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1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e91, 2020 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928566

RESUMEN

AIM: Schizophrenia is a serious health problem worldwide. This systematic analysis aims to quantify the burden of schizophrenia at the global, regional and national levels using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017). METHODS: We collected detailed information on the number of incidence cases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardised rate of DALYs (ASDR) during 1990-2017 from GBD 2017. The estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) in the ASIR and in the ASDR were calculated to quantify the temporal trends in the ASIR and ASDR of schizophrenia. RESULTS: Globally there were 1.13 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 1.00 to 1.28) incident schizophrenia cases and 12.66 million (95% UI = 9.48 to 15.56) DALYs due to schizophrenia in 2017. The global ASIR decreased slightly from 1990 to 2017 (EAPC = -0.124, 95% UI = -0.114 to -0.135), while the ASDR was stable. The number of incident cases, DALYs, ASIR and ASDR were higher for males than for females. The incident rate and DALYs rate were highest among those aged 20-29 and 30-54 years, respectively. ASIR and ASDR were highest in East Asia in 2017, at 19.66 (95% UI = 17.72 to 22.00) and 205.23 (95% UI = 153.13 to 253.34), respectively. In 2017, the ASIR was highest in countries with a high-moderate sociodemographic index (SDI) and the ASDR was highest in high-SDI countries. We also found that the EAPC in ASDR was negatively correlated with the ASDR in 1990 (P = 0.001, ρ = -0.23). CONCLUSION: The global burden of schizophrenia remains large and continues to increase, thereby increasing the burden on health-care systems. The reported findings should be useful for resource allocation and health services planning for the increasing numbers of patients with schizophrenia in ageing societies.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Carga Global de Enfermedades/tendencias , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Femenino , Salud Global/tendencias , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
2.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e119, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939499

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of erosive tooth wear (ETW) among 15-19-year-old South Brazilian adolescents, regarding prevalence, extent, severity, intraoral distribution, and sociodemographic risk indicators. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, and included a representative sample of 15-19-year-old adolescents. Data collection included the application of a questionnaire and a clinical examination. A questionnaire was sent to the parents/legal guardians of the selected students, containing questions on demographic information, socioeconomic characteristics, and living conditions. After tooth cleaning and drying, all erupted permanent teeth were clinically assessed by two calibrated examiners, and classified according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE). The association between explanatory variables and the outcomes (ETW prevalence and extent) was assessed using Poisson regression models (both unadjusted and adjusted). A total of 1,197 adolescents were included in the study (participation rate of 72.3%). The overall prevalence of ETW was 57%. Severe ETW affected 16% of the sample. Overall, this adolescent population presented 13.3 affected surfaces, and 8.34 affected teeth. In the risk assessment analysis, gender, skin color, socioeconomic status, and family income were significantly associated with ETW. Boys, white adolescents, and those with higher socioeconomic status were more affected by ETW. This population-based cross-sectional study revealed that the prevalence of ETW was high, and that it was associated with sociodemographic variables in this South Brazilian population of adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Erosión de los Dientes/epidemiología , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 129-135, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915348

RESUMEN

Tetanus is a potentially preventable neurological infectious disorder with paucity of literature in Bangladesh. We aimed to see the demography and symptom profile of tetanus cases managed at the Infectious disease Hospital Sylhet. This hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted within the time period of January to December 2012 among 50 consecutive admitted patients in the Infectious Disease Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh who were diagnosed as a case of tetanus and fulfilling the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Neonatal tetanus was considered as exclusion criteria and clinical diagnosis of tetanus was considered as the tetanus. Data were collected purposively with pretested predesigned questionnaire. Data were processed manually and analyzed with the help of SPSS Version 16.0. The mean±SD age was 33.00±16.8 years, ranging from 10 to 70 years. Among the 50 respondents, 72.0% were male, 50% from lower class, 34% were students and 30.0% had their educational status of primary level, 60.0% from rural social background. Trismus was found in 98.0% of the cases, rigidity in 96.0% cases, body ache in 94.0% cases, dysphagia in 92.0% cases, neck pain in 78.0% cases, dysarthria in 92.0% cases, reflex spasm in 66.0% cases, opisthotonus in 46.0% cases and urinary retention in 26.0% cases. In this study rural male people with lower socioeconomic status individuals were mostly affected with trismus, rigidity, body ache and dysphagia symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Deglución/etiología , Tétanos/diagnóstico , Trismo/etiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos de Deglución/epidemiología , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Población Rural , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tétanos/complicaciones , Tétanos/epidemiología , Tétanos/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Trismo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 142-148, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915350

RESUMEN

Hypertension (HTN) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality and the prevalence of hypertension is increasing particularly in middle- and low-income countries including Bangladesh. No data are available for the prevalence of hypertension among the government employees in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, conducted from 30 October to 31 December 2016, 1219 government employees aging ≥18 years working in Rangpur city were evaluated for the presence of HTN and its risk factors. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data, data on the presence of various known risk factors of hypertension were collected. Hypertension was defined with systolic BP ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90mmHg or those getting treatment for hypertension. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 23.0; odds of hypertension among subjects with risk factors were calculated and p ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.3% among the study subjects. Significantly higher odds of having hypertension were observed in study subjects with the age groups of 35-49 (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.51-2.99, p<0.001) and ≥50 (OR: 4.96, 95% CI: 3.43-7.18, p<0.001) years than age group <35 years. Employees who were averagely satisfied and not satisfied for their jobs also had higher odds (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, p=0.049 and OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 3.43-7.18, p=0.337) of having hypertension than fully satisfied ones. Having diabetes mellitus was found to increase the odds (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.51-2.99, p<0.001) of hypertension. Male gender, urban/suburban residence, not doing physical exercise, sedentary/light working habit, overweight/obesity also increased the odds of having hypertension though these were not statistically significant. There is a high burden of hypertension among the government employees in Rangpur city. Age, job satisfaction and diabetes were independent risk factors of hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Empleados de Gobierno/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Población Suburbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18870, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977889

RESUMEN

This long-term span retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence and spatial-temporal trends of liver cancer in Wuwei city from 1995 to 2016 to provide scientific knowledge on the prevention and treatment of liver cancer.Data from the medical records of liver cancer patients treated in 12 sentinel hospitals in Wuwei city were extracted. SAS and Joinpoint software were used for data analysis, ArcGIS 10.2 software was used to make geographical distribution map, and SaTScan 9.4 software was used for clustering area detection.Of 2271 patients with liver cancer (average age, 58.73 years), 17.7% were 60 to 64 years of age. Majority were males (1680, 74%), with a sex ratio of 2.84. Joinpoint regression analysis from 1995 to 2016 revealed that the standardized liver cancer rate increased [annual average rate of change (AAPC) = 12.80% (95% CI: 9.5%-16.7%)], with a joinpoint in 2009. From 1995 to 2009, the change in overall APC was statistically significant [APC = 16.7 (95% CI: 12.3%-21.3%)]. The average incidence was the highest in Hongshagang Town. After 2005, the incidence gradually increased in each township. Five clusters of liver cancer were noted in Wuwei, including 37 townships.Males had a higher standardized liver cancer rate. After 2009, increase in the incidence of liver cancer was less rapid. The incidence of liver cancer in townships of Wuwei city was non-random, with certain spatial aggregations, covering 37 townships.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Agrupamiento Espacio-Temporal
7.
Lancet ; 395(10219): 200-211, 2020 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954465

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. It is considered a major cause of health loss, but data for the global burden of sepsis are limited. As a syndrome caused by underlying infection, sepsis is not part of standard Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) estimates. Accurate estimates are important to inform and monitor health policy interventions, allocation of resources, and clinical treatment initiatives. We estimated the global, regional, and national incidence of sepsis and mortality from this disorder using data from GBD 2017. METHODS: We used multiple cause-of-death data from 109 million individual death records to calculate mortality related to sepsis among each of the 282 underlying causes of death in GBD 2017. The percentage of sepsis-related deaths by underlying GBD cause in each location worldwide was modelled using mixed-effects linear regression. Sepsis-related mortality for each age group, sex, location, GBD cause, and year (1990-2017) was estimated by applying modelled cause-specific fractions to GBD 2017 cause-of-death estimates. We used data for 8·7 million individual hospital records to calculate in-hospital sepsis-associated case-fatality, stratified by underlying GBD cause. In-hospital sepsis-associated case-fatality was modelled for each location using linear regression, and sepsis incidence was estimated by applying modelled case-fatality to sepsis-related mortality estimates. FINDINGS: In 2017, an estimated 48·9 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 38·9-62·9) incident cases of sepsis were recorded worldwide and 11·0 million (10·1-12·0) sepsis-related deaths were reported, representing 19·7% (18·2-21·4) of all global deaths. Age-standardised sepsis incidence fell by 37·0% (95% UI 11·8-54·5) and mortality decreased by 52·8% (47·7-57·5) from 1990 to 2017. Sepsis incidence and mortality varied substantially across regions, with the highest burden in sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, south Asia, east Asia, and southeast Asia. INTERPRETATION: Despite declining age-standardised incidence and mortality, sepsis remains a major cause of health loss worldwide and has an especially high health-related burden in sub-Saharan Africa. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the University of Pittsburgh, the British Columbia Children's Hospital Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and the Fleming Fund.


Asunto(s)
Carga Global de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Sepsis/epidemiología , Sepsis/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causas de Muerte , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 433e-437e, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985662

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women now constitute 40.5 percent of integrated plastic surgery residents; however, in 2007, women represented only 11.3 percent of the leadership positions in plastic surgery societies and journal editorial boards. The authors analyzed female representation in these societies and editorial boards over the past 10 years. METHODS: Names of board members from the major plastic surgery societies (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, The Plastic Surgery Foundation, and American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, among others) for the past 10 years and the major plastic journals (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery, and so on) from the past 5 years were extracted from their websites. The yearly percentage of female plastic surgery residents was obtained from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education published data. The proportions of women in society leadership, editorial boards, and residency were compared with data analyses of time series trend and linear and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average time series modeling. RESULTS: Over the past 10 years, the percentage of female residents has grown steadily, from 21.84 percent to 37.31 percent. Similarly, female representation in society leadership has grown from 6.78 percent to 20.29 percent. Both growth coefficients were statistically significant and showed no statistical difference between the two. In contrast, editorial board leadership over the past 5 years showed statistically insignificant growth and showed a statistically significant difference when compared to the growth of the percentage of female residents and female representation in society leadership. CONCLUSION: Female representation in plastic surgery society leadership shows promising growth, whereas their representation on editorial boards showed significantly less growth, which may reflect the slower turnover on these boards.


Asunto(s)
Médicos Mujeres/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirugía Plástica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Liderazgo , Masculino , Edición , Distribución por Sexo , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18470, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895779

RESUMEN

The appropriate approach to dental patients, developed during the course of dentists' training, is a prerequisite for the holistic treatment of patients. Empathy is an important component of such an approach. This study aimed to determine the levels of empathy among students of dentistry at different stages in their training.The Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Health Profession Students Version was used to conduct the research, and 100 dental students (66 female and 34 male) ranging from first to fifth year participated in the survey. The scale contained 20 questions, with a possible score interval between 20 and 140. A higher score indicates increased ability to express empathy.The level of empathy among dentistry students increased from the first and second to fourth years, where it reached its maximum. During the fifth year, a decrease in levels of empathy was observed.The increase in empathy during the dental course may be correlated with the growth of clinical practice during the subsequent years of study. A slight decrease in empathy in the fifth-year students may be due to the curricular focus on performing procedures, with students having to meet a set target in order to finish the course.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Empatía , Estudiantes de Odontología/psicología , Adulto , Educación en Odontología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/métodos , Polonia , Distribución por Sexo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190166, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800875

RESUMEN

other: Oral and oropharyngeal cancer is considered a public health problem in several countries due to its high incidence and mortality rate. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze oral and oropharyngeal cancer mortality in Uruguay from 1997 to 2014 by age, sex and country region. METHODOLOGY: A time series ecological study using secondary data was performed. Data on mortality due to oral and oropharyngeal cancers were obtained from the Vital Statistics Department of Uruguay's Ministry of Public Health. RESULTS: The cumulative mortality rate due to oral and oropharyngeal cancer over the study period was of 19.26/100,000 persons in women and 83.61/100.000 in men, with a mean annual rate of 1.75/100,000 in women and 7.60/100,000 in men. Mortality rate from both sites during the study period was 4.34 times higher in men than in women. Malignant neoplasms of other parts of the tongue and base of tongue showed the highest mortality rate. The means of the annual coefficients of deaths were higher for the age groups between 50 and 69 years. Higher mortality rates of oral and oropharyngeal cancer were observed in Artigas (4.63) and Cerro Largo (3.75). CONCLUSIONS: Our study described a high mortality rate for oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Uruguay from 1997 to 2014. According to the country's health department, men, tongue cancer, and oral cavity had higher mortality rates, with some variation. Prevention strategies with control of risk factors and early diagnosis are necessary to improve survival in the Uruguayan population.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidad , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patología , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/patología , Factores de Tiempo , Neoplasias de la Lengua/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Lengua/patología , Uruguay/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110073, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812818

RESUMEN

Suicides involving more than one suicide method are termed "complex suicides" and need to be differentiated from murders. Self-immolation is the action of setting fire to oneself and is an infrequent method of suicide method in Western countries. However, burned corpses must be carefully examined because setting fire to a body after death can be a way of covering up a crime. Complex suicides involving self-immolation are rare, but careful analysis is necessary if we are to identify the manner of death. A systematic search of the literature concerning self-incineration in cases of complex suicides was carried out. This covered the age, gender and psychiatric condition of the victims, any history of previous suicide attempts, the existence of suicide notes, evidence of fire accelerants, signs of vital exposure to the fire, toxicology, the other suicide methods used in combination with burning and the characteristics of the burns. 46 cases were found in 22 papers published since 1985, but few of these studies provide any detailed analysis and in several cases many important data were missing. There is, therefore, a need to study this topic and to use an approach based on careful examination of the corpse, detailed investigation of the scene, toxicological examination and an evaluation of the victim's physical and psychiatric state.


Asunto(s)
Fuego , Patologia Forense , Distribución por Edad , Quemaduras/patología , Carboxihemoglobina/análisis , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Mucosa Respiratoria/patología , Distribución por Sexo , Hollín , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110093, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816483

RESUMEN

Studies on the mortalities of drug abusers in China are scarce. This study explores the deaths of methamphetamine, opioid, and ketamine abusers in Shanghai (2004-2017) and Wuhan (2005-2017). Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the differences in terms of region, gender, age, cause of death, and the method used in the last drug abuse. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the rate ratios ("RRs") and annual percentage changes ("APCs"). 314 heroin, 43 methamphetamine, and 4 ketamine abusers were included. Furthermore, simultaneously, 6 abusers used heroin and methamphetamine, and 7 abusers used methamphetamine and ketamine. Heroin-related deaths have declined in Shanghai (APC, -16.1; 95 % CI, -18.4 to -11.3) and Wuhan (APC, -16.0; 95 % CI, -18.9 to -10.6), whereas methamphetamine-related deaths have increased in Wuhan (APC, 12.8; 95 % CI, 0.0 to 29.2). On the whole, in the two cities, males were more frequently observed than females in heroin-related deaths (4.4, 230/52). However, the gender ratios for methamphetamine- (1.8, 34/19) and ketamine-related deaths (1.2, 6/5) were close to one. In view of the mortality rates of the drug abusers in most Chinese cities were still unclear, it is thus important to improve mortality surveillance of the drug abusers at the national level.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamiento , Ketamina/envenenamiento , Metanfetamina/envenenamiento , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/mortalidad , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Heroína/efectos adversos , Heroína/envenenamiento , Humanos , /envenenamiento , Ketamina/efectos adversos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 97-102, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386191

RESUMEN

Understanding trends in substance use by gender among jail-based treatment program participants can inform policies and programs tailored to this population. Preprogram assessment data from 3509 individuals entering a jail-based substance use disorder treatment program in Missouri between 1998 and 2016 were analyzed. Primary outcome was program participants' strongly preferred substances. Demographic covariates and drug preferences were compared between males and females. Average yearly trends in preferred substances were calculated. While 25.8% of the sample preferred heroin, it was more strongly preferred by women (36.4%) than men (22.0%, p < 0.0001). Alcohol and marijuana were preferred more by males. Overall, preferences for heroin and methamphetamine increased over time while alcohol, marijuana, and other stimulants decreased. Women being more likely to prefer heroin and the increasing preference for heroin over time are consistent with national trends. Offering evidence-based treatment like pharmacotherapy and gender-sensitive approaches can help address the needs of this vulnerable population.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Prisioneros , Factores Sexuales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Cannabis , Cocaína , Cocaína Crack , Femenino , Heroína , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina , Missouri/epidemiología , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción , Distribución por Sexo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación , Adulto Joven
14.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 193-195, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433492

RESUMEN

The interpretation of cranial base injuries has never been investigated from a purely anthropological perspective. Very little exists in forensic literature in order to interpret the significance of cranial base fractures. We analyzed 296 cases of deaths due to skull-brain injuries. The frequency of vault fractures was 75.7% and that of base fractures was 91.9%. We observed the distribution of cases of death according to manner of death and manner of injury and number of fossae involved. These observations were analytically compared to different variables (age, sex, manner of injury, and mode of injury). The study presented the proportion of base fractures associated with vault fractures, and the frequency of absence of base fracture in subjects with no vault fractures. Interesting associations of base fractures to age and manner of death are shown.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Encefálicas/mortalidad , Base del Cráneo/lesiones , Fracturas Craneales/epidemiología , Accidentes por Caídas/mortalidad , Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Distribución por Sexo , Base del Cráneo/patología , Fracturas Craneales/patología , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
16.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e31-e61, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415895

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene -1562C/T (rs3918242) polymorphism and the susceptibility of ischemic stroke (IS) has been investigated. However, results were ambiguous and inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this study to better assess the potential relationship between rs3918242 polymorphism and susceptibility risk of IS. METHODS: We included case-control studies concerning the relationship between the rs3918242 polymorphism and IS, and odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the associations. Furthermore, meta-regression analyses, heterogeneity, cumulative analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias were examined. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies were included for analysis. Significant associations with the risk of IS were detected for the rs3918242 polymorphism in overall population, Asians, and whites. When available data were stratified by gender, we found a significant correlation with the risk of IS in both males and females. Further subgroup analysis by the subtypes of IS showed that the rs3918242 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the risk of patients with large artery atherosclerosis. When stratified by age, we found that the rs3918242 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the risk of IS in patients both aged ≥65 years and >65 years. Both the diabetes and the nondiabetes subgroups reached significant results, and in an analysis stratified by smoking status, an increased risk of IS was associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The rs3918242 polymorphism may be a susceptible predictor of susceptibility of IS. Further large-scale studies are needed to verify the results of our findings.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Aterosclerosis/epidemiología , Isquemia Encefálica/enzimología , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Intervalos de Confianza , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Embolia Intracraneal/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Distribución por Sexo
17.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 103-111, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404476

RESUMEN

This study analyzes postmortem records from 260 homicide cases autopsied by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Rome from 2000 to 2014. The victims were mainly males (74%) and young (61% aged from 21 to 50 years). Although the victims were mostly Italians, the number of foreign victims (33%) has increased since 1990, primarily due to immigration. The offenders frequently used firearms (39%), particularly in multiple murders. An increase in blunt (20%) and sharp force (32%) weapons was also seen. The primary crime scene was residential (42%), and the head was the most frequently injured body region. Male victims occurred frequently in the context of organized crime (7.6%). In family or intimate-sexual relationships, women were the majority of victims (8%). Forensic pathologists play an important role during investigation. They should consider all the information available to them, including autopsy information, crime scene information, and crime investigation data.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Distribución por Sexo , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Armas/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
18.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 117-127, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404479

RESUMEN

Sudden cardiac death is a significant cause of mortality in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). The Cook County Medical Examiner's Office database was queried for cases of CHD as a cause of death in the period between July 2008 and April 2019. Twenty-two cases were identified, including 11 decedents with simple defects and 10 decedents with complex defects. All of the subjects were in apparent good health at the time of death. In the absence of other obvious causes of death, simple defects were considered cases of sudden cardiac death. Significant cardiac morphological changes were common in complex defects. While 16 cases had known, diagnosed/treated CHD, 5 cases had no diagnosis prior to autopsy. In these cases, the ability to recognize CHD (sometimes subtle) helped in determining the causes of death. Therefore, forensic pathologists must be able to properly recognize various forms of CHD and request consultations, when needed.


Asunto(s)
Muerte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiología , Cardiopatías Congénitas/mortalidad , Cardiopatías Congénitas/patología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Cardiomegalia/patología , Chicago/epidemiología , Médicos Forenses , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
19.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 154-159, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404481

RESUMEN

Homicide is the most serious and costly criminal offense and better forensic and criminological understanding of homicidal ideation as a potential psychobehavioral precursor to homicidal conduct is critical. Using data from the 2016 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) distributed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), we found 64,910 cases of homicidal ideation among a sample of 25.6 + million-a prevalence of 0.25%. Numerous conditions conferred increased substantially the likelihood of homicidal ideation including antisocial personality disorder (2406%), schizoaffective disorder (1821%), borderline personality disorder (1557%), paranoid personality disorder (1,504%), schizophrenia (1,143%), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (921%), brief psychotic disorder (771%), unspecified psychosis (737%), avoidant personality disorder (596%), and schizoid personality disorder (571%), delusional disorder (546%), and other psychotic disorder (504%). Homicidal ideation is comorbid with serious psychiatric and behavioral problems and has important implications for offender typologies and homicidality.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Psiquiatría Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 112-116, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483504

RESUMEN

Given the common occurrence of both opioid and cardiovascular deaths, and the concomitant use of opioids in those with cardiac disease, the present study was undertaken to see whether the old adage of using the triad of cerebral and pulmonary edema and bladder fullness to suggest an opioid death could be used to differentiate deaths due to opioid toxicity from deaths due to cardiac disease. Brain weight, lung weight, and bladder fullness were compared among opioid-related deaths, cardiac deaths, and a control population. It was found that opioid-related deaths were more likely to have heavy lungs, a heavy brain, and a full bladder, while cardiac-related deaths had smaller volumes of urine in the bladder and heavier hearts. In conjunction with a thorough investigation, these findings may be useful to forensic pathologists when determining whether a death is opioid-related, especially in the setting of concomitant cardiac disease.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamiento , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Autopsia , Encéfalo/patología , Edema Encefálico/patología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Sobredosis de Droga , Femenino , Patologia Forense , Humanos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miocardio/patología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Edema Pulmonar/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Adulto Joven
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