gulf i.e., Epinephelus coioides and Platycephalus indicus by applying a validated analytical for the simultaneous detection of fourteen EDCs. The concentrations of all detected EDCs were greater in the liver than in the muscle (except for bisphenol A in P. indicus), suggesting a prolonged exposure of the fishes to these pollutants in the Persian Gulf. Specifically, the results showed that di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the compound detected most frequently and at the highest concentration in both species. DEHP levels in ranged from 6.68 to 297.48 µg g-dw-1 and from 13.32 to 350.52 µg g-dw-1, in muscle and in liver, respectively. A risk assessment study was conducted, and demonstrated that consuming two fish based- meals per week may result in a moderate risk especially for vulnerable population groups.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Océano Índico , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144750, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736315

RESUMEN

Recent urban public water supply contamination events emphasize the importance of screening treated drinking water quality after distribution. In vitro bioassays, when run concurrently with analytical chemistry methods, are effective tools to evaluating the efficacy of water treatment processes and water quality. We tested 49 water samples representing the Chicago Department of Water Management service areas for estrogen, (anti)androgen, glucocorticoid receptor-activating contaminants and cytotoxicity. We present a tiered screening approach suitable to samples with anticipated low-level activity and initially tested all extracts for statistically identifiable endocrine activity; performing a secondary dilution-response analysis to determine sample EC50 and biological equivalency values (BioEq). Estrogenic activity was detected in untreated Lake Michigan intake water samples using mammalian (5/49; median: 0.21 ng E2Eq/L) and yeast cell (5/49; 1.78 ng E2Eq/L) bioassays. A highly sensitive (anti)androgenic activity bioassay was applied for the first time to water quality screening and androgenic activity was detected in untreated intake and treated pre-distribution samples (4/49; 0.93 ng DHTEq/L). No activity was identified above method detection limits in the yeast androgenic, mammalian anti-androgenic, and both glucocorticoid bioassays. Known estrogen receptor agonists were detected using HPLC/MS-MS (estrone: 0.72-1.4 ng/L; 17α-estradiol: 1.3-1.5 ng/L; 17ß-estradiol: 1.4 ng/L; equol: 8.8 ng/L), however occurrence did not correlate with estrogenic bioassay results. Many studies have applied bioassays to water quality monitoring using only relatively small samples sets often collected from surface and/or wastewater effluent. However, to realistically adapt these tools to treated water quality monitoring, water quality managers must have the capacity to screen potentially hundreds of samples in short timeframes. Therefore, we provided a tiered screening model that increased sample screening speed, without sacrificing statistical stringency, and detected estrogenic and androgenic activity only in pre-distribution Chicago area samples.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bioensayo , Chicago , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estrógenos/análisis , Michigan , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Calidad del Agua
7.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116551, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529898

RESUMEN

In this study, the biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (namely the natural and synthetic estrogens 17ß-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), respectively) was assessed in an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating simulated domestic sewage. To better understand the fate of these compounds, their concentrations were determined in both liquid and solid (biomass) samples. Throughout the operation of the reactor, subjected to alternating anaerobic and aerated conditions, the removal of the hormones, both present in the influent at a concentration of 20 µg L-1, amounted to 99% (for E2) and 93% (for EE2), with the latter showing higher resistance to biodegradation. Through yeast estrogen screen assays, an average moderate residual estrogenic activity (0.09 µg L-1 EQ-E2) was found in the samples analysed. E2 and EE2 profiles over the SBR cycle suggest a rapid initial adsorption of these compounds on the granular biomass occurring anaerobically, followed by biodegradation under aeration. A possible sequence of steps for the removal of the micropollutants, including the key microbial players, was proposed. Besides the good capability of the AGS on EDCs removal, the results revealed high removal efficiencies (>90%) of COD, ammonium and phosphate. Most of the incoming organics (>80%) were consumed under anaerobic conditions, when phosphate was released (75.2 mgP L-1). Nitrification and phosphate uptake took place along the aeration phase, with effluent ammonium and phosphate levels around 2 mg L-1. Although nitrite accumulation took place over the cycle, nitrate consisted of the main oxidized nitrogen form in the effluent. The specific ammonium and phosphate uptake rates attained in the SBR were found to be 3.3 mgNH4+-N gVSS-1.h-1 and 6.7 mgPO43--P gVSS-1 h-1, respectively, while the specific denitrification rate corresponded to 1.0 mgNOx--N gVSS-1 h-1.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Biodegradación Ambiental , Reactores Biológicos , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Estrógenos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116605, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545521

RESUMEN

Estuarine ecosystems near mega-cities are sinks of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). As the most important primary producer, indigenous microalgae and their secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) might interact with EDCs and contribute to their fate and risk. Tetraselmis sp. is a representative model of estuarine microalga, for which EDC toxicity and its effects on EPS synthesis have rarely been studied. Through microalgal isolation, algal cell growth tests, EDC removal and the characterization of related EPS profiles, the present work intends to clarify the comparative responses of Tetraselmis sp. to nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). The results showed that the half inhibitory concentration on cell growth was 0.190-0.313 mg/dm3 for NP, which was one order of magnitude lower than the comparable values for BPA and EE2 at 2.072-3.254 mg/dm3. Regarding chlorophyll, NP induced its degradation, EE2 led to its decreased production, and BPA had no obvious effect. Under EDC stress, only the concentrations of colloidal polysaccharides and proteins responded dose-dependently to EE2. Except for the colloidal fraction in the EE2 treatment group, the increase in neutral monosaccharides, especially glucose and galactose, was a common response to EDCs. Compared to the recalcitrant BPA, NP underwent abiotic degradation in alga-free water, and EE2 could be biodegraded in water containing this microalga. The chemical-specific responses of cell growth, chlorophyll and related EPS profiles were driven by the different fates of EDCs, and the underlying mechanism was further discussed. The results obtained in the present work are of critical importance for understanding the fate and effects of different EDCs mediated by microalgae and their related EPSs.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/toxicidad , Ecosistema , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Etinilestradiol/análisis , Etinilestradiol/toxicidad , Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas/química , Fenoles , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145602, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592464

RESUMEN

Water sources are frequently contaminated with natural and anthropogenic substances having known or suspected endocrine disrupting activities; however, these activities are not routinely measured and monitored. Phenotypic bioassays are a promising new approach for detection and quantitation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We developed cell lines expressing fluorescent chimeric constructs capable of detecting environmental contaminants which interact with multiple nuclear receptors. Using these assays, we tested water samples collected in the summers of 2016, 2017 and 2018 from two major Virginia rivers. Samples were concentrated 200× and screened for contaminants interacting with the androgen (AR), glucocorticoid (GR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and thyroid receptors. Among 45 tested sites, over 70% had AR activity and 60% had AhR activity. Many sites were also positive for GR and TRß activation (22% and 42%, respectively). Multiple sites were positive for more than one type of contaminants, indicating presence of complex mixtures. These activities may negatively impact river ecosystems and consequently human health.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bioensayo , Ecosistema , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Ríos , Virginia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19505-19510, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620688

RESUMEN

Since the last several decades, there has been a growing concern on the presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in potable water due to their negative impacts on public health of mankind. As such, more and more EDCs have been regulated in many national drinking water quality standards. Given this situation, this work attempted to deliberately offer new insights into some remaining scientific challenges, i.e., (1) what should the allowable EDC concentration be in drinking water?; (2) should the main chlorinated byproducts of EDCs be regulated in potable water?; and (3) what concentration should be regulated for each chlorinated EDC? It is expected that these could help to better design the water quality regulations for EDCs.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578670

RESUMEN

Persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (PPPs) have been identified as potential endocrine disruptors that mimic growth hormones when consumed at nanogram per litre to microgram per litre concentrations. Their occurrence in potable water remains a great threat to human health. Different conventional technologies developed for their removal from wastewater have failed to achieve complete mineralisation. Advanced oxidation technologies such as dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) based on free radical mechanisms have been identified to completely decompose PPPs. Due to the existence of pharmaceuticals as mixtures in wastewater and the recalcitrance of their degradation intermediate by-products, no single advanced oxidation technology has been able to eliminate pharmaceutical xenobiotics. This review paper provides an update on the sources, occurrence, and types of pharmaceuticals in wastewater by emphasising different DBD configurations previously and currently utilised for pharmaceuticals degradation under different experimental conditions. The performance of the DBD geometries was evaluated considering various factors including treatment time, initial concentration, half-life time, degradation efficiency and the energy yield (G50) required to degrade half of the pollutant concentration. The review showed that the efficacy of the DBD systems on the removal of pharmaceutical compounds depends not only on these parameters but also on the nature/type of the pollutant.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Humanos , Aguas Residuales , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Food Chem ; 349: 129169, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548886

RESUMEN

A new matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction methodology, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a diode-array detector, was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 10 compounds in mussels from Galician Rias (Spain). These pollutants are compounds commonly used for plastic production as additives, as well as common plastic contaminants. The compounds selected were bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F, bisphenol-S, nonylphenol-9, nonylphenol, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene. The parameters affecting the MSPD extraction efficiency such as the type of sorbent, mass sample-sorbent ratio, and extraction solvent were optimised. The proposed method provided satisfactory quantitative recoveries (80-100%), with relative standard deviations lower than 7%. In all cases, the matrix-matched calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.32-120.00 µg/kg, with quantification limits of 0.25-16.20 µg/kg. The novel developed MSPD-high-performance liquid chromatography methodology provided good sensitivity, accuracy, and repeatability for quality control analysis in mussels.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos/química , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Plásticos/análisis , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Límite de Detección , España
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111931, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418343

RESUMEN

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in marine environments has become a major environmental concern. Nonetheless, the biological effects of EDCs on organisms in coastal environments remain poorly characterized. In this study, biomonitoring of EDCs in male fish Sebastiscus marmoratus was carried out in the Maowei Sea, China. The results showed that the concentration of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) was below the detection limit, the concentrations of 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in seawater were moderate compared with those in other global regions, and the possible sources are the municipal wastewater discharge. Nested ANOVA analyses suggest significant differences of the brain aromatase activities and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) expression between the port area and the oyster farming area. A new fish expert system (FES) was developed for evaluating the biological effects of EDCs on fish. Our findings show that the FES is a potential tool to evaluate the biological effects of marine pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Perciformes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/análisis , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/toxicidad , China , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Masculino , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419173

RESUMEN

High-rate activated sludge (HRAS) systems are designed to shift the energy-intensive processes to energy-saving and sustainable technologies for wastewater treatment. The high food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios and low solid retention times (SRTs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) applied in HRAS systems result in the maximization of organic matter diversion to the sludge which can produce large amounts of biogas during anaerobic digestion, thus moving toward energy-neutral (or positive) treatment processes. However, in addition to the energy optimization, the removal of emerging contaminants (ECs) is the new challenge in wastewater treatment. In the context of this study, the removal efficiencies and the fates of selected ECs (three endocrine disruptors (endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs))-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan, and four pharmaceuticals (PhACs)-ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and ketoprofen) in HRAS systems have been studied. According to the results, EDCs occurred in raw wastewater and secondary sludge at higher concentrations compared to PhACs. In HRAS operating schemes, all compounds were poorly (<40%) to moderately (<60%) removed. Regarding removal mechanisms, biotransformation was found to be the dominant process for PhACs, while for EDCs sorption onto sludge is the most significant removal mechanism affecting their fates and their presence in excess sludge.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 324: 124678, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461128

RESUMEN

While the technologies available today can generate high-quality water from wastewater, the majority of the wastewater treatment plants are not intended to eliminate emerging xenobiotic pollutants, pharmaceutical and personal care items. Most endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and personal care products (PPCPs) are more arctic than most regulated pollutants, and several of them have acid or critical functional groups. Together with the trace occurrence, EDCs and PPCPs create specific challenges for removal and subsequent improvements of wastewater treatment plants. Various technologies have been investigated extensively because they are highly persistent which leads to bioaccumulation. Researchers are increasingly addressing the human health hazards of xenobiotics and their removal. The emphasis of this review was on the promising methods available, especially nanotechnology, for the treatment of xenobiotic compounds that are accidentally released into the setting. In terms of xenobiotic elimination, nanotechnology provides better treatment than chemical treatments and their degradation mechanisms are addressed.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Humanos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Xenobióticos
16.
Food Chem ; 346: 128895, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421902

RESUMEN

Bisphenols (BPs) are worldwide used organic compounds in plastics, belonging to the group of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which exhibits endocrine disruption to beings. Migration of BPs from food contact materials like plastic containers, epoxy coatings in metal cans and thermal papers, would results in bioaccumulation of BPs in human beings, causing adverse health effects. Therefore, sensitive and selective determination of BPs in food is needed. Among different strategies have been explored for the detection of BPs, electrochemical sensors with relatively high sensitivity and fast response are promising. This paper is devoted to comprehensively review the developed electrochemical methods for BPs sensing in food, so that to find a direction for developing low cost, high accuracy and compatibility sensors toward the sensitive and selective detection of BPs. Different electrochemical technologies categorized by recognition agents, aptamers, enzymes, molecularly imprinted polymers and nanomaterials are discussed and summarized in their mechanisms, usages, merits and limitations. The challenges and further perspectives in the development of electrochemical sensors is also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo/análisis , Electroquímica/métodos , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Fenoles/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Nanoestructuras/química
17.
Food Chem ; 345: 128806, 2021 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352402

RESUMEN

The presence and distribution of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the mariculture fish from Pulau Kukup, Johor of Malaysia have been studied along with the impact on human health. Six different species of mariculture fish were collected, due to their high consumption in the Asian region-especially Malaysia, to assess their levels of EDCs. The highest concentration of EDCs detected in the muscle was dexamethasone (2.37-15.84 ng/g) and (0.77-13.41 ng/g), in the liver was dexamethasone (<2.54-43.56 ng/g) and progesterone (2.23-9.78 ng/g), and in the reproductive organ are dexamethasone (<2.54-37.23 ng/g) and caffeine (0.21-18.92 ng/g). The human health risk assessment in the current study suggested that there is no potential risk to the consumer because the hazard index was below 1 (HI < 1). The present study provides information on the pollution profile of EDCs and the associated human health risk with EDCs in mariculture fish.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Peces , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Músculos/química , Alimentos Marinos/análisis
18.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111485, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049614

RESUMEN

Population growth followed by rapid development of industrialisation has caused serious environmental pollution with contaminants of emerging concern found in wastewater and surface water. As one of the most important resources for human survival, water is daily polluted by endocrine-disruptive chemicals (EDCs) including pharmaceuticals and personal care products, organic pollutants and heavy metals. Even at low concentrations in water bodies, chronic exposure to EDCs can cause adverse effects on human and environment health. The main concern with EDCs is the diseases they can generate in humans or wildlife by affecting the function of hormones in the body. Problems in the reproductive system, thyroid problems, Alzheimer's, cancer and obesity are some of the major effects of EDCs in humans. In wildlife, the reproductive system may be affected, including its levels of hatchability and vitellogenin. The efforts of the present review are on emphasising on the environmental concern on the occurrence and risk assessment of EDCs, their harmful effects in the ecosystem, human life, and wildlife, as a result of their incomplete removal from wastewater treatment plants. The review focuses on studies conducted in South Africa highlights the use of fungal bioreactors as a low-cost and eco-effective environmentally friendly wastewater treatment processes.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Ecosistema , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Humanos , Sudáfrica , Aguas Residuales , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
19.
Environ Res ; 192: 110226, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971080

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been phased out of production for nearly a decade yet are still frequently detected in serum of U.S. adults. PBDE concentrations have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and laboratory studies suggest hydroxylated-BDEs (OH-BDEs) may act as endocrine disruptors. We set out to assess the joint effects of paternal and maternal serum PBDE concentrations on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes and the association between paternal serum OH-BDE concentrations and IVF outcomes. METHODS: This analysis included 189 couples (contributing 285 IVF cycles) recruited between 2006 and 2016 from a longitudinal cohort based at Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center who completed at least one IVF cycle and had an available blood sample at study entry. Congeners (47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and OH-BDEs (3-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47, 6-OH-BDE47 and 4-OH-BDE49) were quantified in serum. Log-transformed PBDEs and OH-BDEs were modeled in quartiles for associations with IVF outcomes using multivariable generalized mixed models and cluster weighted generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Lipid-adjusted concentrations of PBDEs and OH-BDEs were higher in females than in male partners. There were no clear patterns of increases in risk of adverse IVF outcomes associated with PBDEs and OH-BDEs. However, some decreases in associations with IVF outcomes were observed in isolated quartiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our assessment of couple level exposure is unique and highlights the importance of including male and female exposures in the assessment of the influence of environmental toxicants on pregnancy outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Retardadores de Llama , Adulto , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Femenino , Fertilidad , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/análisis , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/toxicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1637: 461828, 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373795

RESUMEN

A novel double-microextraction approach, combining dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and vortex-assisted micro-solid-phase extraction (VA-µ-SPE) was developed. The procedure was applied to extract endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) consisting of three phthalate esters (PEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) associated with PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm). Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for determination of the analytes. These analytes were first ultrasonically desorbed from PM2.5 in a 10% acetone aqueous solution. DLLME was used to first preconcentrate the analytes; the sample solution, still in the same vial, was then subjected to VA-µ-SPE. The synergistic effects provided by the combination of the microextraction techniques provided advantages such as high enrichment factors and good cleanup performance. Various extraction parameters such as type and volume of extractant solvent (for DLLME), and type of sorbent, extraction time, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent and desorption time (for µ-SPE) were evaluated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were found to be the most suitable sorbent. This procedure achieved good precision with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of between 1.93 and 9.95%. Good linearity ranges (0.3-100 ng/mL and 0.5-100 ng/mL, depending on analytes), and limits of detection (LODs) of between 0.07 and 0.15 ng/mL were obtained. The method was used to determine the levels of PEs and BPA in ambient air, with concentrations ranging between below the limits of quantification and 0.48 ng/m3. DLLME-VA-µ-SPE-GC-MS/MS was demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of these EDCs present in PM2.5.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo/aislamiento & purificación , Disruptores Endocrinos/aislamiento & purificación , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Material Particulado/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Ácidos Ftálicos/aislamiento & purificación , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Ésteres , Límite de Detección , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Material Particulado/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Ácidos Ftálicos/análisis , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Solventes/química
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